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Semiramis depicted as an armed Amazon in this 18th-century Italian illustration

Semiramis (Assyrian;ܫܲܡܝܼܪܵܡ Shamiram, /səˈmɪrəmɪs, sɪ-, sɛ-/;[1] Greek: Σεμίραμις, Armenian: Շամիրամ Shamiram) was the legendary[2][3] Lydian-Babylonian[4][5] wife of Onnes and Ninus, succeeding the latter to the throne of Assyria.[6]

The legends narrated by Diodorus Siculus, who drew from the works of Ctesias of Cnidus[7] describes her and her relationships to Onnes and King Ninus, a mythical king of Assyria not attested in the far older and more comprehensive Assyrian King List.[8]

The real and historical Shammuramat (the original Akkadian and Aramaic form of the name) was the Assyrian wife of Shamshi-Adad V (ruled 824 BC–811 BC), king of Assyria and ruler of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and its regent for five years until her son Adad-nirari III came of age and took the reins of power.[9]

The indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey, and northwest Iran still use Semiramis (also Shamiram) as a given name for female children.[10]

The name of Semiramis came to be applied to various monuments in Western Asia and Asia Minor, the origin of which was forgotten or unknown.[11] Nearly every stupendous work of antiquity by the Euphrates or in Iran seems to have ultimately been ascribed to her, even the Behistun Inscription of Darius.[12] Herodotus ascribes to her the artificial banks that confined the Euphrates[13] and knows her name as borne by a gate of Babylon.[14] Various places in Assyria and throughout Mesopotamia as a whole, Media, Persia, the Levant, Asia Minor, Arabia, and the Caucasus bore the name of Semiramis, but slightly changed, even in the Middle Ages, and an old name of the Armenian city of Van was Shamiramagerd (in Armenian it means created by Semiramis).

Contents

Historical figureEdit

 
Approximate area controlled by Assyria in 824 BC (darker green).

While the achievements of Semiramis are clearly in the realm of mythical Persian, Armenian and Greek historiography, the historical Assyrian queen Shammuramat (Semiramis), wife of Shamshi-Adad V (and not the fictional Ninus) of Assyria, certainly existed. After her husband's death, she served as regent from 811–806 BC for her son, Adad-nirari III.[9]

Shammuramat would have thus been briefly in control of the vast Neo Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), which stretched from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to the Arabian Peninsula in the south, and western Iran in the east to Cyprus in the west.

Georges Roux speculated that the later Greek and Indo-Iranian (Persian and Median) flavoured myths surrounding Semiramis stem from successful campaigns she waged against these peoples, and the novelty of a woman ruling such an empire.[15]

Biography according to Diodorus SiculusEdit

 
The Shepherd finds the Babe Semiramis by Ernest Wallcousins (1915).

According to the legend as related by Diodorus, Semiramis was of noble parents, the daughter of the fish-goddess Derketo of Ascalon in Assyria and a mortal. Derketo abandoned her at birth and drowned herself. Doves fed the child until Simmas, the royal shepherd, found and raised her.

Semiramis then married Onnes or Menones, one of Ninus' generals. Ninus was so struck by her bravery at the capture of Bactra that he tried to compel Onnes to "yield her to him of his own accord, offering in return for this favor to give him his own daughter Sonanê to wife". [16] When Onnes refused to exchange his wife for the king's daughter, Ninus "threatened to put out his eyes unless he at once acceded to his commands".

Onnes, out of fear of the king, and out of doomed passion for his wife, "fell into a kind of frenzy and madness", and hanged himself. Ninus then married her.[17]

Semiramis and Ninus had a son named Ninyas. After King Ninus conquered Asia, including the Bactrians, he was fatally wounded by an arrow. Semiramis then masqueraded as her son and tricked her late husband's army into following her instructions because they thought these came from their new ruler. After Ninus's death she reigned as queen regnant for 42 years, conquering much of Asia.

Semiramis restored ancient Babylon and protected it with a high brick wall that completely surrounded the city. Then she built several palaces in Persia, including Ecbatana. Diodorus also attributes the Behistun inscription to her, now known to have been done under Darius I of Persia. She not only reigned Asia effectively but also added Libya and Aethiopia to the empire. She then went to war with king Stabrobates (Sthabarpati) of India, having her artisans create an army of false elephants to deceive the Indians into thinking she had acquired real elephants. This succeeded at first, but then she was wounded in the counterattack and her army again retreated west of the Indus.

