Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments.
Snowden in 2013
|Born||Edward Joseph Snowden
June 21, 1983
Elizabeth City, North Carolina, U.S.
|Residence||Moscow, Russia (temporary asylum)|
|Occupation||Computer security consultant|
|Employer||Booz Allen Hamilton
Kunia Camp, Hawaii, U.S.
(until June 10, 2013)
|Known for||Revealing details of classified United States government surveillance programs|
In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, and in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and Ewen MacAskill. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including Der Spiegel and The New York Times.
On June 21, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days later, he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U.S. passport had been cancelled and he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia ultimately granted him right of asylum for one year, and repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance. As of 2017 he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow and continuing to seek asylum elsewhere in the world.
A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a traitor, and a patriot. His disclosures have fueled debates over mass surveillance, government secrecy, and the balance between national security and information privacy.
Childhood, family, and education
Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 21, 1983, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett, was a rear admiral in the U.S. Coast Guard who became a senior official with the FBI and was at the Pentagon in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. Snowden's father Lonnie was also an officer in the Coast Guard, and his mother Elizabeth is a clerk at the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland. His older sister, Jessica, was a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D.C. Edward Snowden said that he had expected to work for the federal government, as had the rest of his family. His parents divorced in 2001, and his father remarried. Snowden scored above 145 on two separate IQ tests.
In the early 1990s, while still in grade school, Snowden moved with his family to the area of Fort Meade, Maryland. Mononucleosis caused him to miss high school for almost nine months. Rather than returning to school, he passed the GED test and took classes at Anne Arundel Community College. Although Snowden had no undergraduate college degree, he worked online toward a master's degree at the University of Liverpool, England, in 2011. He was interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language, and worked for an anime company that had a resident office in the U.S. He also said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was deeply interested in martial arts. At age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent."
Snowden has said that in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate, though he "believed in Obama's promises". Following the election, he believed President Barack Obama was continuing policies espoused by George W. Bush.
In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting Internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Tor Project. A week after publication of his leaks began, Ars Technica confirmed that Snowden had been an active participant at the site's online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discussing a variety of topics under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA". In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the U.S. security state apparatus and said leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls". However, Snowden disliked Obama's CIA director appointment of Leon Panetta, saying "Obama just named a fucking politician to run the CIA". Snowden was also offended by a possible ban on assault weapons, writing "Me and all my lunatic, gun-toting NRA compatriots would be on the steps of Congress before the C-Span feed finished". Snowden disliked Obama's economic policies, was against Social Security, and favored Ron Paul's call for a return to the gold standard. In 2014, Snowden supported a basic income.
Feeling a duty to fight in the Iraq War to help free oppressed people, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve on May 7, 2004 and became a Special Forces candidate through its 18X enlistment option. He did not complete the training. After breaking both legs in a training accident, he was discharged on September 28, 2004.
Snowden was then employed for less than a year in 2005 as a security guard at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a research center sponsored by the National Security Agency (NSA). According to the University this is not a classified facility, though it is heavily guarded. In June 2014, Snowden told Wired that his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance, for which he passed a polygraph exam and underwent a stringent background check.
Employment at CIA
After attending a 2006 job-fair focused on intelligence agencies, Snowden accepted an offer for a position at the CIA. The Agency assigned him to the global communications division at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.
In May 2006, Snowden wrote in Ars Technica that he had no trouble getting work because he was a "computer wizard". After distinguishing himself as a junior employee on the top computer-team, Snowden was sent to the CIA's secret school for technology specialists, where he lived in a hotel for six months while studying and training full-time.
In March 2007, the CIA stationed Snowden with diplomatic cover in Geneva, Switzerland, where he was responsible for maintaining computer-network security. Assigned to the U.S. mission to the United Nations, Snowden received a diplomatic passport and a four-bedroom apartment near Lake Geneva. According to Greenwald, while there Snowden was "considered the top technical and cybersecurity expert" in that country and "was hand-picked by the CIA to support the president at the 2008 NATO summit in Romania". Snowden described his CIA experience in Geneva as formative, stating that the CIA deliberately got a Swiss banker drunk and encouraged him to drive home. Snowden said that when the latter was arrested, a CIA operative offered to help in exchange for the banker becoming an informant. Ueli Maurer, President of the Swiss Confederation for the year 2013, in June of that year publicly disputed Snowden's claims. "This would mean that the CIA successfully bribed the Geneva police and judiciary. With all due respect, I just can't imagine it," said Maurer. In February 2009, Snowden resigned from the CIA.
NSA sub-contractee as an employee for Dell
In 2009, Snowden began work as a contractee for Dell, which manages computer systems for multiple government agencies. Assigned to an NSA facility at Yokota Air Base near Tokyo, Snowden instructed top officials and military officers on how to defend their networks from Chinese hackers. During his four years with Dell, he rose from supervising NSA computer system upgrades to working as what his résumé termed a "cyberstrategist" and an "expert in cyber counterintelligence" at several U.S. locations. In 2011, he returned to Maryland, where he spent a year as lead technologist on Dell's CIA account. In that capacity, he was consulted by the chiefs of the CIA's technical branches, including the agency's chief information officer and its chief technology officer. U.S. officials and other sources familiar with the investigation said Snowden began downloading documents describing the government's electronic spying programs while working for Dell in April 2012. Investigators estimated that of the 50,000 to 200,000 documents Snowden gave to Greenwald and Poitras, most were copied by Snowden while working at Dell.
In March 2012, Dell reassigned Snowden to Hawaii as lead technologist for the NSA's information-sharing office. At the time of his departure from the U.S. in May 2013, he had been employed for 15 months inside the NSA's Hawaii regional operations center, which focuses on the electronic monitoring of China and North Korea, the last three of which were with consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton. While intelligence officials have described his position there as a system administrator, Snowden has said he was an infrastructure analyst, which meant that his job was to look for new ways to break into Internet and telephone traffic around the world. On March 15, 2013—three days after what he later called his "breaking point" of "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress"—Snowden quit his job at Dell. Although he has said his career high annual salary was $200,000, Snowden said he took a pay cut to work at Booz Allen, where he sought employment in order to gather data and then release details of the NSA's worldwide surveillance activity. An anonymous source told Reuters that, while in Hawaii, Snowden may have persuaded 20–25 co-workers to give him their logins credentials by telling them he needed them to do his job. The NSA sent a memo to Congress saying that Snowden had tricked a fellow employee into sharing his personal public key infrastructure certificate to gain greater access to the NSA's computer system. Snowden disputed the memo, saying in January 2014, "I never stole any passwords, nor did I trick an army of co-workers." Booz Allen terminated Snowden's employment on June 10, 2013, one month after he had left the country.
A former NSA co-worker said that although the NSA was full of smart people, Snowden was a "genius among geniuses" who created a widely implemented backup system for the NSA and often pointed out security flaws to the agency. The former colleague said Snowden was given full administrator privileges with virtually unlimited access to NSA data. Snowden was offered a position on the NSA's elite team of hackers, Tailored Access Operations, but turned it down to join Booz Allen. An anonymous source later said that Booz Allen's hiring screeners found possible discrepancies in Snowden's resume but still decided to hire him. Snowden's résumé stated that he attended computer-related classes at Johns Hopkins University. A spokeswoman for Johns Hopkins said that the university did not find records to show that Snowden attended the university, and suggested that he may instead have attended Advanced Career Technologies, a private for-profit organization that operated as the Computer Career Institute at Johns Hopkins University. The University of Maryland University College acknowledged that Snowden had attended a summer session at a UM campus in Asia. Snowden's résumé stated that he estimated that he would receive a University of Liverpool computer security master's degree in 2013. The university said that Snowden registered for an online master's degree program in computer security in 2011 but was inactive as a student and had not completed the program.
Snowden has said that he had told multiple employees and two supervisors about his concerns, but the NSA disputes his claim. Snowden elaborated in January 2014, saying "[I] made tremendous efforts to report these programs to co-workers, supervisors, and anyone with the proper clearance who would listen. The reactions of those I told about the scale of the constitutional violations ranged from deeply concerned to appalled, but no one was willing to risk their jobs, families, and possibly even freedom to go through what [Thomas Andrews] Drake did." In March 2014, during testimony to the European Parliament, Snowden wrote that before revealing classified information he had reported "clearly problematic programs" to ten officials, who he said did nothing in response. In a May 2014 interview, Snowden told NBC News that after bringing his concerns about the legality of the NSA spying programs to officials, he was told to stay silent on the matter. He asserted that the NSA had copies of emails he sent to their Office of General Counsel, oversight and compliance personnel broaching "concerns about the NSA's interpretations of its legal authorities. I had raised these complaints not just officially in writing through email, but to my supervisors, to my colleagues, in more than one office."
In May 2014, U.S. officials released a single email that Snowden had written in April 2013 inquiring about legal authorities but said that they had found no other evidence that Snowden had expressed his concerns to someone in an oversight position. In June 2014, the NSA said it had not been able to find any records of Snowden raising internal complaints about the agency's operations. That same month, Snowden explained that he himself has not produced the communiqués in question because of the ongoing nature of the dispute, disclosing for the first time that "I am working with the NSA in regard to these records and we're going back and forth, so I don't want to reveal everything that will come out."
In his May 2014 interview with NBC News, Snowden accused the U.S. government of trying to use one position here or there in his career to distract from the totality of his experience, downplaying him as a "low level analyst." In his words, he was "trained as a spy in the traditional sense of the word in that I lived and worked undercover overseas—pretending to work in a job that I'm not—and even being assigned a name that was not mine." He said he'd worked for the NSA undercover overseas, and for the DIA had developed sources and methods to keep information and people secure "in the most hostile and dangerous environments around the world. So when they say I'm a low-level systems administrator, that I don't know what I'm talking about, I'd say it's somewhat misleading." In a June interview with Globo TV, Snowden reiterated that he "was actually functioning at a very senior level." In a July interview with The Guardian, Snowden explained that, during his NSA career, "I began to move from merely overseeing these systems to actively directing their use. Many people don’t understand that I was actually an analyst and I designated individuals and groups for targeting." Snowden subsequently told Wired that while at Dell in 2011, "I would sit down with the CIO of the CIA, the CTO of the CIA, the chiefs of all the technical branches. They would tell me their hardest technology problems, and it was my job to come up with a way to fix them."
Of his time as an NSA analyst, directing the work of others, Snowden recalled a moment when he and his colleagues began to have severe ethical doubts. Snowden said 18 to 22-year-old analysts were suddenly "thrust into a position of extraordinary responsibility, where they now have access to all your private records. In the course of their daily work, they stumble across something that is completely unrelated in any sort of necessary sense—for example, an intimate nude photo of someone in a sexually compromising situation. But they're extremely attractive. So what do they do? They turn around in their chair and they show a co-worker ... and sooner or later this person's whole life has been seen by all of these other people." As Snowden observed it, this behavior happened routinely every two months but was never reported, being considered one of the "fringe benefits" of the work.
Global surveillance disclosures
The exact size of Snowden's disclosure is unknown, but Australian officials have estimated 15,000 or more Australian intelligence files and British officials estimate at least 58,000 British intelligence files. NSA Director Keith Alexander initially estimated that Snowden had copied anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 NSA documents. Later estimates provided by U.S. officials were on the order of 1.7 million, a number that originally came from Department of Defense talking points. In July 2014, The Washington Post reported on a cache previously provided by Snowden from domestic NSA operations consisting of "roughly 160,000 intercepted e-mail and instant-message conversations, some of them hundreds of pages long, and 7,900 documents taken from more than 11,000 online accounts." A U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report declassified in June 2015 said that Snowden took 900,000 Department of Defense files, more than he downloaded from the NSA.
