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In the United States, the term "deep state" is used in political messaging to describe collusion and cronyism that exists within the political system. [1][2][3][4][5] Some analysts believe that there is "a hybrid association of elements of government and parts of top-level finance and industry that is effectively able to govern the United States without reference to the consent of the governed as expressed through the formal political process",[6] whereas others consider the deep state to encompass corruption that is particularly prevalent amongst career politicians and civil servants.[7]

The term was originally coined in a somewhat pejorative sense to refer to similar relatively invisible state apparatus in Turkey "composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services, military, security, judiciary, and organized crime" and similar networks in other countries including Egypt, Ukraine, Spain, Colombia, Italy, and Israel, and many others.[7] With respect to the United States, the concept has been discussed in numerous published works by Marc Ambinder, David W. Brown, Jerome Corsi, Peter Dale Scott, Mike Lofgren, Kevin Shipp [sv], Michael Tomasky and Michael Wolff.[citation needed] Allegedly, per George Friedman, the Deep State has been in place since 1871 and continues beneath the federal government, controlling and frequently reshaping policies. Reportedly, the entity, called the U.S. civil service, was created to limit the power of the president. Prior to 1871, the president could select federal employees, all of whom served at the pleasure of the president. This is no longer true.[8]

While definitions vary, the term gained popularity among various political groups who are concerned about government transparency. Following the disclosure of documents released by WikiLeaks, the term was widely adopted among many voters who alleged that the information points to a deep-state conspiracy that seeks to delegitimize democracy and the policy goals of the people.[9]

Contents

Definition

According to the journalist Robert Worth, "The expression deep state had originated in Turkey in the 1990s, where the military colluded with drug traffickers and hit men to wage a dirty war against Kurdish insurgents".[10]

In The Concealment of the State, Professor Jason Royce Lindsey argues that even without a conspiratorial agenda, the term deep state is useful for understanding aspects of the national security establishment in developed countries, with emphasis on the United States. Lindsey writes that the deep state draws power from the national security and intelligence communities, a realm where secrecy is a source of power.[11]:35-36 Alfred W. McCoy states that the increase in the power of the U.S. intelligence community since the September 11 attacks "has built a fourth branch of the U.S. government" that is "in many ways autonomous from the executive, and increasingly so."[12]

In a Foreign Affairs journal article and subsequent expansion in a law review, UCLA Law professor Jon D. Michaels rejects "the premise of an American deep state” in a defense of what he terms the 'administrative state' against Trump's attempts to “deconstruct" it. Michaels argues that the concept of the 'deep state' is more relevant to developing governments such as Egypt, Pakistan and Turkey, "where shadowy elites in the military and government ministries have been known to countermand or simply defy democratic directives" than the United States "where governmental power structures are almost entirely transparent".[13][14]

According to David Gergen, quoted in Time magazine, the term has been appropriated by Steve Bannon and Breitbart News and other supporters of the Trump Administration in order to delegitimize the critics of the current presidency.[15] The 'deep state' theory has been dismissed by authors for The New York Times[16] and New York Observer.[17] University of Miami Professor Joseph Uscinski says, "The concept has always been very popular among conspiracy theorists, whether they call it a deep state or something else."[18]

Former NSA leaker Edward Snowden has used the term generally to refer to the influence of civil servants over elected officials: "the deep state is not just the intelligence agencies, it is really a way of referring to the career bureaucracy of government. These are officials who sit in powerful positions, who don't leave when presidents do, who watch presidents come and go ... they influence policy, they influence presidents."[19]

In an opinion piece by linguist Geoffrey Nunberg, he said the "deep state" is an "elastic label – depending on the occasion" and its "story conforms to the intricate grammar of those conspiracy narratives". He also contrasted the change in the "twin bogeys of conservative rhetoric", from bureaucratic "meddlesome bunglers" of "big government" to "conniving ideologues" who "orchestrates complex schemes".[20]

