Barack Obama religion conspiracy theories
Allegations that Barack Obama secretly practices Islam, or that he is the antichrist of Christian eschatology, have been suggested since he campaigned for the U.S. Senate in 2004 and proliferated after his election as President of the U.S. in 2008. As with conspiracy theories surrounding his citizenship status, the claims are promoted by various fringe theorists and political opponents, with American bloggers and conservative talk radio hosts particularly promoting the theories.
Belief in these claims in the public sphere endured and, in some cases, even expanded during Obama's presidency according to the Pew Research Center, with 17% of Americans (including one third of conservative Republicans) believing him to be a Muslim in a 2012 poll.
Barack Obama is a Protestant Christian. While in his twenties, Obama was involved with the Black churches. From 1992 until 2008, he was a member of the Trinity United Church of Christ—a Reformed denomination. Obama left it in the wake of the Jeremiah Wright controversy. Since 2008, he attends various Protestant churches, including Baptist, Methodist and Episcopalian churches.
Claims that Obama secretly practices Islam
Obama was baptized into the United Church of Christ (UCC) denomination and formally joined it in 1988. He left the UCC in 2008 because of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright controversy. He later worshiped with a Southern Baptist pastor at Camp David but has not become a formal member of any church since 2008.
Though according to his own profession and some others, Obama is a practicing Christian and he was chiefly raised by his mother and her Christian parents, his father, Barack Obama, Sr., with whom he lived only as a baby, was characterized by Obama as being a Muslim-raised atheist. Also, his stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, with whom he lived during his early childhood, was nominally Muslim. This familial connection to Islam, among other things, is a basis of claims that Obama secretly practices Islam.
According to the Los Angeles Times, false rumors saying that Obama was secretly a Muslim started during his campaign for the United States Senate in 2004 and had expanded through viral e-mails by 2006. The Times compared these rumors to earlier false rumors about 2000 presidential candidate John McCain fathering a dark-skinned child out of wedlock. The rumors were subsequently promoted by conservative talk show hosts, including Michael Savage.
In December 2007 the Hillary Clinton campaign asked a volunteer county coordinator to step down after she forwarded an e-mail message which repeated the false rumor that Obama was Muslim. In June 2008, New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, himself Jewish, spoke out to Jewish voters in Florida against false e-mail rumors which said that Obama was secretly a Muslim and did not support Israel. Bloomberg said: "I hope all of you will join me throughout this campaign in strongly speaking out against this fear mongering, no matter who you'll be voting for."
In 2015, Taha al-Lahibi, a former member of the Iraqi parliament known for promoting fringe conspiracy theories, claimed that Obama was "the son of a Shiite Kenyan father." These unfounded claims do not have broad support among Iraqis, and al-Lahibi's claim prompted mockery.
A chain e-mail circulating during the presidential campaign claimed that Obama took his oath of office as a U.S. Senator in 2005 while placing his hand on a Qur'an rather than a Bible. This claim is false, as Obama was sworn into office using a Bible that he owned. The claim may have been inspired by a photo-op re-enactment of the 2007 swearing-in of U.S. Representative Keith Ellison of Minnesota, who used a Qur'an that had belonged to Thomas Jefferson.
An early version of a rumor that Obama had "spent at least four years in a so-called madrassa, or Muslim seminary, in Indonesia" appeared in an article published by Insight on the News, a magazine published by News World Communications, an international media conglomerate then owned by the Unification Church. Insight on the News ceased publication soon after the incident. Its editor, Jeff Kuhner, claimed that a person working for the Clinton campaign had told him that the campaign was "preparing an accusation that her rival Senator Barack Obama had covered up a brief period he had spent in an Islamic religious school in Indonesia when he was six". Senator Clinton denied the allegations. When interviewed by The New York Times, Kuhner did not name the person said to be his reporter's source.