In March 2014, Army General Martin Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told the House Armed Services Committee, "The vast majority of the documents that Snowden ... exfiltrated from our highest levels of security ... had nothing to do with exposing government oversight of domestic activities. The vast majority of those were related to our military capabilities, operations, tactics, techniques and procedures." When asked in a May 2014 interview to quantify the number of documents Snowden stole, retired NSA director Keith Alexander said there was no accurate way of counting what he took, but Snowden may have downloaded more than a million documents.
According to Snowden, he did not indiscriminately turn over documents to journalists, stating that "I carefully evaluated every single document I disclosed to ensure that each was legitimately in the public interest. There are all sorts of documents that would have made a big impact that I didn't turn over" and that "I have to screen everything before releasing it to journalists ... If I have time to go through this information, I would like to make it available to journalists in each country." Despite these measures, the improper redaction of a document by The New York Times resulted in the exposure of intelligence activity against al-Qaeda.
In June 2014, the NSA's recently installed director, U.S. Navy Admiral Michael S. Rogers, said that while some terrorist groups had altered their communications to avoid surveillance techniques revealed by Snowden, the damage done was not significant enough to conclude that "the sky is falling." Nevertheless, in February 2015, Rogers said that Snowden's disclosures had a material impact on the NSA's detection and evaluation of terrorist activities worldwide.
On 14 June 2015, UK's Sunday Times reported that Russian and Chinese intelligence services had decrypted more than 1 million classified files in the Snowden cache, forcing the UK's MI6 intelligence agency to move agents out of live operations in hostile countries. Sir David Omand, a former director of the UK's GCHQ intelligence gathering agency, described it as a huge strategic setback that was harming Britain, America, and their NATO allies. The Sunday Times said it was not clear whether Russia and China stole Snowden's data or whether Snowden voluntarily handed it over to remain at liberty in Hong Kong and Moscow. In April 2015 the Henry Jackson Society, a British neoconservative think tank, published a report claiming that Snowden's intelligence leaks negatively impacted Britain's ability to fight terrorism and organized crime. Gus Hosein, executive director of Privacy International, criticized the report for, in his opinion, presuming that the public became concerned about privacy only after Snowden's disclosures.
Release of NSA documents
Snowden's decision to leak NSA documents developed gradually following his March 2007 posting as a technician to the Geneva CIA station. Snowden first made contact with Glenn Greenwald, a journalist working at The Guardian, on December 1, 2012. He contacted Greenwald anonymously as "Cincinnatus" and said he had sensitive documents that he would like to share. Greenwald found the measures that the source asked him to take to secure their communications, such as encrypting email, too annoying to employ. Snowden then contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013. According to Poitras, Snowden chose to contact her after seeing her New York Times article about NSA whistleblower William Binney. What originally attracted Snowden to both Greenwald and Poitras was a Salon article written by Greenwald detailing how Poitras' controversial films had made her a target of the government.
Greenwald began working with Snowden in either February or April 2013, after Poitras asked Greenwald to meet her in New York City, at which point Snowden began providing documents to them. Barton Gellman, writing for The Washington Post, says his first direct contact was on May 16, 2013. According to Gellman, Snowden approached Greenwald after the Post declined to guarantee publication within 72 hours of all 41 PowerPoint slides that Snowden had leaked exposing the PRISM electronic data mining program, and to publish online an encrypted code allowing Snowden to later prove that he was the source.
According to Gellman, prior to their first meeting in person, Snowden wrote, "I understand that I will be made to suffer for my actions, and that the return of this information to the public marks my end." Snowden also told Gellman that until the articles were published, the journalists working with him would also be at mortal risk from the United States Intelligence Community "if they think you are the single point of failure that could stop this disclosure and make them the sole owner of this information."
In May 2013, Snowden was permitted temporary leave from his position at the NSA in Hawaii, on the pretext of receiving treatment for his epilepsy. In mid-May, Snowden gave an electronic interview to Poitras and Jacob Appelbaum which was published weeks later by Der Spiegel.
After disclosing the copied documents, Snowden promised that nothing would stop subsequent disclosures. In June 2013, he said, "All I can say right now is the US government is not going to be able to cover this up by jailing or murdering me. Truth is coming, and it cannot be stopped."
On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong, where he was staying when the initial articles based on the leaked documents were published, beginning with The Guardian on June 5. Greenwald later said Snowden disclosed 9,000 to 10,000 documents.
Within months, documents had been obtained and published by media outlets worldwide, most notably The Guardian (Britain), Der Spiegel (Germany), The Washington Post and The New York Times (U.S.), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), and similar outlets in Sweden, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Australia. In 2014, NBC broke its first story based on the leaked documents. In February 2014, for reporting based on Snowden's leaks, journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Barton Gellman and The Guardian′s Ewen MacAskill were honored as co-recipients of the 2013 George Polk Award, which they dedicated to Snowden. The NSA reporting by these journalists also earned The Guardian and The Washington Post the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for exposing the "widespread surveillance" and for helping to spark a "huge public debate about the extent of the government's spying". The Guardian's chief editor, Alan Rusbridger, credited Snowden for having performed a public service.
The ongoing publication of leaked documents has revealed previously unknown details of a global surveillance apparatus run by the United States' NSA in close cooperation with three of its Five Eyes partners: Australia's ASD, the UK's GCHQ, and Canada's CSEC.
On June 5, 2013, media reports documenting the existence and functions of classified surveillance programs and their scope began and continued throughout the entire year. The first program to be revealed was PRISM, which allows for court-approved direct access to Americans' Google and Yahoo accounts, reported from both The Washington Post and The Guardian published one hour apart. Barton Gellman of The Washington Post was the first journalist to report on Snowden's documents. He said the U.S. government urged him not to specify by name which companies were involved, but Gellman decided that to name them "would make it real to Americans." Reports also revealed details of Tempora, a British black-ops surveillance program run by the NSA's British partner, GCHQ. The initial reports included details about NSA call database, Boundless Informant, and of a secret court order requiring Verizon to hand the NSA millions of Americans' phone records daily, the surveillance of French citizens' phone and Internet records, and those of "high-profile individuals from the world of business or politics." XKeyscore, an analytical tool that allows for collection of "almost anything done on the internet," was described by The Guardian as a program that shed light on one of Snowden's most controversial statements: "I, sitting at my desk [could] wiretap anyone, from you or your accountant, to a federal judge or even the president, if I had a personal email."
The NSA's top-secret black budget, obtained from Snowden by The Washington Post, exposed the successes and failures of the 16 spy agencies comprising the U.S. intelligence community, and revealed that the NSA was paying U.S. private tech companies for clandestine access to their communications networks. The agencies were allotted $52 billion for the 2013 fiscal year.
It was revealed that the NSA was harvesting millions of email and instant messaging contact lists, searching email content, tracking and mapping the location of cell phones, undermining attempts at encryption via Bullrun and that the agency was using cookies to piggyback on the same tools used by Internet advertisers "to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance." The NSA was shown to be secretly accessing Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from hundreds of millions of account holders worldwide by tapping undersea cables using the MUSCULAR surveillance program.
The NSA, the CIA and GCHQ spied on users of Second Life, Xbox Live and World of Warcraft, and attempted to recruit would-be informants from the sites, according to documents revealed in December 2013. Leaked documents showed NSA agents also spied on their own "love interests," a practice NSA employees termed LOVEINT. The NSA was shown to be tracking the online sexual activity of people they termed "radicalizers" in order to discredit them. Following the revelation of Black Pearl, a program targeting private networks, the NSA was accused of extending beyond its primary mission of national security. The agency's intelligence-gathering operations had targeted, among others, oil giant Petrobras, Brazil's largest company. The NSA and the GCHQ were also shown to be surveilling charities including UNICEF and Médecins du Monde, as well as allies such as European Commissioner Joaquín Almunia and the Israeli Prime Minister.
In October 2013, Glenn Greenwald said "the most shocking and significant stories are the ones we are still working on, and have yet to publish." In November, The Guardian's editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger said that only one percent of the documents had been published. In December, Australia's Minister for Defence David Johnston said his government assumed the worst was yet to come.
By October 2013, Snowden's disclosures had created tensions between the U.S. and some of its close allies after they revealed that the U.S. had spied on Brazil, France, Mexico, Britain, China, Germany, and Spain, as well as 35 world leaders, most notably German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who said "spying among friends" was unacceptable and compared the NSA with the Stasi. Leaked documents published by Der Spiegel in 2014 appeared to show that the NSA had targeted 122 high-ranking leaders.
An NSA mission statement titled "SIGINT Strategy 2012-2016" affirmed that the NSA had plans for continued expansion of surveillance activities. Their stated goal was to "dramatically increase mastery of the global network" and to acquire adversaries' data from "anyone, anytime, anywhere." Leaked slides revealed in Greenwald's book No Place to Hide, released in May 2014, showed that the NSA's stated objective was to "Collect it All," "Process it All," "Exploit it All," "Partner it All," "Sniff it All" and "Know it All."
Snowden said in a January 2014 interview with German television that the NSA does not limit its data collection to national security issues, accusing the agency of conducting industrial espionage. Using the example of German company Siemens, he said, "If there's information at Siemens that's beneficial to US national interests—even if it doesn't have anything to do with national security—then they'll take that information nevertheless." In the wake of Snowden's revelations and in response to an inquiry from the Left Party, Germany's domestic security agency Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV) investigated and found no concrete evidence that the U.S. conducted economic or industrial espionage in Germany.
In February 2014, during testimony to the European Union, Snowden said of the remaining undisclosed programs, "I will leave the public interest determinations as to which of these may be safely disclosed to responsible journalists in coordination with government stakeholders."
In March 2014, documents disclosed by Glenn Greenwald writing for The Intercept showed the NSA, in cooperation with the GCHQ, has plans to infect millions of computers with malware using a program called TURBINE. Revelations included information about QUANTUMHAND, a program through which the NSA set up a fake Facebook server to intercept connections.
According to a report in The Washington Post in July 2014, relying on information furnished by Snowden, 90% of those placed under surveillance in the U.S. are ordinary Americans, and are not the intended targets. The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, message texts, and online accounts, that support the claim.
In an August 2014 interview, Snowden for the first time disclosed a cyberwarfare program in the works, codenamed MonsterMind, that would automate detection of a foreign cyberattack as it began and automatically fire back. "These attacks can be spoofed," said Snowden. "You could have someone sitting in China, for example, making it appear that one of these attacks is originating in Russia. And then we end up shooting back at a Russian hospital. What happens next?"
Snowden first contemplated leaking confidential documents around 2008 but held back, partly because he believed the newly elected Barack Obama might introduce reforms. After the disclosures, his identity was made public by The Guardian at his request on June 9, 2013. "I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded," he said. "My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them."
Snowden said he wanted to "embolden others to step forward" by demonstrating that "they can win." He also said that the system for reporting problems did not work. "You have to report wrongdoing to those most responsible for it." He cited a lack of whistleblower protection for government contractors, the use of the 1917 Espionage Act to prosecute leakers, and his belief that had he used internal mechanisms to "sound the alarm," his revelations "would have been buried forever."
In December 2013, upon learning that a U.S. federal judge had ruled the collection of U.S. phone metadata conducted by the NSA as likely unconstitutional, Snowden said, "I acted on my belief that the NSA's mass surveillance programs would not withstand a constitutional challenge, and that the American public deserved a chance to see these issues determined by open courts ... today, a secret program authorized by a secret court was, when exposed to the light of day, found to violate Americans' rights."