Other sourcesEdit

She is also credited with inventing the chastity belt. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus credits her as the first person to castrate a male youth into eunuch-hood: "Semiramis, that ancient queen who was the first person to castrate male youths of tender age"[18]

The association of the fish and dove is found at Hierapolis Bambyce (Mabbog), the great temple which, according to one legend, was founded by Semiramis,[19] where her statue was shown with a golden dove on her head.[20]

In Armenian legendEdit

 
Semiramis staring at the corpse of Ara the Beautiful. Painting by Vardges Sureniants (1860-1921).

Armenian tradition portrays her as a homewrecker and a harlot. These facts are partly to be explained by observing that, according to the legends, in her birth as well as in her disappearance from earth, Semiramis appears as a goddess, the daughter of the fish-goddess Atargatis, and herself connected with the doves of Ishtar or Astartë.

One of the most popular legends in Armenian tradition involves Semiramis and an Armenian king, Ara the Beautiful. In the 20th century, the poet Nairi Zarian retold the story of Ara the Beautiful and Shamiram, in a work considered to be a masterpiece of Armenian literary drama.[21]

According to the legend, Semiramis had heard about the fame of the handsome Armenian king Ara, and she lusted after his image. Semiramis was enamored with Ara's vigorous physical power and so sought to consummate with him. She asked Ara to marry her, but he refused; upon hearing this, she gathered the armies of Assyria and marched against Armenia.

During the battle Ara was slain by Semiramis. To avoid continuous warfare with the Armenians, Semiramis, reputed to be a sorceress, took his body and prayed to the gods to raise Ara from the dead. When the Armenians advanced to avenge their leader, she disguised one of her lovers as Ara and spread the rumor that the gods had brought Ara back to life, ending the war.[22] Although many different versions of the legend exist, they agree that Ara never came back to life.

In later traditionsEdit

  • In the Divine Comedy, Dante sees Semiramis among the souls of the lustful in the Second Circle of Hell:

And as the cranes go chanting forth their lays,
Making in air a long line of themselves,
So saw I coming, uttering lamentations,

Shadows borne onward by the aforesaid stress.
Whereupon said I: “Master, who are those
People, whom the black air so castigates?”

“The first of those, of whom intelligence
Thou fain wouldst have”, then said he unto me,
“The empress was of many languages.

To sensual vices she was so abandoned,
That lustful she made licit in her law,
To remove the blame to which she had been led.

She is Semiramis, of whom we read
That she succeeded Ninus, and was his spouse;

She held the land which now the Sultan rules.”[23]

Hislop's goddess claimEdit

 
Semiramis hearing of the insurrection at Babylon by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, 1624 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).

The nineteenth-century Scottish minister Alexander Hislop claimed in his book The Two Babylons (1853) that Semiramis was an actual person in ancient Mesopotamia who invented polytheism and, with it, goddess worship.[27] Modern scholars have unanimously rejected the book's arguments as erroneous and based on a flawed understanding of the texts,[28][29] but variations of them are accepted among some groups of evangelical Protestants.[28][29]

Hislop believed that Semiramis was a consort and mother of Nimrod, builder of the Bible's Tower of Babel, although biblical mention of consorts to Nimrod is lacking.[28] Hislop believed Semiramis and Nimrod's incestuous male offspring to be the Akkadian deity Tammuz, a god of vegetation, as well as a life-death-rebirth deity. Hislop maintained that all divine pairings in religions, such as Isis and Osiris and Aphrodite and Cupid, are retellings of the tale of Semiramis and Tammuz. Hislop took literary references to Osiris and Orion as "seed of woman" as evidence in support of his thesis. This all led up to Hislop's central claim: that the Catholic Church is a veiled continuation of the pagan religion of ancient Babylon, the product of a millennia-old secret conspiracy founded by Semiramis and Nimrod.[28]

Hislop's claims are still circulated among some groups of evangelical Protestants,[28][29] in the form of Jack Chick tracts,[30] comic books, and related media. Author and conspiracy theorist David Icke incorporates Hislop's claims about Semiramis into his book The Biggest Secret, claiming that Semiramis also had a key role in the Reptilian alien conspiracy that he asserts is secretly controlling humanity.[31]