Obama attended two schools during the four years he lived in Indonesia as a child (1967–1971). From the first grade until some time in the third grade he attended the Roman Catholic St. Francis Assisi School, where classes began and ended each day with Christian prayers. He was registered there as Muslim because of his stepfather's nominal religion. At some point during the third grade he transferred to State Elementary School Menteng 01, also known as Besuki School, for less than a year. Besuki is a secular public school. Students there wear Western clothing, and the Chicago Tribune described the school as "so progressive that teachers wore miniskirts and all students were encouraged to celebrate Christmas".
Soon after Insight's story, CNN reporter John Vause visited State Elementary School Menteng 01 and found that each student received two hours of religious instruction per week in his or her own faith. Hardi Priyono, the deputy headmaster of the school told Vause: "This is a public school. We don't focus on religion. In our daily lives, we try to respect religion, but we don't give preferential treatment."
Interviews by Nedra Pickler of the Associated Press found that students of all faiths have been welcome there since before Obama's attendance. Akmad Solichin, the vice-principal of the school, told Pickler: "The allegations are completely baseless. Yes, most of our students are Muslim, but there are Christians as well. Everyone's welcome here ... it's a public school."
Middle name "Mohammed" claim
Polls and surveys
Public opinion surveys carried out, beginning in 2008, have shown that a number of Americans believe that Obama is a Muslim. In March 2008, a survey conducted by Pew Research Center found that 10% of respondents believed that rumor. Those who were more likely to believe he is a Muslim included political conservatives (both Republicans and Democrats), people who had not attended college, people who lived in the Midwest or the South, and people in rural areas.
A study conducted by the University of Georgia found that the percentage of Americans who believed that Obama is a Muslim remained constant at approximately 20% in September, October, and November 2008, despite frequent attempts by the media as well as the Obama campaign to correct this misconception. However, the study also showed that some people who had initially believed Obama to be a Christian later believed the rumor that he is a Muslim. The survey found that respondents who had shifted to the misconception were generally younger, less politically involved, less educated, more conservative, and more likely to believe in Biblical literalism. According to Professor Barry Hollander, "These are groups of people who are generally distrustful of the mainstream media...So therefore journalists telling them that this is not true could actually have the opposite effect and make them more likely to believe the rumor."
In August 2010, a Pew Research poll showed that 18% of Americans and 30% of Republicans believed that Obama is a Muslim.
In 2012, data from the aforementioned Pew Center found that the popularity of the misinformation had increased in some groups. Specifically, over one in seven Americans (including one third of conservative Republicans) labeled the President a Muslim. Haris Tarin of the Muslim Public Affairs Council remarked that the survey "shows there's a lot of fear-mongering and politicking in America".
Barack Obama's response
I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't—frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead—being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me. And I think also understanding that Jesus Christ dying for my sins spoke to the humility we all have to have as human beings, that we're sinful and we're flawed and we make mistakes, and that we achieve salvation through the grace of God. But what we can do, as flawed as we are, is still see God in other people and do our best to help them find their own grace. That's what I strive to do. That's what I pray to do every day. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.
Barack Obama has publicly responded to questions regarding his religion on more than one occasion. During a debate of Democratic presidential candidates on January 15, 2008, in Las Vegas, Nevada, the moderator, Brian Williams, asked Obama about the rumor that he was "trying to hide the fact that he is a Muslim". Obama responded that "the facts are: I am a Christian. I have been sworn in [to the US Senate] with a Bible." He then said "in the Internet age, there are going to be lies that are spread all over the place. I have been victimized by these lies."
On June 4, 2009, Barack Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University titled "A New Beginning". The entire speech was recorded by C-SPAN. During his speech to the largely Muslim audience, Obama declared, "I’m a Christian."
In an interview with NBC journalist Brian Williams on August 29, 2010, Williams asked Obama about a poll that said that 20% of the American public do not believe that he is a Christian or American born. Obama gave a similar answer to the one he gave in the January 2008 debate. During the 2011 National Prayer Breakfast, the President stated, "My Christian faith then has been a sustaining force for me over these last few years, all the more so when Michelle and I hear our faith questioned from time to time".