In January 2014, Snowden said his "breaking point" was "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress." This referred to testimony on March 12, 2013—three months after Snowden first sought to share thousands of NSA documents with Greenwald, and nine months after the NSA says Snowden made his first illegal downloads during the summer of 2012—in which Clapper denied to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that the NSA wittingly collects data on millions of Americans. Snowden said, "There's no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs." In March 2014, Snowden said he had reported policy or legal issues related to spying programs to more than ten officials, but as a contractor had no legal avenue to pursue further whistleblowing.
Flight from the United States
In May 2013, Snowden took a leave of absence, telling his supervisors he was returning to the mainland for epilepsy treatment, but instead left Hawaii for Hong Kong where he arrived on May 20. Snowden told Guardian reporters in June that he had been in his room at the Mira Hotel since his arrival in the city, rarely going out. On June 10, correspondent Ewen MacAskill said Snowden had left his hotel only briefly three times since May 20.
Snowden vowed to challenge any extradition attempt by the U.S. government, and engaged a Hong Kong-based Canadian human rights lawyer Robert Tibbo as a legal adviser. Snowden told the South China Morning Post that he planned to remain in Hong Kong for as long as its government would permit. Snowden also told the Post that "the United States government has committed a tremendous number of crimes against Hong Kong [and] the PRC as well," going on to identify Chinese Internet Protocol addresses that the NSA monitored and stating that the NSA collected text-message data for Hong Kong residents. Glenn Greenwald said Snowden was motivated by a need to "ingratiate himself to the people of Hong Kong and China."
After leaving the Mira Hotel, Snowden stayed in a cramped apartment with other refugees seeking asylum in Hong Kong, an arrangement set up by Tibbo to hide from the authorities. The Russian newspaper Kommersant nevertheless reported that Snowden was living at the Russian consulate shortly before his departure from Hong Kong to Moscow. Ben Wizner, a lawyer with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and legal adviser to Snowden, said in January 2014, "Every news organization in the world has been trying to confirm that story. They haven't been able to, because it's false." Likewise rejecting the Kommersant story was Anatoly Kucherena, who became Snowden's lawyer in July 2013 when Snowden asked him for help in seeking temporary asylum in Russia. Kucherena said Snowden did not communicate with Russian diplomats while he was in Hong Kong. In early September 2013, however, Russian president Vladimir Putin said that, a few days before boarding a plane to Moscow, Snowden met in Hong Kong with Russian diplomatic representatives.
On June 22 (18 days after publication of Snowden's NSA documents began), officials revoked his U.S. passport. On June 23, Snowden boarded the commercial Aeroflot flight SU213 to Moscow, accompanied by Sarah Harrison of WikiLeaks. Hong Kong authorities said that Snowden had not been detained for the U.S. because the request had not fully complied with Hong Kong law, and there was no legal basis to prevent Snowden from leaving.[Notes 1] On June 24, a U.S. State Department spokesman rejected the explanation of technical noncompliance, accusing the Hong Kong government of deliberately releasing a fugitive despite a valid arrest warrant and after having sufficient time to prohibit his travel. That same day, Julian Assange said that WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden's lodging in Hong Kong and his flight out.
In October 2013, Snowden said that before flying to Moscow, he gave all the classified documents he had obtained to journalists he met in Hong Kong, and kept no copies for himself. In January 2014, he told a German TV interviewer that he gave all of his information to American journalists reporting on American issues. During his first American TV interview, in May 2014, Snowden said he had protected himself from Russian leverage by destroying the material he had been holding before landing in Moscow.
On June 23, 2013, Snowden landed at Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport. WikiLeaks said he was on a circuitous but safe route to asylum in Ecuador. Snowden had a seat reserved to continue to Cuba but did not board that onward flight, saying in a January 2014 interview that he intended to transit through Russia but was stopped en route. He asserted "a planeload of reporters documented the seat I was supposed to be in" when he was ticketed for Havana, but the U.S. cancelled his passport. He said the U.S. wanted him to stay in Moscow so "they could say, 'He's a Russian spy.'" Greenwald's account differed on the point of Snowden being already ticketed. According to Greenwald, Snowden's passport was valid when he departed Hong Kong but was revoked during the hours he was in transit to Moscow, preventing him from obtaining a ticket to leave Russia. Greenwald said Snowden was thus forced to stay in Moscow and seek asylum.
According to one Russian report, Snowden planned to fly from Moscow through Havana to Latin America; however, Cuba told Moscow it would not allow the Aeroflot plane carrying Snowden to land. Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Cuba had a change of heart after receiving pressure from U.S. officials, leaving him stuck in the transit zone because at the last minute Havana told officials in Moscow not to allow him on the flight. The Washington Post contrasted this version with what it called "widespread speculation" that Russia never intended to let Snowden proceed. Fidel Castro called claims that Cuba would have blocked Snowden's entry a "lie" and a "libel." Describing Snowden's arrival in Moscow as a surprise and likening it to "an unwanted Christmas gift," Russian president Putin said that Snowden remained in the transit area of Sheremetyevo Airport, had committed no crime in Russia, was free to leave and should do so. Putin denied that Russia's intelligence agencies had worked or were working with Snowden.
Following Snowden's arrival in Moscow, the White House expressed disappointment in Hong Kong's decision to allow him to leave. An anonymous U.S. official not authorized to discuss the matter told AP Snowden's passport had been revoked before he left Hong Kong, but that a senior official in a country or airline could order subordinates to overlook the withdrawn passport. U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said that Snowden's passport was cancelled "within two hours" of the charges against Snowden being made public which was Friday, June 21. In a July 1 statement, Snowden said, "Although I am convicted of nothing, [the U.S. government] has unilaterally revoked my passport, leaving me a stateless person. Without any judicial order, the administration now seeks to stop me exercising a basic right. A right that belongs to everybody. The right to seek asylum."
Four countries offered Snowden permanent asylum: Ecuador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Venezuela. No direct flights between Moscow and Venezuela, Bolivia or Nicaragua existed, however, and the U.S. pressured countries along his route to hand him over. Snowden said in July 2013 that he decided to bid for asylum in Russia because he felt there was no safe way to reach Latin America. Snowden said he remained in Russia because "when we were talking about possibilities for asylum in Latin America, the United States forced down the Bolivian President's plane", citing the Morales plane incident. On the issue, he said "some governments in Western European and North American states have demonstrated a willingness to act outside the law, and this behavior persists today. This unlawful threat makes it impossible for me to travel to Latin America and enjoy the asylum granted there in accordance with our shared rights." He said that he would travel from Russia if there was no interference from the U.S. government.
Four months after Snowden received asylum in Russia, Julian Assange commented, "While Venezuela and Ecuador could protect him in the short term, over the long term there could be a change in government. In Russia, he's safe, he's well-regarded, and that is not likely to change. That was my advice to Snowden, that he would be physically safest in Russia." According to Snowden, "the CIA has a very powerful presence [in Latin America] and the governments and the security services there are relatively much less capable than, say, Russia.... they could have basically snatched me...."
In an October 2014 interview with The Nation magazine, Snowden reiterated that he had originally intended to travel to Latin America: "A lot of people are still unaware that I never intended to end up in Russia." According to Snowden, the U.S. government "waited until I departed Hong Kong to cancel my passport in order to trap me in Russia." Snowden added, "If they really wanted to capture me, they would've allowed me to travel to Latin America, because the CIA can operate with impunity down there. They did not want that; they chose to keep me in Russia."
Morales plane incident
On July 1, 2013, president Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had been attending a conference in Russia, suggested during an interview with Russia Today that he would consider a request by Snowden for asylum. The following day, Morales' plane, en route to Bolivia, was rerouted to Austria and searched there, after France, Spain, and Italy denied access to their airspace. U.S. officials had raised suspicions that Snowden may have been on board. Morales blamed the U.S. for putting pressure on European countries, and said that the grounding of his plane was a violation of international law.
In April 2015, Bolivia's ambassador to Russia, María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste, accused Julian Assange of putting Morales's life at risk by intentionally providing to the U.S. false rumors that Snowden was on Morales' plane. Assange responded that the plan "was not completely honest, but we did consider that the final result would have justified our actions. The result was caused by the United States' intervention. We can only regret what happened."
Snowden applied for political asylum to 21 countries. A statement attributed to him contended that the U.S. administration, and specifically Vice President Joe Biden, had pressured the governments to refuse his asylum petitions. Biden had telephoned President Rafael Correa days prior to Snowden's remarks, asking the Ecuadorian leader not to grant Snowden asylum. Ecuador had initially offered Snowden a temporary travel document but later withdrew it, and Correa later called the offer a mistake.
In a July 1 statement published by WikiLeaks, Snowden accused the U.S. government of "using citizenship as a weapon" and using what he described as "old, bad tools of political aggression." Citing Obama's promise to not allow "wheeling and dealing" over the case, Snowden commented, "This kind of deception from a world leader is not justice, and neither is the extralegal penalty of exile." Several days later, WikiLeaks announced that Snowden had applied for asylum in six additional countries, but declined to name them, alleging attempted U.S. interference.
After evaluating the law and Snowden's situation, the French interior ministry rejected his request for asylum. Poland refused to process his application because it did not conform to legal procedure. Brazil's Foreign Ministry said the government planned no response to Snowden's asylum request. Germany and India rejected Snowden's application outright, while Austria, Ecuador, Finland, Norway, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain said he must be on their territory to apply. In November 2014, Germany announced that Snowden had not renewed his previously denied request and was not being considered for asylum. Glenn Greenwald later reported that Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany, told him the U.S. government had threatened to stop sharing intelligence if Germany offered Snowden asylum or arranged for his travel there.
Putin said on July 1, 2013, that if Snowden wanted to be granted asylum in Russia, he would be required to "stop his work aimed at harming our American partners." A spokesman for Putin subsequently said that Snowden had withdrawn his asylum application upon learning of the conditions.
In a July 12 meeting at Sheremetyevo Airport with representatives of human rights organizations and lawyers, organized in part by the Russian government, Snowden said he was accepting all offers of asylum that he had already received or would receive. He added that Venezuela's grant of asylum formalized his asylee status, removing any basis for state interference with his right to asylum. He also said he would request asylum in Russia until he resolved his travel problems. Russian Federal Migration Service officials confirmed on July 16 that Snowden had submitted an application for temporary asylum. On July 24, Kucherena said his client wanted to find work in Russia, travel and create a life for himself, and had already begun learning Russian.
Amid media reports in early July 2013 attributed to U.S. administration sources that Obama's one-on-one meeting with Putin, ahead of a G20 meeting in St Petersburg scheduled for September, was in doubt due to Snowden's protracted sojourn in Russia, top U.S. officials repeatedly made it clear to Moscow that Snowden should immediately be returned to the United States to face charges for the unauthorized leaking of classified information. His Russian lawyer said Snowden needed asylum because he faced persecution by the U.S. government and feared "that he could be subjected to torture and capital punishment."
In a letter to Russian Minister of Justice Alexander Konovalov dated July 23, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder repudiated Snowden's claim to refugee status, and offered a limited validity passport good for direct return to the U.S. He further asserted that Snowden would not be subject to torture or the death penalty, and would receive trial in a civilian court with proper legal counsel. The same day, the Russian president's spokesman reiterated that his government would not hand over Snowden, noting that Putin was not personally involved in the matter and that it was being handled through talks between the FBI and Russia's FSB.