On March 20, 2018, Sen. Rand Paul said "Absolutely there is a deep state because the deep state is that the intelligence communities do not have oversight." He continued, "There is no skeptic" [emphasis in original] among the four Republican and four Democratic Senators "who are supposedly" providing oversight, so that the intelligence communities, "with their enormous power ... have become a deep state."[21][dead link] On December 4, 2018, Paul, in commenting on the CIA Director briefing only those eight Senators rather than the entire Senate, added "The deep state wants to keep everyone in the dark. This is just ridiculous!"[22] On December 10, 2018, he said "The very definition of a 'deep state’ is when the very people, congressional leaders – people who are elected by the people – are not allowed to hear the intelligence."[23]

Closely related concepts

Bob Jessop, in his book The State: Past, Present, Future,[7] notes the similarity of three constructs:

  1. 'Deep state' – for which he cites Mike Lofgren’s 2014 definition: "a hybrid association of elements of government and parts of top-level finance and industry that is effectively able to govern ... without reference to the consent of the governed as expressed through the formal political process".[6]
  2. 'Dark state' – "networks of officials, private firms, media outlets, think tanks, foundations, NGOs, interest groups, and other forces that attend to the needs of capital, not of everyday life" while "concealed from public gaze" (or "hidden in plain sight"), citing Jason Lindsay (2013).[verify][11]:37–38
  3. 'The Fourth Branch' of US government – consisting of "an ever more unchecked and unaccountable centre ..., working behind a veil of secrecy", citing Tom Engelhardt (2014).[24]

U.S. politics

The term "deep state" has been associated with the "military–industrial complex" by several of the authors on the subject. Potential risks from the military–industrial complex were raised in President Dwight D. Eisenhower's 1961 farewell address: "In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist."[25] Stephen F. Cohen in his book War with Russia? (released November 27, 2018), claims that "At least one U.S.–Soviet summit seems to have been sabotaged. The third Eisenhower–Khrushchev meeting, scheduled for Paris in 1960, was aborted by the Soviet shoot-down of a US U-2 spy plane sent, some think, by 'deep state' foes of detente."[26]

Mike Lofgren has claimed the military-industrial complex is the private part of the deep state.[27] However, Marc Ambinder has suggested that a myth about the "deep state" is that it functions as one entity; in reality, he states, "the deep state contains multitudes, and they are often at odds with one another."[28]

Tufts University professor Michael J. Glennon claimed that President Barack Obama did not succeed in resisting and/or changing what he calls the "double government"; the defense and national security network.[29][30] Mike Lofgren felt Obama was pushed into the Afghanistan "surge" in 2009.[6] Another major campaign promise Obama made was the closure of Guantanamo Bay Prison Camp, which he was unable to accomplish. This has been attributed indirectly to the influence of a deep state.[15]

President Donald Trump supporters use the term to refer to allegations that intelligence officers and executive branch officials guide policy through leaking or other internal means.[31][16] According to a July 2017 report by the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, "the Trump administration was being hit by national security leaks 'on a nearly daily basis' and at a far higher rate than its predecessors encountered".[32]

Trump and Steve Bannon, his former chief strategist, have both made allegations about a deep state which they believe is interfering with the president's agenda.[33][34][35] In 2018, describing the deep state as an "entrenched bureaucracy", Trump accused the United States Department of Justice "of being part of the 'deep state'" in a statement advocating the prosecution of Huma Abedin.[36] Some Trump allies and right-wing media outlets have alleged that former president Barack Obama is coordinating a deep state resistance to Trump.[33][37] While the belief in a deep state is popular among Trump supporters, critics maintain that it has no basis in reality,[38] arguing that the sources of the leaks frustrating the Trump administration lack the organizational depth of deep states in other countries, and that use of the term in the U.S. could undermine confidence in vital institutions and be used to justify suppressing dissent.[39][33]

In an article for The New York Review of Books, Michael Tomalsky quoted Newt Gingrich as using the term in the context of the Robert Mueller investigation in July 2018, quoting Gingrich stating: "[Mueller is] ... the tip of the deep state spear aimed at destroying or at a minimum undermining and crippling the Trump presidency".[40] Gingrich then added to the statement that: "The brazen redefinition of Mueller's task tells you how arrogant the deep state is and how confident it is it can get away with anything".[40]

Professor of international relations at Harvard University, Stephen Walt, has written: "There's no secret conspiracy or deep state running U.S. foreign policy; to the extent that there is a bipartisan foreign-policy elite, it is hiding in plain sight."[41]