Scholars have dismissed Hislop's speculations as incorrect and based on misunderstandings.[28][29] Lester L. Grabbe has highlighted the fact that Hislop's argument, particularly his association of Ninus with Nimrod, is based on a misunderstanding of historical Babylon and its religion.[28] Grabbe also criticizes Hislop for portraying Semiramis as Nimrod's consort, despite the fact that she is never even mentioned in a single text associated with him,[28] and for portraying her as the "mother of harlots", even though this is not how she is depicted in any of the texts where she is mentioned.[28] Ralph Woodrow has stated that Alexander Hislop was an exceptionally poor researcher who "picked, chose and mixed" portions of various unrelated myths from many different cultures.[32]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 
  2. ^ "Semiramis was an invention of the Greek legend only" observes Robin Lane Fox (Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:176)
  3. ^ Reinhard Bernbeck (2008). "Sexgender, Power And Sammuramat: A View From The Syrian Steppe'". In Bonatz, Dominik; Czichon, Rainer M; Kreppner, F Janoscha. Fundstellen: Gesammelte Schriften Zur Archaologie Und Geschichte Altvorderasiens. Ad Honorem Hartmut Kuhne. Harrassowitz. p. 352. ISBN 978-3447057707. Retrieved 18 March 2017. 
  4. ^ Creighton M.A. L.L.D., Rev. Mandell (1888). The Historical Review. 3. London & New York: Longmans, Green, And Co. p. 112. 
  5. ^ Yehoshua, Avram (June 7, 2011). The Lifting of the Veil: Acts 15:20-21. Trafford Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1426972034. 
  6. ^ Bernbeck 2008, p. 353.
  7. ^ Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History, Book II, Chapters 1-22
  8. ^ http://www.aina.org/aol/kinglist
  9. ^ a b "Sammu-ramat (queen of Assyria)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  10. ^ http://www.atour.com/education/assyriannames.html
  11. ^ See Strabo xvi. I. 2
  12. ^ Diodorus Siculus ii. 3
  13. ^ i. 184
  14. ^ iii. 155
  15. ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
  16. ^ Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History, Book II, Chapter 6
  17. ^ The Library of History by Diodorus Siculus, Vol. 1, The Loeb Classical Library, 1933, p. 371. Retrieved on 2015-03-08 from http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodorus_Siculus/2A*.html.
  18. ^ Lib. XIV.
  19. ^ Lucian, De dea Syria, 14
  20. ^ Lucian, De dea Syria, 33, 39
  21. ^ Rossini, Gioachino (September 18, 2016). "Semiramide". www.bible-history.com. Retrieved 2016-09-19. 
  22. ^ "The Origins". ArmenianHistory.info. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  23. ^ Canto V, lines 48 to 62
  24. ^ Tracking the Wild Allusions in Silverlock: The Way of Choice. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
  25. ^ Martin E Malia Russia under Western Eyes: From the Bronze Horseman to the Lenin Mausoleum. Harvard University Press, Jun 30, 2009 pg. 47
  26. ^ William Russell and Charles Coote The History of Modern Europe. A. Small, 1822 pg.379
  27. ^ Hislop, Alexander. "The Two Babylons". Philologos.org. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i Grabbe, Lester L. (1997). Mein, Andrew; Camp, Claudia V., eds. Can a 'History of Israel' Be Written?. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0567043207. 
  29. ^ a b c d Mcllhenny, Albert M. (2011). This Is the Sun?: Zeitgeist and Religion (Volume I: Comparative Religion). p. 60. ISBN 978-1-105-33967-7. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  30. ^ "Man in Black ©2003 by Jack T. Chick LLC". Chick.com. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  31. ^ David Icke, The Biggest Secret, 52-54
  32. ^ Ralph Woodrow "THE TWO BABYLONS: A Case Study in Poor Methodology", in Christian Research Journal volume 22, number 2 (2000) of the (Article DC187)

BibliographyEdit

Primary sourcesEdit

  • Paulinus Minorita, Compendium
  • Eusebius, Chronicon 20.13-17, 19-26
  • Orosius, Historiae adversus paganos i.4, ii.2.5, 6.7
  • Justinus, Epitome Historiarum philippicarum Pompei Trogi i.2
  • Valerius Maximus, Factorum et dictorum memorabilium libri ix.3, ext 4

Secondary sourcesEdit

BERINGER, A. 2016. The Sight of Semiramis: Medieval and Early Modern Narratives of the Babylonian Queen. Tempe: Arizona State University Press.

External linksEdit