On June 14, 2013, United States federal prosecutors filed a criminal complaint against Snowden, charging him with theft of government property and two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 through unauthorized communication of national defense information and willful communication of classified communications intelligence information to an unauthorized person. Each of the three charges carries a maximum possible prison term of ten years. The charge was initially secret and was unsealed a week later.
Snowden was asked in a January 2014 interview about returning to the U.S. to face the charges in court, as Obama had suggested a few days prior. Snowden explained why he rejected the request: "What he doesn't say are that the crimes that he's charged me with are crimes that don't allow me to make my case. They don't allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. ... So it's, I would say, illustrative that the President would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial." Snowden's legal representative, Jesselyn Radack, wrote that "the Espionage Act effectively hinders a person from defending himself before a jury in an open court." She said that the "arcane World War I law" was never meant to prosecute whistleblowers, but rather spies who sold secrets to enemies for profit.
Asylum in Russia
On June 23, 2013, Snowden landed at Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport aboard a commercial Aeroflot flight from Hong Kong. On August 1, after 39 days in the transit section, he left the airport and was granted temporary asylum in Russia for one year. A year later, his temporary asylum having expired, Snowden received a three-year residency permit allowing him to travel freely within Russia and to go abroad for up to three months. He was not granted permanent political asylum. In January 2017, a spokesperson for the Russian foreign ministry wrote on Facebook that Snowden's asylum, which was due to expire in 2017, was extended by "a couple more years." Snowden's lawyer Anatoly Kucherena said the extension was valid until 2020.
A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor. Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg called Snowden's release of NSA material the most significant leak in U.S. history.
Numerous high-ranking current or former U.S. government officials reacted publicly to Snowden's disclosures.
- House Intelligence Committee chairman Mike Rogers and ranking member Dutch Ruppersberger said a classified Pentagon report written by military intelligence officials contended that Snowden's leaks had put U.S. troops at risk and prompted terrorists to change their tactics, and that most files copied were related to current U.S. military operations.
- President Barack Obama said that "our nation's defense depends in part on the fidelity of those entrusted with our nation's secrets. If any individual who objects to government policy can take it into their own hands to publicly disclose classified information, then we will not be able to keep our people safe, or conduct foreign policy." Obama also objected to the "sensational" way the leaks had been reported, saying the reporting often "shed more heat than light." He went on to assert that the disclosures had revealed "methods to our adversaries that could impact our operations."
- Former congressman Ron Paul began a petition urging the Obama Administration to grant Snowden clemency. Paul released a video on his website saying, "Edward Snowden sacrificed his livelihood, citizenship, and freedom by exposing the disturbing scope of the NSA's worldwide spying program. Thanks to one man's courageous actions, Americans know about the truly egregious ways their government is spying on them."
- Mike McConnell—former NSA director and current vice chairman at Booz Allen Hamilton—said that Snowden was motivated by revenge when the NSA did not offer him the job he wanted. "At this point," said McConnell, "he being narcissistic and having failed at most everything he did, he decides now I'm going to turn on them."
- Former secretary of state Hillary Clinton said, "[W]e have all these protections for whistleblowers. If [Snowden] were concerned and wanted to be part of the American debate…it struck me as…sort of odd that he would flee to China, because Hong Kong is controlled by China, and that he would then go to Russia—two countries with which we have very difficult cyberrelationships." As Clinton saw it, "turning over a lot of that material—intentionally or unintentionally—drained, gave all kinds of information, not only to big countries, but to networks and terrorist groups and the like. So I have a hard time thinking that somebody who is a champion of privacy and liberty has taken refuge in Russia, under Putin's authority." Clinton later said that if Snowden wished to return to the U.S., "knowing he would be held accountable," he would have the right "to launch both a legal defense and a public defense, which can of course affect the legal defense."
- Secretary of State John Kerry said Snowden had "damaged his country very significantly" and "hurt operational security" by telling terrorists how to evade detection. "The bottom line," Kerry added, "is this man has betrayed his country, sitting in Russia where he has taken refuge. You know, he should man up and come back to the United States."
- Former vice president Al Gore said Snowden "clearly violated the law so you can't say OK, what he did is all right. It's not. But what he revealed in the course of violating important laws included violations of the U.S. constitution that were way more serious than the crimes he committed. In the course of violating important law, he also provided an important service. ... Because we did need to know how far this has gone."
- In December, President Obama nominated former deputy defense secretary Ashton Carter to succeed outgoing Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel. Seven months before, Carter had said, "We had a cyber Pearl Harbor. His name was Edward Snowden." Carter charged that U.S. security officials "screwed up spectacularly in the case of Snowden. And this knucklehead had access to destructive power that was much more than any individual person should have access to."
In the U.S., Snowden's actions precipitated an intense debate on privacy and warrantless domestic surveillance. President Obama was initially dismissive of Snowden, saying "I'm not going to be scrambling jets to get a 29-year-old hacker." In August 2013, Obama rejected the suggestion that Snowden was a patriot, and in November said that "the benefit of the debate he generated was not worth the damage done, because there was another way of doing it."
In June 2013, U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont wrote on his blog, "Love him or hate him, we all owe Snowden our thanks for forcing upon the nation an important debate. But the debate shouldn't be about him. It should be about the gnawing questions his actions raised from the shadows."
Snowden said in December 2013 that he was "inspired by the global debate" ignited by the leaks and that NSA's "culture of indiscriminate global espionage ... is collapsing."
At the end of 2013, however, The Washington Post noted that the public debate and its offshoots had produced no meaningful change in policy, with the status quo continuing.
In 2016, on The Axe Files podcast, former U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder said that Snowden "performed a public service by raising the debate that we engaged in and by the changes that we made." Holder nevertheless said that Snowden's actions were inappropriate and illegal.
In September 2016, the bipartisan U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence completed a review of the Snowden disclosures and said that the federal government would have to spend millions of dollars responding to the fallout from Snowden's disclosures. The report also said that "the public narrative popularized by Snowden and his allies is rife with falsehoods, exaggerations, and crucial omissions." The report was denounced by Washington Post reporter Barton Gellman, who called it "aggressively dishonest" and "contemptuous of fact."
In August 2013, President Obama said that he had called for a review of U.S. surveillance activities before Snowden had begun revealing details of the NSA's operations, and announced that he was directing DNI James Clapper "to establish a review group on intelligence and communications technologies." In December, the task force issued 46 recommendations that, if adopted, would subject the NSA to additional scrutiny by the courts, Congress, and the president, and would strip the NSA of the authority to infiltrate American computer systems using backdoors in hardware or software. Panel member Geoffrey R. Stone said there was no evidence that the bulk collection of phone data had stopped any terror attacks.
On June 6, 2013, in the wake of Snowden's leaks, conservative public interest lawyer and Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman filed a lawsuit claiming that the federal government had unlawfully collected metadata for his telephone calls and was harassing him. In Klayman v. Obama, Judge Richard J. Leon referred to the NSA's "almost-Orwellian technology" and ruled the bulk telephony metadata program to be probably unconstitutional. Snowden later described Judge Leon's decision as vindication.
On June 11, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, alleging that the NSA's phone records program was unconstitutional. In December 2013, ten days after Judge Leon's ruling, Judge William H. Pauley III came to the opposite conclusion. In ACLU v. Clapper, although acknowledging that privacy concerns are not trivial, Pauley found that the potential benefits of surveillance outweigh these considerations and ruled that the NSA's collection of phone data is legal.
Gary Schmitt, former staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, wrote that "The two decisions have generated public confusion over the constitutionality of the NSA's data collection program—a kind of judicial 'he-said, she-said' standoff."
On May 7, 2015, in the case of ACLU v. Clapper, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit said that Section 215 of the Patriot Act did not authorize the NSA to collect Americans' calling records in bulk, as exposed by Snowden in 2013. The decision voided U.S. District Judge William Pauley's December 2013 finding that the NSA program was lawful, and remanded the case to him for further review. The appeals court did not rule on the constitutionality of the bulk surveillance, and declined to enjoin the program, noting the pending expiration of relevant parts of the Patriot Act. Circuit Judge Gerard E. Lynch wrote that, given the national security interests at stake, it was prudent to give Congress an opportunity to debate and decide the matter.
USA Freedom Act
On June 2, 2015, the U.S. Senate passed, and President Obama signed, the USA Freedom Act which restored in modified form several provisions of the Patriot Act that had expired the day before, while for the first time imposing some limits on the bulk collection of telecommunication data on U.S. citizens by American intelligence agencies. The new restrictions were widely seen as stemming from Snowden's revelations.
Hans-Georg Maaßen, head of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Germany's domestic security agency, said that Snowden could have been working for the Russian government. Snowden has rejected this insinuation.
Crediting the Snowden leaks, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution 68/167 in December 2013. The non-binding resolution denounced unwarranted digital surveillance and included a symbolic declaration of the right of all individuals to online privacy.
Support for Snowden came from Latin American leaders including the Argentinian President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa, Bolivian President Evo Morales, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro, and Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega.
In an official report published in October 2015, the United Nations special rapporteur for the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of speech, Professor David Kaye, criticized the U.S. government's harsh treatment of, and bringing criminal charges against, whistleblowers, including Edward Snowden. The report found that Snowden's revelations were important for people everywhere and made "a deep and lasting impact on law, policy and politics." The European Parliament invited Snowden to make a pre-recorded video appearance to aid their NSA investigation. Snowden gave written testimony in which he said that he was seeking asylum in the EU, but that he was told by European Parliamentarians that the U.S. would not allow EU partners to make such an offer. He told the Parliament that the NSA was working with the security agencies of EU states to "get access to as much data of EU citizens as possible." The NSA's Foreign Affairs Division, he claimed, lobbies the EU and other countries to change their laws, allowing for "everyone in the country" to be spied on legally.
In July 2014, Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, told a news conference in Geneva that the U.S. should abandon its efforts to prosecute Snowden, since his leaks were in the public interest.
Public opinion polls
Surveys conducted by news outlets and professional polling organizations found that American public opinion was divided on Snowden's disclosures, and that those polled in Canada and Europe were more supportive of Snowden than respondents in the U.S.
For his global surveillance disclosures, Snowden has been honored by publications and organizations based in Europe and the United States. He was voted as The Guardian's person of the year 2013, garnering four times the number of votes as any other candidate.
Teleconference speaking engagements
In March 2014, Snowden spoke at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Interactive technology conference in Austin, Texas, in front of 3,500 attendees. He participated by teleconference carried over multiple routers running the Google Hangouts platform. On-stage moderators were Christopher Soghoian and Snowden's legal counsel Wizner, both from the ACLU. Snowden said that the NSA was "setting fire to the future of the internet," and that the SXSW audience was "the firefighters." Attendees could use Twitter to send questions to Snowden, who answered one by saying that information gathered by corporations was much less dangerous than that gathered by a government agency, because "governments have the power to deprive you of your rights." Representative Mike Pompeo (R-KS) of the House Intelligence Committee, and later director of the CIA, had tried unsuccessfully to get the SXSW management to cancel Snowden's appearance; instead, SXSW director Hugh Forrest said that the NSA was welcome to respond to Snowden at the 2015 conference.
Later that month, Snowden appeared by teleconference at the TED conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Represented on stage by a robot with a video screen, video camera, microphones and speakers, Snowden conversed with TED curator Chris Anderson, and told the attendees that online businesses should act quickly to encrypt their websites. He described the NSA's PRISM program as the U.S. government using businesses to collect data for them, and that the NSA "intentionally misleads corporate partners" using, as an example, the Bullrun decryption program to create backdoor access. Snowden said he would gladly return to the U.S. if given immunity from prosecution, but that he was more concerned about alerting the public about abuses of government authority. Anderson invited Internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee on stage to converse with Snowden, who said that he would support Berners-Lee's concept of an "internet Magna Carta" to "encode our values in the structure of the internet."