The term has also been used in comments on the "deep state"-like influence allegedly wielded by career military officers such as H. R. McMaster, John Kelly and James Mattis in the Trump administration. The anthropologist C. August Elliott described this state of affairs as the emergence of a 'shallow state': "an America where public servants now function as tugboats guiding the President's very leaky ship through the shallows and away from a potential shipwreck". [42]

On September 5, 2018, the New York Times published an anonymous op-ed titled "I Am Part of the Resistance Inside the Trump Administration" written by a "senior official in the Trump Administration". In the essay, the official was critical of President Trump and claimed to be one of "many senior officials" working against the Trump Administration. He or she stated "that many of the senior officials in [Trump's] own administration are working diligently from within to frustrate parts of his agenda and his worst inclinations".[43] This was referred by some (including House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy) to be the deep state at work.[44][45] However, there was some doubt as to the actual importance of the anonymous author with some estimating hundreds or thousands of possible positions could be considered "senior officials"[46] and the inherent paradox of exposing the existence of such a group. [47]

Polls

According to a poll of Americans in April 2017, about half (48%) thought there was a "deep state" (meaning "military, intelligence and government officials who try to secretly manipulate government"), while about a third (35%) of all participants thought it was a conspiracy theory and the remainder (17%) had no opinion. Of those who believe a "deep state" exists, more than half (58%) said it was a major problem, a net of 28% of those surveyed.[48][49]