In addition to Obama's personal responses, the 2008 Obama presidential campaign responded to the false claims made against him by people opposed to his candidacy by launching a website called "FightTheSmears.com". One of the false claims countered by the website is that he is a Muslim and not a Christian.
In October 2010 the White House announced that it was cancelling a stop at the Golden Temple during Obama's trip to India. The decision to cancel was received with disappointment by the Sikh community, and it was speculated that the decision was in response to a photo that was circulated during the 2008 campaign of Obama wearing Kenyan traditional wardrobe during a 2006 trip to Kenya. The 2006 photo was used to raise doubts about Obama's religion.
Claim that Obama is the Antichrist
During the 2008 presidential campaign, one chain e-mail accused Barack Obama of secretly being the biblical Antichrist, saying:
According to The Book of Revelations the anti-christ is: The anti-christ will be a man, in his 40s, of MUSLIM descent, who will deceive the nations with persuasive language, and have a MASSIVE Christ-like appeal....the prophecy says that people will flock to him and he will promise false hope and world peace, and when he is in power, he will destroy everything is it OBAMA?
PolitiFact.com has analyzed the elements in this false claim and debunked each one: The word Antichrist does not appear in the Book of Revelation (though it does appear in 1 John and 2 John); the Book of Revelation instead refers to The Beast. The Book of Revelation never mentions the Beast's age, nor does it include any references to "Muslim descent", as the religion of Islam was not founded until hundreds of years after the book was written.
- Demonizing a President: The "Foreignization" of Barack Obama, Martin A. Parlett - 2014, p 126
- Graham, David A. (February 11, 2010). "Know Your Conspiracies". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Henig, Jess; Emi Kolawole (January 10, 2008). "Sliming Obama – Dueling chain e-mails claim he's a radical Muslim or a 'racist' Christian. Both can't be right. We find both are false". Factcheck.org. Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- Hayoun, Massoud (July 26, 2012). "US poll shows persistence of Obama Muslim lie". AFP. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Johnson, Luke (July 26, 2012). "17 Percent Of Registered Voters Think Obama Is Muslim, Pew Poll Finds". Pew Research Center. Huffington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Kantor, Jodi (April 30, 2007). "Barack Obama's search for faith". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized" Archived January 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. msnbc.com. November 17, 2008.
- Sullivan, Amy (June 29, 2009). "The Obamas Find a Church Home—Away from Home" Archived April 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Time.
- Marsden, Lee. "Religion, Identity and American Power in the Age of Obama." International Politics 48.2-3 (2011): 326-43. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 27 May 2012.
- Jacobson, Gary C. "Legislative Success and Political Failure: The Publics Reaction to Barack Obamas Early Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 41.2 (2011): 220-43. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 27 May 2012.
- Miller, Lisa; Wolffe, Richard (July 12, 2008). "Finding His Faith: So much has been made about Barack Obama's religion. But what does he believe, and how did he arrive at those beliefs?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
Obama, Barack (October 16, 2006). "My spiritual journey". Time. Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
My father was almost entirely absent from my childhood, having been divorced from my mother when I was 2 years old; in any event, although my father had been raised a Muslim, by the time he met my mother he was a confirmed atheist, thinking religion to be so much superstition.
- Smears 2.0 Archived August 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Los Angeles Times, December 3, 2007
- Bacon, Jr., Perry (November 29, 2007). "Foes Use Obama's Muslim Ties to Fuel Rumors About Him". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- Clinton Campaign Volunteer Out Over False Obama Rumors Archived October 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, December 5, 2007
- N.Y. Mayor urges Jewish voters to denounce Obama Muslim rumors Archived October 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press, June 2, 2008
- Adam Taylor, The 'Obama is a Muslim' conspiracy theory gets a Shiite twist from a former Iraqi lawmaker Archived June 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post (June 8, 2015).