On September 15, 2014, Snowden appeared via remote video link, along with Julian Assange, on Kim Dotcom's Moment of Truth town hall meeting held in Auckland. He made a similar video link appearance on February 2, 2015, along with Greenwald, as the keynote speaker at the World Affairs Conference at Upper Canada College in Toronto.
In March 2015, while speaking at the FIFDH (international human rights film festival) he made a public appeal for Switzerland to grant him asylum, saying he would like to return to live in Geneva, where he once worked undercover for the Central Intelligence Agency.
In 2015, Snowden earned over $200,000 from digital speaking engagements in the U.S.
On March 19, 2016, Snowden delivered the opening keynote address of the LibrePlanet conference, a meeting of international free software activists and developers presented by the Free Software Foundation. The conference was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was the first such time Snowden spoke via teleconference using a full free software stack, end-to-end.[jargon]
On July 21, 2016, Snowden and hardware hacker Bunnie Huang, in a talk at MIT Media Lab's Forbidden Research event, published research for a smartphone case, the so-called Introspection Engine, that would monitor signals received and sent by that phone to provide an alert to the user if their phone is transmitting or receiving information when it shouldn't be (for example when it's turned off or in airplane mode), a feature described by Snowden to be useful for journalists or activists operating under hostile governments that would otherwise track their activities through their phones.
The "Snowden Effect"
In July 2013, media critic Jay Rosen defined The Snowden Effect as "Direct and indirect gains in public knowledge from the cascade of events and further reporting that followed Edward Snowden's leaks of classified information about the surveillance state in the U.S." In December 2013, The Nation wrote that Snowden had sparked an overdue debate about national security and individual privacy. In Forbes, the effect was seen to have nearly united the U.S. Congress in opposition to the massive post-9/11 domestic intelligence gathering system. In its Spring 2014 Global Attitudes Survey, the Pew Research Center found that Snowden's disclosures had tarnished the image of the United States, especially in Europe and Latin America.
In popular culture
Snowden's impact as a public figure has been felt in cinema, advertising, video games, literature, music, statuary, and social media.
- 2013 global surveillance disclosures
- Philip Agee
- Classified information in the United States
- Criticism of the United States government
- John Crane
- German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal
- Hong Kong–United States relations
- Information sensitivity
- List of people granted asylum
- List of people who have lived at airports
- List of United States extradition treaties
- List of whistleblowers
- Mass surveillance in the United States
- NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07)
- NSA whistleblowers
- Operation Socialist (code name)
- Panetta Review
- Russian influence operations in the United States
- Stellar Wind (code name)
- Terrorist Surveillance Program
- Hong Kong's Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen argued that government officials did not issue a provisional arrest warrant for Snowden due to "discrepancies and missing information" in the paperwork sent by U.S. authorities. Yuen explained that Snowden's full name was inconsistent, and his U.S. passport number was also missing. Hong Kong also wanted more details of the charges and evidence against Snowden to make sure it was not a political case. Yuen said he spoke to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder by phone to reinforce the request for details "absolutely necessary" for detention of Snowden. Yuen said "As the US government had failed to provide the information by the time Snowden left Hong Kong, it was impossible for the Department of Justice to apply to a court for a temporary warrant of arrest. In fact, even at this time, the US government has still not provided the details we asked for."
- Burrough, Bryan; Ellison, Sarah; Andrews, Suzanna (April 23, 2014). "The Snowden Saga: A Shadowland of Secrets and Light". Vanity Fair. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Finn, Peter; Horwitz, Sari (June 21, 2013). "U.S. charges Snowden with espionage". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Kerry warns Russia on Snowden: "Respect the relationship" CBS News 21 June 2013
- Greenberg, Andy (February 2017). "Edward Snowden's New Job: Protecting Reporters From Spies". Wired.
- Oliphant, Roland (January 18, 2017). "Russia Extends Edward Snowden Asylum until 2020". The Telegraph.
- Ackerman, Spencer (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden was not successful in joining the US Army's elite special forces unit". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
The army did confirm Snowden's date of birth: 21 June 1983.
- "Report: Snowden has document to enter Russia". WVEC. July 24, 2013. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. "Edward Snowden, who was born in Elizabeth City, NC, is wanted in the U.S. for espionage" by the FBI et al.
- "NSA leaker Edward Snowden has ties to North Carolina". The News & Observer. August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014.
- "Retired U.S. Coast Guard Flag Officers". United States Coast Guard. May 15, 2014.
- Cole, Matthew; Esposito, Richard; Dedman, Bill; Schone, Mark (May 28, 2014). "Edward Snowden's Motive Revealed: He Can 'Sleep at Night'". NBC News.
- Itkowitz, Colby; Sheehan, Daniel Patrick (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden's father, stepmother plan to make public statement". The Morning Call. Allentown, PA.
- Tulumello, Jennifer Skalka (11 June 2013). "Edward Snowden: Who is he, and what kind of life is he leaving behind?". The Christian Science Monitor.
- "Details about Edward Snowden's life in Maryland emerge". The Baltimore Sun. 10 June 2013.
- Tracy, Connor (June 10, 2013). "What we know about NSA leaker Edward Snowden". NBC News.
- Toppo, Greg (June 10, 2013). "Former neighbor remembers Snowden as 'nice kid'". USA Today. Washington, D.C.
- "Court Information". United States District Court for the District of Maryland. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Bamford, James (August 13, 2014). "Edward Snowden: The untold story of the most wanted man in the world". Wired.
- Cole, Matthew; Brunker, Mike (May 26, 2014). "Edward Snowden: A Timeline". NBC News.
- "Edward Snowden's father, a Lehigh County resident, tells network he's concerned for son's well-being". Leheigh Vally Express Times. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Dedman, Bill; Brunker, Mike; Cole, Matthew (May 26, 2014). "Who Is Edward Snowden, the Man Who Spilled the NSA's Secrets?". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian. London.
- "Booz Allen hired Snowden despite discrepancies in his résumé." (print title: "Snowden hired despite discrepancies in résumé"). Reuters. South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). June 22, 2013. – Alternate link under title: "Exclusive: NSA contractor hired Snowden despite concerns about resume discrepancies" by Hosenball, Mark (Editing by David Lindsey and Stacey Joyce).
- "U.S. Fears Edward Snowden May Defect to China: Sources". ABC News. June 13, 2013. p. 3.
- "Snowden's Life Surrounded By Spycraft". Associated Press. June 15, 2013. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014.
- Cooke, Kristina; Shiffman, Scott (June 12, 2013). "Exclusive: Snowden as a teen online: anime and cheeky humor". Reuters.
- Yoshida, Reiji (June 15, 2013). "Snowden Web manga profile still online". Japan Times. Tokyo.
- Broder, John M.; Scott, Shane (June 15, 2013). "For Snowden, a Life of Ambition, Despite the Drifting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013.
- MacAskill, Ewen (June 9, 2013). "NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I do not expect to see home again'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mullin, Joe (June 13, 2013). "NSA leaker Ed Snowden's life on Ars Technica". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mullin, Joe (June 26, 2013). "In 2009, Ed Snowden said leakers "should be shot." Then he became one". Ars Technica.
- Wilentz, Sean. "Would You Feel Differently About Snowden, Greenwald, and Assange If You Knew What They Really Thought?". New Republic.
- "Edward Snowden: A 'Nation' Interview". The Nation.
- "Army Enlisted Job Descriptions and Qualification Factors: 18X – Special Forces Enlistment Option". Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gaskell, Stephanie (June 10, 2013). "Records show Army discharged Edward Snowden after five months". Politico.
- Ackerman, Spencer. "Edward Snowden did enlist for special forces, US army confirms". The Guardian.
- "University-Affiliated Research Center Laboratories (UARCs)". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Finn, Peter; Miller, Greg; Nakashima, Ellen (June 10, 2013). "Investigators looking into how Snowden gained access at NSA". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
University spokesman Brian Ullmann confirmed that in 2005, Snowden worked for less than a year as a 'security specialist' for the school's Center for Advanced Study of Language. The university-affiliated center, founded in 2003, is not a classified facility.
- Darcy, Oliver; Ryan, Josiah. "Police detain reporters, stop them from photographing alleged NSA facility where Snowden worked". Campus Reform. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
- Jacob Jijo (October 11, 2013). "Edward Snowden Scandal: CIA Sent Him Home But NSA Hired Him Later". International Business Times. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Memmott, Mark (June 10, 2013). "Who Is Edward Snowden, The Self-Styled NSA Leaker?". NPR.
- Greenwald, Glenn (2014). No Place to Hide. Metropolitan Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1627790734.
- Bütikofer, Christian (June 10, 2013). "Wie die CIA sich in Genf Bankdaten beschaffte" [How the CIA acquired bank data in Geneva]. Handelszeitung (in German). Zürich.
- Miles, Tom (June 16, 2013). "Swiss president would back criminal probe against NSA leaker". Reuters.
- Harding, Luke (January 31, 2014). "How Edward Snowden went from loyal NSA contractor to whistleblower". The Guardian.
- Hosenball, Mark (August 15, 2013). "Snowden downloaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say". Reuters.
- Drew, Christopher; Scott Shane (July 4, 2013). "Résumé Shows Snowden Honed Hacking Skills". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- See also Edward Jay Epstein interview at 1:25
- Greenberg, Andy (June 18, 2013). "NSA Implementing 'Two-Person' Rule To Stop The Next Edward Snowden". Forbes. New York. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Shane, Scott; Sanger, David E. (June 30, 2013). "Job Title Key to Inner Access Held by Snowden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013.
- "Transcript: ARD interview with Edward Snowden". The Courage Foundation. January 27, 2014.
- Epstein, Edward Jay (June 29, 2014). "Revisiting Snowden's Hong Kong Getaway". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Edward Snowden: NSA whistleblower answers reader questions". The Guardian. London. June 14, 2013.
- Greenwald, Glenn (June 17, 2013). "Edward Snowden Q&A: Dick Cheney traitor charge is 'the highest honor'". London: The Guardian.
- Lam, Lana (June 24, 2013). "Snowden sought Booz Allen job to gather evidence on NSA surveillance." South China Morning Post (Hong Kong).
- Mark Hosenball and Warren Strobel (November 7, 2013), Snowden persuaded other NSA workers to give up passwords – sources Reuters
- Michael, Isikoff (February 12, 2014). "Exclusive: Snowden Swiped Password From NSA Coworker". nbcnews.com. NBC News.
- Nicks, Denver (February 13, 2014). "NSA Memo Says Snowden Tricked Colleague to Get Password". time.com. Time Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- See also Edward Jay Epstein interview at 7:57 "three people said he tricked them in that way"
- Andy Greenberg (December 16, 2013), An NSA Coworker Remembers The Real Edward Snowden: 'A Genius Among Geniuses' Forbes
- Miller, Greg (January 23, 2014). "Snowden denies stealing passwords to access secret files". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Snowden, Edward (January 23, 2014). "Live Q&A with Edward Snowden". Courage Foundation. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015.
- Bacon, John (June 11, 2013). "Contractor fires Snowden from $122,000 per-year job". USA Today.