A March 2018 poll found most respondents (63%) were unfamiliar with the term "deep state", but a majority believe that a deep state likely exists in the United States when described as "a group of unelected government and military officials who secretly manipulate or direct national policy". Three-fourths (74%) of the respondents say that they believe this type of group definitely (27%) or probably (47%) exists in the federal government.[50][51][52]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael Hafford (March 9, 2017). "Deep State: Inside Donald Trump's Paranoid Conspiracy Theory – Rolling Stone". Rollingstone.com. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  2. ^ "The Alex Jones influence: Trump's "deep state" fears come from his conspiracy theorist ally and adviser". Salon.com. March 10, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  3. ^ Goldsmith, Jack (April 22, 2018). "The 'deep state' is real. But are its leaks against Trump justified?". the Guardian. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  4. ^ Osnos, Evan (May 21, 2018). "Trump vs. the 'Deep State'". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  5. ^ Fallows, James (July 15, 2013). "The Impending Senate Vote on Confirming Nominees". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Lofgren, Mike (February 21, 2014). "Essay: Anatomy of the Deep State". BillMoyers.com. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Jessop, Bob (December 2015). The State: Past, Present, Future. John Wiley & Sons. p. 224.
  8. ^ Friedman, George (March 15, 2017). "The Deep State Is A Very Real Thing". The HuffingtonPost.
  9. ^ Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (February 16, 2017). "As Leaks Multiply, Fears of a 'Deep State' in America". The New York Times.
  10. ^ Worth, Robert F. (2016). A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. Pan Macmillan. p. 139.
  11. ^ a b Lindsey, Jason Royce (2013). The Concealment of the State. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4411-7245-7.
  12. ^ Scahill, Jeremy (July 22, 2017). "Donald Trump and the Coming Fall of the American Empire". The Intercept. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
  13. ^ Michaels, Jon D. (September – October 2017). "Trump and the 'Deep State'". Foreign Affairs.
  14. ^ Michaels, Jon D. (2017). "The American Deep State". Notre Dame L. Rev. 93. p. 1653.
  15. ^ a b Abramson, Alana (March 8, 2017). "President Trump's Allies Keep Talking About the 'Deep State'. What's That?". Time. 'This is a dark conspiratorial view that is being pushed by [top Trump strategist] Steve Bannon, his allies at Breitbart and some others in the conservative movement that is trying to delegitimize the opposition to Trump in many quarters and pass the blame to others,' said David Gergen.
  16. ^ a b Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (February 16, 2017). "As Leaks Multiply, Fears of a 'Deep State' in America". The New York Times.
  17. ^ Schindler, John R. (February 22, 2017). "Rebellion Brews in Washington—But American 'Deep State' Is Only a Myth". New York Observer. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  18. ^ "How the "deep state" conspiracy theory went mainstream". Newsweek. August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  19. ^ "Edward Snowden: 'Poisoning people who are long out of their service is contemptible'". March 18, 2018.
  20. ^ Nunberg, Geoff. "Opinion: Why The Term 'Deep State' Speaks To Conspiracy Theorists". NPR. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  21. ^ Laura Ingraham (March 20, 2018). "Rand Paul: No question that there is a deep state". The Laura Ingraham Show (Podcast). Event occurs at 30:19. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  22. ^ Senator Rand Paul [@RandPaul] (December 4, 2018). "Do you want to know what the deep state is?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  23. ^ Senator Rand Paul (December 10, 2018). "Compares Exclusive C.I.A. Khashoggi Briefing to 'Deep State'". N.Y. Times (Interview). Washington, D.C: Associated Press. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  24. ^ Engelhardt, Tom (2014). Shadow Government: Surveillance, Secret Wars, and a Global Security State in a Single Superpower World. Chicago: Haymarket Books. ISBN 9781608464272.
  25. ^ "Eisenhower's Farewell Address to the Nation". mcadams.posc.mu.edu. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  26. ^ Cohen, Stephen F. (2019). War with Russia?. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-5107-4581-0.
  27. ^ ""Deep State" Truthout Interview". February 22, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  28. ^ Ambinder, Marc; Ambinder, Marc (March 10, 2017). "Five myths about the deep state". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  29. ^ "Vote all you want. The secret government won't change". The Boston Globe. October 18, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  30. ^ "Background Briefing with Ian Masters". FD Media. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  31. ^ Ishaan Tharoor (February 1, 2017). "Is Trump fighting the deep state or creating his own?". The Washington Post.
  32. ^ Crowley, Michael (September – October 2017). "The Deep State Is Real". Politico Magazine. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  33. ^ a b c Julie Hirschfeld Davis (March 6, 2017). "Rumblings of a 'Deep State' Undermining Trump? It Was Once a Foreign Concept". The New York Times.
  34. ^ Phillip Rucker, Robert Costa, Ashley Parker (March 5, 2017). "Inside Trump's fury: The president rages at leaks, setbacks and accusations". The Washington Post.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ Winter, Jana; Groll, Elias (August 10, 2017). "Here's the Memo That Blew Up the NSC". Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  36. ^ Lucey, Catherine; Superville, Darlene (January 2, 2018). "Trump accuses DOJ of being part of 'deep state'". Associated Press. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  37. ^ David Weigel (March 7, 2017). "Trump and Republicans see a 'deep state' foe: Barack Obama". The Washington Post.
  38. ^ Stanage, Niall (June 5, 2017). "THE MEMO: Is Trump a victim of the 'deep state'?". The Hill.
  39. ^ David A. Graham (February 20, 2017). "Why it's dangerous to talk about a deep state". The Atlantic.
  40. ^ a b The New York Review of Books, Michael Tomalsky, August 16, 2018. Page 8.
  41. ^ Walt, Stephen M. (September 7, 2018). "The Battle for Crazytown". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  42. ^ Elliott, C. August. "MOABs win battles but they don't win wars". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  43. ^ Anonymous (September 5, 2018). "I Am Part of the Resistance Inside the Trump Administration". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  44. ^ McCarthy, Kevin (September 7, 2018). "A Top Republican Fires Back at 'Anonymous'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  45. ^ Bossie, David N. "Anonymous NY Times op-ed shows Deep State thugs are working against the will of the American people". Fox News. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  46. ^ Concha, Joe (September 6, 2018). "'Senior' official doesn't mean anonymous NYT writer is close to Trump". The Hill. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  47. ^ Chait, Jonathan (September 5, 2018). "Senior White House Official Confesses Anti-Trump Cabal in Newspaper Trump Reads". Intelligencer. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  48. ^ News, A. B. C. (April 27, 2017). "Nearly half of Americans think there's a 'deep state' in US: Poll". ABC News. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  49. ^ "Lies, Damn Lies and the Deep State: Plenty of Americans See Them All" (PDF). Langer Research.
  50. ^ CNN, David Wright,. "Americans skeptical of government, more politically engaged, poll finds". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  51. ^ "Poll: Majority believe 'deep state' manipulates U.S. policies". POLITICO. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  52. ^ "Public Troubled by 'Deep State'". Monmouth University Polling Institute. Retrieved March 23, 2018.