- "Obama sworn in on his Bible". PolitiFact.com. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 4, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Anatomy of an anonymous political smear". International Herald Tribune. January 29, 2007. Archived from the original on February 22, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
- Higgins, Andrew (August 19, 2010). "Indonesia Catholic School Promotes Ties to Obama". CBS News. Archived from the original on November 16, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- "Obama attended an Indonesian public school". PolitiFact.com. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Barker, Kim (March 25, 2007). "Obama madrassa myth debunked". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 10, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "CNN debunks false report about Obama". CNN. January 22, 2007. Archived from the original on January 25, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Pickler, Nedra (January 24, 2007). "Obama challenges allegation about Islamic school". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2008.
- "Not a Muslim; not Mohammed". PolitiFact.com. January 11, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "No Muhammed or Mohammed in Obama's name". PolitiFact.com. May 2, 2008. Archived from the original on February 13, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Obama Weathers the Wright Storm, Clinton Faces Credibility Problem". Pew Research Center. March 27, 2008. Archived from the original on May 8, 2010.
- Fahm, Sam (March 10, 2010). "Study explores belief in rumor that Obama is Muslim" (Press release). University of Georgia. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
- "August 2010 Pew Research poll". Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved August 19, 2010.
- Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine by Charles Babington and Darlene Superville, AP, September 28, 2010
- Video – President Obama: "I am a Christian By Choice" Archived December 29, 2016, at the Wayback Machine by ABC News, September 29, 2010
- "The Democratic Debate in Las Vegas". New York Times. January 15, 2008. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Jaffe, Ina (January 16, 2008). "Democrats Cordially Spar at Las Vegas Debate". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "President Obama Speech to Muslim World in Cairo.". C-SPAN. June 4, 2009. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2015 – via YouTube.
- Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. "Obama's Egypt Speech: What He Said to the Muslim World." http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2009/06/04-obama-egypt-speech Archived December 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "President Obama Speech to Muslim World in Cairo.". C-SPAN. June 4, 2009. Event occurs at 6:29. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved November 29, 2015 – via YouTube.
- Graham, David (August 30, 2009). "In NBC Interview, Obama Again Dismisses Belief That He's a Muslim With Joke". Archived from the original on September 2, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Obama hits back at Internet slanders". Agence France-Press. June 12, 2008. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "The Truth About Barack's Faith Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine", Obama for America. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- Tumulty, Karen (June 12, 2008). "Will Obama's Anti-Rumor Plan Work?". Time. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Polgreen, Lydia (October 19, 2010). "A Question of Appearances: Obama Will Bypass Sikh Temple on Visit to India". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Dykes, Brett Michael (October 20, 2010). "White House cancels Obama trip to Sikh temple over Muslim rumor concerns". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010.
- Gardner, David (February 26, 2008). "Obama in a turban: Barack accuses Hillary of smear campaign after circulating photos of him dressed as 'a Muslim'". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008.
- "Complete distortion of the Bible". PolitiFact.com. April 2, 2008. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Obama Conspiracy Theories watchdog website
- Obama E-mail Timeline, Washington Post, June 28, 2008
- Taranto, James (March 25, 2010). "'Wingnuts': An Autobiography? The curious case of John Avlon and the "scary new GOP poll."". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Wilkinson, Isambard (November 19, 2008). "Al-Qaeda leader racially abuses Barack Obama". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Mosk, Matthew (June 28, 2008). "An Attack That Came Out of the Ether Scholar Looks for First Link in E-Mail Chain About Obama". Washington Post. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (September 21, 2008). "The push to 'otherize' Obama". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Obama "Muslim" Rumors Spread to Delaware Class". The NPR News Blog. March 26, 2008. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Murray, Molly (March 26, 2008). "Teacher's alleged remarks on Obama investigated: Fifth-grader says I.R. educator taught urban legend as fact". The News Journal. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Scherer, Michael (March 23, 2010). "The Challenge of Measuring The Right-Wing Fringe". time.com. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Sullivan, Amy (August 8, 2008). "An Antichrist Obama in McCain Ad?". Time. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010.