- Greenberg, Andy (December 16, 2013). "An NSA Coworker Remembers The Real Edward Snowden: 'A Genius Among Geniuses'". Forbes. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gellmann, Barton (December 24, 2013). "Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission's accomplished". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- Cassidy, John (January 23, 2014). "A Vindicated Snowden Says He'd Like to Come Home". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Peterson, Andrea. "Snowden: I raised NSA concerns internally over 10 times before going rogue". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Ellen Nakashima and Barton Gellman (May 29, 2014) U.S. officials, Snowden clash over e-mail records Washington Post
- Hattem, Julian (June 25, 2014). "NSA says it has no record of Snowden challenging spying". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden speaks to the Council of Europe on improving the protection of whistleblowers". The Courage Foundation. June 25, 2014.
- 'Se o Brasil me oferecer asilo, aceito', diz Edward Snowden at 3:03 Rede Globo June 1, 2014
- Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). "Edward Snowden interview – the edited transcript". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). "I, spy: Edward Snowden in exile". The Guardian.
- Mazzetti, Mark and Schmidt, Michael S. (December 14, 2013) Officials Say U.S. May Never Know Extent of Snowden's Leaks. The New York Times
- Cameron Stewart and Paul Maley (December 5, 2013). "Edward Snowden stole up to 20,000 Aussie files". The Australian. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- "David Miranda row: Seized files 'endanger agents'". BBC. August 30, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Hosenball, M. (November 14, 2013). NSA chief says Snowden leaked up to 200,000 secret documents. Reuters.
- Chris Strohm and Del Quentin Wilber (January 10, 2014). "Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most U.S. Secrets Ever: Rogers". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Leopold, Jason (June 4, 2015). "Exclusive: Inside Washington's Quest to Bring Down Edward Snowden". Vice News. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton; Tate, Julie; Soltani, Ashkan (July 5, 2014). "In NSA-intercepted data, those not targeted far outnumber the foreigners who are". The Washington Post.
- Capra, Tony (March 6, 2014). "Snowden Leaks Could Cost Military Billions: Pentagon". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Interview transcript: former head of the NSA and commander of the US cyber command, General Keith Alexander". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.
- Yuhas, Alan. "John Oliver presses Edward Snowden on whether he read all leaked NSA material". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Sanger, David E. (June 29, 2014) New N.S.A. Chief Calls Damage From Snowden Leaks Manageable. The New York Times
- Cooper, Aaron (February 23, 2015). "NSA: Snowden leaks hurt ability to track terrorists". CNN.
- Haynes, Deborah. "Full damage of Snowden leaks revealed". thetimes.co.uk. The Times. Retrieved December 3, 2015.(subscription required)
- "British spies 'moved after Snowden files read'". bbc.com. BBC News.
- Simcox, Robin. "Surveillance after Snowden:Effective Espionage in an Age of Transparency" (PDF). henryjacksonsociety.org. Henry Jackson Society. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- "Snowden leaks: undermining security or defending privacy?". Channel 4. May 26, 2015.
- Risen, James (October 17, 2013). "Snowden Says He Took No Secret Files to Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- Maass, Peter (August 13, 2013). "How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets". The New York Times.
- Reitman, Janet (December 4, 2013). "Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets". Rolling Stone.
- Kevin Poulsen (May 21, 2014) Snowden's First Move Against the NSA Was a Party in Hawaii Wired
- How Edward Snowden led journalist and film-maker to reveal NSA secrets. The Guardian.
- Carmon, Irin (June 10, 2013). "How we broke the NSA story". Salon.
- Packer, George (October 20, 2014). "The Holder of Secrets". Profiles. The New Yorker. 90 (32): 50–59.
- Weinger, Mackenzie (June 10, 2013). "Barton Gellman, Glenn Greenwald feud over NSA leaker". Politico. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton (June 10, 2013). "Code name 'Verax': Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Interview with Whistleblower Edward Snowden on Global Spying". Der Spiegel. July 8, 2013. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2013. (, Page 2, Page 2 Archive) – Originally published in German in Issue 28/2013, July 8, 2013. Snowden interview originally conducted in English, with English version of the article using the original English interview
- Bengali, Shashank; Dilanian, Ken (June 17, 2013). "Edward Snowden vows more disclosures about U.S. surveillance". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Yang, Jia Lynn (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden faces strong extradition treaty if he remains in Hong Kong". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Timeline of Edward Snowden's revelations | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Greenwald: 'Explosive' NSA Spying Reports Are Imminent Der Spiegel July 19, 2013
- "NSA Primary Sources". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Esposito, Richard; Cole, Matthew; Schone, Mark; Greenwald, Glenn. "Snowden docs reveal British spies snooped on YouTube and Facebook". NBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Journalists who broke NSA story in Guardian dedicate award to Snowden". The Guardian. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Edward Snowden's prize". Politico. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- Mirkinson, Jack (April 14, 2014). "The Pulitzer Prizes Just Demolished The Idea That Edward Snowden Is A Traitor". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). "NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton (November 4, 2013). "How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data". The Washington Post.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 8, 2013). "Boundless Informant: the NSA's secret tool to track global surveillance data". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Tim Leslie and Mark Corcoran. "Explained: Australia's involvement with the NSA, the US spy agency at heart of global scandal". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Julian Borger. "GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance". The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
- Weston, Greg; Greenwald, Glenn; Gallagher, Ryan (December 10, 2013). "Snowden document shows Canada set up spy posts for NSA". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
- Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 6, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. London.
- "NSA slides explain the PRISM data-collection program". The Washington Post. July 10, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Levy, Steven (January 7, 2014). "How the NSA Almost Killed the Internet | Threat Level". Wired.
- Shane, Scott; Somaiya, Ravi (June 16, 2013). "New Leak Indicates U.S. and Britain Eavesdropped at '09 World Conferences". The New York Times.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- AFP/The Local (firstname.lastname@example.org). "US spy agency 'taped millions of French calls'". Thelocal.fr. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Chrisafis, Angelique; Jones, Sam. "Snowden leaks: France summons US envoy over NSA surveillance claims". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- France in the NSA's crosshair : phone networks under surveillance. Le Monde.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "XKeyscore: NSA tool collects 'nearly everything a user does on the internet'". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
- Gellman, Barton; Miller, Greg (September 5, 2013). "'Black budget' summary details U.S. spy network's successes, failures and objectives". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Timberg, Craig (August 29, 2013). "NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 30, 2013.
- "Snowden leaks intelligence 'black budget' to Washington Post | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. August 29, 2013.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). "NSA collects millions of e-mail address books globally". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Savage, Charlie (August 8, 2013). "N.S.A. Said to Search Content of Messages to and From U.S." The New York Times.
- Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (December 12, 2013). "NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show". The Washington Post.
- Perlroth, Nicole; Larson, Jeff; Shane, Scott (September 5, 2013). "N.S.A. Able to Foil Basic Safeguards of Privacy on Web". The New York Times.
- Ball, James; Borger, Julian; Greenwald, Glenn (September 5, 2013). "U.S. and UK spy agencies defeat privacy and security on the internet". The Guardian.
- "The Switch". The Washington Post.
- Elliott, Justin; ProPublica; Mazzetti, Mark (December 9, 2013). "World of Spycraft: NSA and CIA Spied in Online Games". Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Newman, Jared. "NSA spied on World of Warcraft, Xbox Live, and Second Life gamers". PC World. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
- Peterson, Andrea (December 31, 2013). "Here's what we learned about the NSA's spying programs in 2013". The Washington Post.
- Gorman, Siobhan (August 23, 2013). "NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests – Washington Wire". The Wall Street Journal.
- Greenwald, Glenn (November 26, 2013). "Top-Secret Document Reveals NSA Spied on Porn Habits As Part of Plan To Discredit 'Radicalizers'". Huffington Post.
- Watts, Jonathan. "NSA accused of spying on Brazilian oil company Petrobras". The Guardian.
- Hall, James; Hopkins, Nick. "GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief". The Guardian.
- Walt, Vivienne. (October 14, 2013) Greenwald on Snowden Leaks: The Worst Is Yet to Come. Time.
- BBC News – Only 1% of Snowden files published – Guardian editor. BBC.co.uk (December 3, 2013).
- Snowden spy leaks: worst yet to come, says Defence Minister David Johnston. The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Allam, Hannah. (October 25, 2013) WASHINGTON: Worlds anger at Obama policies goes beyond Europe and the NSA | Europe. McClatchy DC.
- Weisberg, Timothy. (October 23, 2013) Snowden's Paper Trail: Where in the World Is the NSA?. NBC Bay Area.
- "NSA Hacked Email Account of Mexican President – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. October 20, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- British spy agency taps cables, shares with NSA – Guardian. Reuters.
- Bradsher, Keith (June 14, 2013) Snowden's Leaks on China Could Affect Its Role in His Fate. The New York Times
- Privacy Scandal: NSA Can Spy on Smart Phone Data – SPIEGEL ONLINE. Der Spiegel.de (September 7, 2013).
- Report: US spied on millions of phone calls in Spain over one month. NBC News. Archived October 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts | World news. The Guardian.
- Baker, Luke (October 24, 2013). "Merkel frosty on the U.S. over 'unacceptable' spying allegations". Reuters.
- Traynor, Ian; Lewis, Paul. "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian.
- Poitras, Laura. "'A' for Angela Merkel: GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies". Der Spiegel. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Risen, James and Poitras, Laura (November 22, 2013) N.S.A. Report Outlined Goals for More Power. The New York Times
- Cole, David (May 12, 2014). "'No Place to Hide' by Glenn Greenwald, on the NSA's sweeping efforts to 'Know it All'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- "Snowden: NSA conducts industrial espionage too". CBS News. January 26, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Spähangriffe auf deutsche Firmen". Die Welt. August 11, 2014.
- Nelson, Steven. "Snowden Says 'Many Other' Spy Programs Remain Secret, For Now". US News. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "How the NSA Plans to Infect 'Millions' of Computers with Malware". The Intercept. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Vast majority of NSA spy targets are mistakenly monitored". Philadelphia News.Net. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things' (video). The Guardian. London. June 9, 2013.
- Gellman, Barton. (June 9, 2013) "Code name 'Verax': Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks" Archived December 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. The Washington Post.
- Edward Snowden: US would have buried NSA warnings forever. The Guardian. (October 18, 2013).
- Savage, Charlie (December 16, 2013). "Federal Judge Rules Against N.S.A. Phone Data Program". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Greenberg, Andy (June 6, 2013). "Watch Top U.S. Intelligence Officials Repeatedly Deny NSA Spying On Americans Over The Last Year (Videos)". Forbes. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden-Interview: Transcript". Archived from the original on January 28, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- Peterson, Andrea. "Snowden: I raised NSA concerns internally over 10 times before going rogue." Washington Post. March 7, 2014. Retrieved on March 8, 2014.
- Janet Reitman (December 4, 2013), Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets Rolling Stone
- CNN NEWSROOM Transcripts CNN June 10, 2013
- Pomfret, James (June 24, 2013). "Behind Snowden's Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion". Reuters. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Hodge, Katya (December 2013). "Snowden's Canadian lawyer". National Magazine. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- Lam, Lana (June 12, 2013). "Whistle-blower Edward Snowden tells SCMP: 'Let Hong Kong people decide my fate'". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong.
- Lam, Lana (June 13, 2013). "Whistleblower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post". South China Morning Post.
He vowed to fight any extradition attempt by the U.S. government, saying: 'My intention is to ask the courts and people of Hong Kong to decide my fate. I have been given no reason to doubt your system.'
- Lana Lam (June 12, 2014) Edward Snowden in Hong Kong South China Morning Post
- Eli Lake (June 25, 2013) Greenwald: Snowden's Files Are Out There if 'Anything Happens' to Him The Daily Beast
- Boehler, Patrick (September 7, 2016). "After Edward Snowden Fled U.S., Asylum Seekers in Hong Kong Took Him In". The New York Times.
- Englund, Will (August 26, 2013). "Report: Snowden stayed at Russian consulate while in Hong Kong". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mayer, Jane. "Snowden Calls Russian-Spy Story "Absurd"". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on August 7, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Luhn, Alec. "Edward Snowden passed time in airport reading and surfing internet". The Guardian. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Angela Shunina (September 6, 2013), Snowden "asked Russian diplomats in Hong Kong for help" – Putin Archived September 7, 2013, at Archive.is Russia Beyond the Headlines
- Snowden is in 'safe place' waiting for his father to discuss future Information Telegraph Agency of Russia August 31, 2013
- Putin Admits Early Snowden Contact The Wall Street Journal September 4, 2013
- US revokes NSA leaker Edward Snowden's passport, as he reportedly seeks asylum in Ecuador Fox News Channel June 23, 2013
- Shane, Scott (June 23, 2013). "Offering Snowden Aid, WikiLeaks Gets Back in the Game". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Makinen, Julie (June 23, 2013). "Snowden leaves Hong Kong; final destination unclear". Los Angeles Times.
- Perlez, Jane; Bradsher, Keith (June 24, 2013). "China Said to Have Made Call to Let Leaker Depart". The New York Times. p. A9 (US edition).
- "HKSAR Government issues statement on Edward Snowden" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. June 23, 2013.
- "Snowden left HK lawfully: CE". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 24, 2013.
- "No delay in Snowden case: SJ". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 25, 2013.
- "Hong Kong did not assist Snowden's departure". Global Post. Agence France-Presse. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original on July 12, 2013.
Yuen also said there were discrepancies and missing information in documents used to identify Snowden. 'On the diplomatic documents, James was used as the middle name, on the record upon entering the border, Joseph was used as the middle name, on the American court documents sent to us by the American Justice department, it only said Edward J Snowden,' he said. Hong Kong authorities also noticed that documents produced by the U.S. did not show Snowden's American passport number.
- Luk, Eddie (June 26, 2013). "Justice chief spells it out". The Standard. Hong Kong. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013.
- Daily Press Briefing United States Department of State June 24, 2013
- Pomfret, James; Torode, Greg (June 24, 2013). "Behind Snowden's Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion". Reuters.
- Loiko, Sergei L. (June 23, 2013). "Snowden stopping in Moscow en route to Cuba, Russian says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Edward Snowden lands in Moscow, likely bound for Ecuador. CBS News (June 23, 2013).
- Fidel Castro labels libelous report Cuba blocked Snowden travel Reuters August 28, 2013
- 'Se o Brasil me oferecer asilo, aceito', diz Edward Snowden Rede Globo June 1, 2014
- "United States of Secrets". Frontline. PBS. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- "Snowden "asked Russian diplomats in Hong Kong for help" - Putin". Asia Pacific. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- "Russian media report: How Snowden missed his flight to Cuba". Christian Science Monitor. August 26, 2013.
- "Snowden got stuck in Russia after Cuba blocked entry: newspaper". Reuters. August 26, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Will Englund (August 26, 2013), Snowden stayed at Russian Consulate while in Hong Kong, report says The Washington Post
- "Путин признал: Сноуден – в Москве. И посоветовал США не "стричь поросенка"". NEWSru. June 25, 2013.
- "Putin says Snowden at Russian airport, signals no extradition". Reuters. June 25, 2013.
- Baker, Peter; Barry, Ellen (June 23, 2013). "N.S.A. 'Leaker Leaves Hong Kong, Local Officials Say'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Daily Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 6/24/2013". The White House. June 24, 2013.
- "AP Source: NSA leaker Snowden's passport revoked". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Statement from Edward Snowden in Moscow. Wikileaks.org (July 1, 2013).
- "Did Edward Snowden just evade the US justice system?". MSNBC. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Radia, Kirit. "Edward Snowden Makes No-Leak Promise in Asylum Bid: Lawyer". ABC. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Black, Phil. "Snowden meets with rights groups, seeks temporary asylum in Russia". CNN. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- The Virtual Interview: Edward Snowden at -50:23 The New Yorker October 11, 2014
- Vanden Heuvel, Katrina; Cohen, Stephen F. (October 28, 2014). "Edward Snowden: A 'Nation' Interview". The Nation. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Evo Morales se abre a ceder asilo a Edward Snowden si lo solicita" [Evo Morales prepared to give asylum to Edward Snowden if requested]. El Mercurio (in Spanish). Santiago. EFE. July 1, 2013. Archived from the original on March 16, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Fisher, Max (July 3, 2013). "Evo Morales's controversial flight over Europe, minute by heavily disputed minute". The Washington Post.
- "Spain 'told Edward Snowden was on Bolivia president's plane'". BBC News. July 5, 2013.
- Rerouted Morales plane has South American leaders irate. USA Today. (July 5, 2013).
- "Bolivia Accuses Assange of Putting Evo Morales' Life at Risk". teleSUR. April 13, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden asylum: countries approached and their responses". The Guardian. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Hunt, Gordon (June 5, 2015). "Edward Snowden: I've applied for asylum in 21 countries". Silicon Republic.
- Gladstone, Rick (July 1, 2013). "Snowden Is Said to Claim U.S. Is Blocking Asylum Bids". The New York Times.
- Carroll, Rory; Holpuch, Amanda (June 28, 2013). "Ecuador cools on Edward Snowden asylum as Assange frustration grows". The Guardian. London.
- Carroll, Rory (July 3, 2013). "Ecuador says it blundered over Snowden travel document". The Guardian. London.
- Alleged Snowden Statement: Obama Administration 'Using Citizenship As A Weapon' « CBS DC. Washington.cbslocal.com (July 1, 2013).
- Galeno, Luis. "Venezuela, Nicaragua offer asylum to NSA leaker Snowden". Reuters. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "France rejects Snowden asylum request". United States: Fox News Channel. July 4, 2013.
- "Poland, India, Brazil snub Snowden asylum application". Polish Radio English Section. July 3, 2013.
- "Edward Snowden seeks asylum in 20 nations, but gets no immediate takers". CBS News. July 2, 2013.
- "Italy rejects Snowden asylum request". Reuters. July 4, 2013.
- "Teeven: geen asiel voor Snowden" (in Dutch). Novum Nieuws. July 2, 2013. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013.
- "Snowden gives up Germany asylum hopes". The Local. November 6, 2014.
- Greenwald, Glenn (March 19, 2015). "US Threatened Germany Over Snowden, Vice Chancellor Says". The Intercept. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "Vladimir Putin: Edward Snowden must stop leaking secrets to stay in Russia". Politico. Associated Press. July 1, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Elder, Miriam (July 2, 2013). "Edward Snowden withdraws Russian asylum request". The Guardian.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (July 16, 2013). Leaker Files for Asylum to Remain in Russia The New York Times
- "Edward Snowden's statement to human rights groups in full". The Daily Telegraph. London. July 12, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Stanglin, Doug (July 12, 2013). "Snowden has 'no regrets,' seeks asylum in Russia". USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Fugitive Edward Snowden applies for asylum in Russia". BBC. July 16, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Gabbatt, Adam (July 26, 2013). "US will not seek death penalty for Edward Snowden, Holder tells Russia". The Guardian.
- Neuman, William; Herszenhorn, David M. (July 5, 2013). "Venezuela Offers Asylum to Snowden". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Mohammed, Arshad (July 24, 2013). "U.S. says allowing Snowden to leave airport would be disappointing". Reuters.
- "U.S. vague on whether Obama will go to Moscow amid Snowden flap". Reuters. July 17, 2013.
- "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 7/12/2013". The White House. July 12, 2013.
- Edward Snowden requests temporary asylum in Russia in compromise – Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. (July 16, 2013).
- "US attorney general's letter to Russian justice minister" (PDF). BBC. July 26, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Horwitz, Sari (July 26, 2013). "U.S. won't seek death penalty for Snowden, Holder says in letter to Russian official". The Washington Post.
- "Russia and US security services 'in talks' over Snowden". BBC. July 26, 2013.
- Transcript corrected from "to my benefit" to "to their benefit" per video at 29:20
- Radack, Jesselyn (January 22, 2014). "Jesselyn Radack: Why Edward Snowden Wouldn't Get a Fair Trial". WSJ. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Loiko, Sergei L. (June 23, 2013). "Snowden stopping in Moscow en route to Cuba, Russian says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Makinen, Julie (June 23, 2013). "Snowden leaves Hong Kong; final destination unclear". Los Angeles Times.
- "Snowden out of airport, still in Moscow". CNN. August 2, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden Can Stay in Russia for Three Years, Lawyer Says". NBC News. August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Russia Extends Snowden's Asylum By 'A Couple More Years'". Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- "Edward Snowden's residence permit in Russia extended by a 'couple of years'". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (2017). "Russia Extends Edward Snowden's Asylum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- Gabbatt, Adam (November 25, 2013). "Edward Snowden a 'hero' for NSA disclosures, Wikipedia founder says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014.
- Why Edward Snowden Is a Hero. The New Yorker.
- Oliver Stone defends Edward Snowden over NSA revelations. The Guardian. (July 5, 2013).
- Editorial Board of The New York Times (January 1, 2014). "Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower". The New York Times.
- Mirkinson, Jack (July 8, 2013). "Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden Was Right To Leave The U.S." Huffington Post.
- Amash: Snowden a whistle-blower, 'told us what we need to know'. Fox News (August 4, 2013).
- "As Edward Snowden Receives Asylum in Russia, Poll Shows Americans Sympathetic to NSA 'Whistle-Blower' – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on August 7, 2013.
- "В Госдуме Э.Сноудена назвали новым диссидентом и борцом с системой ("Some in State Duma has called E. Snowden a dissident and fighter against the system")". RBC Daily. July 26, 2013.
Head of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs, Alexei Pushkov, has called Edward Snowden, whistleblower on the US intelligence services, a new dissident fighting the system.[permanent dead link]
- Klein, Ezra. "Edward Snowden, patriot". The Washington Post.
- Timm, Trevor. "Edward Snowden is a patriot". Politico.
- Goodman, Amy. ""Edward Snowden is a Patriot": Ex-NSA CIA, FBI and Justice Whistleblowers Meet Leaker in Moscow". Democracy Now. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- LoGiurato, Brett (June 11, 2013). "John Boehner: Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor'". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Etpatko, Larisa. "Former Defense Secretary Gates calls NSA leaker Snowden a 'traitor'". NewsHour. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- Dann, Carrie (May 28, 2014). "Kerry: Snowden a "Coward" and "Traitor"". NBC News.
- Belvedere, Matthew J. (June 5, 2014). "Snowden a 'traitor': Andreessen". CNBC.
- Mirkinson, Jack (June 10, 2013). "Daniel Ellsberg Calls Edward Snowden A 'Hero,' Says NSA Leak Was Most Important in American History". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Ellsberg, Daniel (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden: saving us from the United Stasi of America". The Guardian. London.
- Blake, Aaron. "Clapper: Leaks are 'literally gut-wrenching,' leaker being sought". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Ex-CIA director: Snowden should be 'hanged' if convicted for treason". Fox News Channel. December 17, 2013.
- Dilanian, Ken (January 9, 2014). "Snowden leaks severely hurt U.S. security, two House members say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Transcript Of President Obama's Speech On NSA Reforms NPR January 17, 2014
- "Ron Paul starts Snowden clemency petition". Yahoo. Associated Press. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Lee, Timothy. "The Switchboard: Ron Paul starts petition for Snowden clemency". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- Hartmann, Margaret (February 5, 2014). "Booz Allen Exec Describes How Snowden Deceived His Former Employer". New York. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Jimmy Carter: If I Were President, I Would Consider Pardoning Snowden". Medialite. April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- "Hillary Clinton: Edward Snowden's Leaks Helped Terrorists". NationalJournal.com. April 25, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Greenwood, Phoebe (July 4, 2014). "Edward Snowden should have right to legal defence in US, says Hillary Clinton". The Guardian.
- "Kerry: Edward Snowden should "man up" and come home". CBS News. May 28, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- MacAskill, Ewen. "Edward Snowden's NSA leaks 'an important service', says Al Gore". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Whitlock, Craig (December 5, 2014). "Ashton Carter, passed over before, gets picked by Obama to be defense secretary". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Rieder: Snowden's NSA bombshell sparks debate. USA Today. (June 12, 2013).
- Spy chief lauds Snowden-sparked debate .. The Australian (August 29, 2013).
- Pecquet, Julian (June 27, 2013). "US won't 'scramble jets' to capture 'hacker' Snowden, Obama says". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Obama refuses to barter for Edward Snowden". BBC News. June 27, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- "Obama downplays Snowden case, says US not 'scrambling jets' to get 'hacker'". Fox News Channel. June 27, 2013.
- Wolf, Z. Byron (August 13, 2013). "Fact-checking Obama's claims about Snowden". CNN.
- David Remnick (January 27, 2014) Going the Distance: On and off the road with Barack Obama The New Yorker
- "Why I Don't Care About Edward Snowden". Sen. Bernie Sanders. June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Snowden bides for political asylum in Brazil - The Washington Post". December 17, 2013. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013.
- Jaffe, Matthew (May 30, 2016). "Eric Holder says Edward Snowden performed a 'public service'". cnn.com. Cable News Network (CNN). Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Executive Summary of Review of the Unauthorized Disclosures of Former National Security Agency Contractor Edward Snowden" (PDF). United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. September 15, 2016.
- "Hollywood and Washington battle to define Snowden's image". The Christian Science Monitor. September 16, 2016.
- Barton Gellman (September 16, 2016), The House Intelligence Committee’s Terrible, Horrible, Very Bad Snowden Report The Century Foundation
- MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2013). "White House insists James Clapper will not lead NSA surveillance review". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Farivar, Cyrus (August 23, 2013). "Obama's 'outside experts' surveillance review panel has deep ties to gov't". Ars Technica.
- Sanger, David E.; Savage, Charlie (December 18, 2013). "Obama panel recommends new limits on N.S.A. spying". The New York Times.
- "NSA program stopped no terror attacks, says White House panel member – Investigations". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013.
- Nakashima, Ellen (December 17, 2013). "Judge: NSA's collecting of phone records is probably unconstitutional". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Byers, Dylan. "Edward Snowden looms over Pulitzer Prizes". Politico. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Liptak, Adam (December 27, 2013). "Judge Upholds NSA's Bulk Collection of Data on Calls". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "A Tale of Two Judges". The Weekly Standard. January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "U.S. NSA's phone spying program ruled illegal by appeals court". Reuters. May 7, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- Diamond, Jeremy. "NSA surveillance bill passes after weeks-long showdown". CNN. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
The bill's passage is the culmination of efforts to reform the NSA that blossomed out of NSA leaker Edward Snowden's 2013 revelations.
- "Senate Approves USA Freedom Act, After Amendments Fail : The Two-Way : NPR". NPR.org. June 2, 2015.
- "German Constitutional Protection: Snowden could be Russian spy (German)". June 10, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Knobbe, Martin; Schindler, Jörg (September 12, 2017). "Interview with Edward Snowden: 'There Is Still Hope - Even for Me'". Spiegel Online. p. 2.
- Williams, Carol J. (December 19, 2013). "U.N. votes to protect online privacy; Edward Snowden leaks credited". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- UN advances digital privacy resolution after reports of US eavesdropping. Fox News (November 26, 2013).
- "United Nations Resolution 68/167M". United Nations. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
- "Latin American leaders have expressed support for whistleblower". Buenos Aires Herald. June 4, 2015.
- "Ecuador's president to U.S.: Don't threaten us on Snowden case". CNN. June 28, 2013
- Froomkin, Dan (October 23, 2015). "U.N. Report Calls on Governments to Protect Whistleblowers Like Snowden, Not Prosecute Them". The Intercept.
- "Report of the Special Rapporteur to the General Assembly on the Protection of Sources and Whistleblowers". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
- "European parliament invites Edward Snowden to testify via video". The Guardian. Associated Press (Brussels). January 9, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Peter, Gregor (December 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden to Make Video Appearance to European Parliament". Der Spiegel.
- Peralta, Eyder (March 7, 2014). "Edward Snowden Tells EU Parliament He Wants Asylum In Europe". NPR.
- Essers, Loek. "NSA created 'European bazaar' to spy on EU citizens, Snowden tells European Parliament". PSWorld. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Doctorow, Cory. "Edward Snowden's magnificent testimony to the EU". BoingBoing. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- Edward Snowden voted Guardian person of the year 2013 The Guardian December 9, 2013
- Griggs, Brandon; Gross, Doug (March 10, 2014). "Edward Snowden speaks at SXSW, calls for public oversight of U.S. spy programs". CNN Tech. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- DeLuca, Dan (March 12, 2014). "NSA leaker Snowden is the rock star of SXSW Interactive". The Inquirer. Philly.com.
- Clark, Liat (March 10, 2014). "Snowden: the NSA is 'setting fire to the future of the internet'". Wired. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016.
- Garling, Caleb (March 11, 2014). "Edward Snowden pushes Web privacy at South by Southwest". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Rowan, David (March 18, 2014). "Snowden: Big revelations to come, reporting them is not a crime". Wired. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Wohlsen, Marcus (March 18, 2014). "Ed Snowden Meets the Father of the World Wide Web". Wired.
- Safi, Michael; Parkinson, Hannah Jane (September 15, 2014). "Kim Dotcom accuses New Zealand government of mass spying – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden tells students mass data collection can hamper attempts to foil attacks". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 2, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (March 6, 2015). "Edward Snowden Wants Switzerland To Grant Him Asylum". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- "Secret Sources: Whistleblowers, National Security, and Free Expression". PEN America. PEN America. November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
- Isikoff, Michael; Kelley, Michael B. (August 11, 2016). "In exile, Edward Snowden rakes in speaking fees while hoping for a pardon". Yahoo! News.
- Snowden, Edward; Daniel Kahn Gillmor. "Libreplanet 2016: The Last Lighthouse: Free Software In Dark Times" (video, WebM). media.libreplanet.org. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Nicholson, Deb (March 29, 2016). "LibrePlanet begins with Snowden, ends with DRM protest". opensource.com. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Gold, Jon (March 19, 2016). "Edward Snowden: Privacy can't depend on corporations standing up to the government". networkworld.com. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Popa, Bogdan (March 22, 2016). "Snowden Used Free Software Because He Was Afraid of Backdoors in Microsoft Apps". SoftPedia News. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden attended the Free Software Foundation LibrePlanet 2016 conference remotely from Russia to discuss the advantages of free applications, explaining that he couldn’t trust Microsoft software when revealing government's surveillance programs in 2013.
- Snowden, Edward; Huang, Andrew (bunnie) (July 21, 2016). "Against the Law: Countering Lawful Abuses of Digital Surveillance". PubPub. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Lee, Micah (July 21, 2016). "Edward Snowden's New Research Aims to Keep Smartphones From Betraying Their Owners". The Intercept. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Greenberg, Andy. "Snowden Designs a Device to Warn if Your iPhone's Radios Are Snitching". Wired. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Mott, Nathaniel (July 21, 2016). "Edward Snowden designs phone case to show when data is being monitored". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Palazzo, Chiara. "Edward Snowden co-designs an iPhone case that alerts user to surveillance activity". The Telegraph. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Rosen, Jay. "The Snowden Effect: definition and examples". Jay Rosen's PressThink. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
- Alterman, Eric. "What the Press Should Learn From the 'Snowden Effect'". The Nation. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Watson, Tom. "The Snowden Effect Hits Congress: Will Effective Crowdsourced Lobbying Follow?". Forbes. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Global Opposition to U.S. Surveillance and Drones, but Limited Harm to America's Image". Pew Research Center. July 14, 2014.
- "Citizenfour (2014) Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Snowden (2016)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- Hughes, Sarah Anne. "More Snowden Bus Ads Coming To D.C." DCist. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Yes, already: Two video games about Edward Snowden and stealthy data". NBC News. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Sundby, Alex. "Edward Snowden cast as hero in smartphone game". CNET. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Glenn Greenwald. "No Place to Hide". macmillan.com. Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
- Flood, Alison. "Edward Snowden gets his own graphic biography". The Guardian. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- Sharp, Tyler (February 9, 2015). "Rivers Cuomo guests on new Big Data track, "Snowed In"". Alternative Press. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- "Edward Snowden hooked up with a French electronica artist to cut a track about cybersecurity". Quartz. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Montemarano, Mike. "'Blood on the Sand:' A Conversation With Thrice". Baeble Music. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- Sifferlin, Alexandra (April 6, 2015). "New York City Takes Down Edward Snowden Statue Erected By Guerilla Artists". Time. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Statues Of Whistleblowers Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Bradley Manning Unveiled in Berlin, Germany at Inquisitr.com; published May 2, 2015; retrieved May 5, 2015
- Mullin, Joe. "Ed Snowden joins Twitter, follows only the NSA". Ars Technica. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Haq, Husna. "Edward Snowden just joined Twitter. He's already creating a stir (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Dilanian, Ken. Dilanian, Ken (December 22, 2013). "A spy world reshaped by Edward Snowden". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 11, 2015. December 22, 2013.
- Duns, Jeremy (November 25, 2014). News of Devils: The Media and Edward Snowden. Seattle, Washington: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
- Greenwald, Glenn (May 13, 2014). No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State. London: Hamish Hamilton.
- Gurnow, Michael (April 1, 2014). The Edward Snowden Affair: Exposing the Media and Politics Behind the NSA Scandal. Indianapolis: Blue River Press.
- Harding, Luke (February 6, 2014). The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man. London: Guardian Faber.
- Lanchester, John. "The Snowden files: why the British public should be worried about GCHQ". The Guardian. Retrieved April 11, 2015. October 3, 2013.
- Lucas, Edward (January 23, 2014). The Snowden Operation: Inside the West's Greatest Intelligence Disaster. Amazon Kindle Single.
- Margulies, Joseph. "The Promise of May, the Betrayal of June, and the Larger Lesson of Manning and Snowden." Verdict. Justia. July 17, 2013.
- Official website
- Edward Snowden on Twitter
- "NSA leaks: a timeline". Al Jazeera. Retrieved April 11, 2015. November 1, 2013
- "The NSA Files". The Guardian. London. June 5, 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2015. (Index of articles)
- Nakashima, Ellen (June 9, 2013). "NSA Secrets". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved April 11, 2015. (Index of articles)
- "Global Surveillance" An annotated and categorized "overview of the revelations following the leaks by the whistleblower Edward Snowden. There are also some links to comments and followups." By Oslo University Library
- "The NSA Archive" American Civil Liberties Union searchable database of NSA documents disclosed by Edward Snowden, as published between June 5, 2013, and May 6, 2014
- Book documents 107 additional pages from the Snowden archive released on May 13, 2014, in conjunction with publication of Glenn Greenwald's No Place to Hide
- Snowden documents at Internet Archive
- Edward Snowden at TED
- Appearances on C-SPAN