This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy (excision of both testes), and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization (preventing the castrated person or animal from reproducing); it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering.
The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying. Estrogen levels drop precipitously following oophorectomy, and long-term effects of the reduction of sex hormones are significant throughout the body.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Castration was frequently used for religious or social reasons in certain cultures in Europe, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia. After battles in some cases, winners castrated their captives or the corpses of the defeated to symbolize their victory and seize their "power". Castrated men — eunuchs – were often admitted to special social classes and were used particularly to staff bureaucracies and palace households: in particular, the harem. Castration also figured in a number of religious castration cults. Other religions, such as Judaism, were strongly opposed to the practice. The Leviticus Holiness code, for example, specifically excludes eunuchs or any males with defective genitals from the priesthood, just as castrated animals are excluded from sacrifice.
In ancient times, castration often involved the total removal of all the male genitalia. This involved great danger of death due to bleeding or infection and, in some states, such as the Byzantine Empire, was seen as the same as a death sentence. Removal of only the testicles had much less risk.
Either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration may be carried out in the case of prostate cancer. Testosterone-depletion treatment (either surgical removal of both testicles or chemical castration) is used to slow down the cancer, greatly reduce sex drive or interest in those with sexual drives, obsessions, or behaviors, or any combination of those that may be considered deviant.
Trans women often undergo orchiectomy, as do some other transgender people. Orchiectomy may be performed as part of a more general sex reassignment surgery, either before or during other procedures. It may also be performed on someone who does not desire, or cannot afford, further surgery.
Involuntary castration appears in the history of warfare, sometimes used by one side to torture or demoralize their enemies. It was practiced to extinguish opposing male lineages and thus allow the victor to sexually possess the defeated group's women.
William Wallace, the Scottish resistance leader, was castrated as part of his execution, for resistance to English rule.
Wim Deetman was criticized by the Dutch parliament for excluding evidence of castration in his report on sexual abuse by the Roman Catholic Church, where ten children were allegedly "punished" by castration in the 1950s for reporting sexual abuse by Roman Catholic priests. However, the Deetman Commission had rejected it as the person who reported the incident admitted it was speculative. Voluntary castration for homosexuality was also state policy in Netherlands at that point, as well against Catholic canon law, and there has been no evidence suggesting the Church had a part in organizing the procedures. Chemical castration has been and is used as part of sentencing in criminal cases.
In 1952, Alan Turing—the father of computer science and the inventor of the Turing machine—was criminally prosecuted for homosexual acts and chose chemical castration as an alternative to a period of imprisonment.
According to legend, during the reign of the legendary Emperor Shun and Yu in China, in 2281 BCE castration was passed into law as a punishment, which remained so until the reign of Gaozu of Tang (589–600 CE). However, it was still practiced after his reign. According to historians, it was incorporated into Chinese law during the Zhou Dynasty. It was one of the five physical punishments that could be legally inflicted on criminals in China.
During the reign of Mu of the Zhou Dynasty (10th c. BCE) the Minister of Crime, Marquis Lu, reformed the law in 950 BC to make it easier for people to be sentenced to castration instead of death. As long as the practice existed in China, not only were the testicles merely removed but castration included the severing of one's entire genitalia. Both organs were cut off with a knife at the same time.
Men were castrated and made into state slaves during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) to perform forced labor for projects such as the Terracotta Army. The Qin government confiscated the property and enslaved the families of rapists who received castration as a punishment. Men punished with castration during the Han dynasty were also used as slave labor.
In the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), castration continued to be used as a punishment for various offences. Sima Qian, the famous Chinese historian, was castrated by order of the Han Emperor of China for dissent. In another incident multiple people, including a chief scribe and his underlings, were subjected to castration.
During the early part of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 CE), China demanded eunuchs to be sent as tribute from Korea. Some of them oversaw the Korean concubines in the harem of the Chinese Emperor.
When the Chinese overthrew Mongol rule, many Mongols were castrated and turned into eunuchs. When the Ming army finally captured Yunnan from Mongols in 1382, thousands of prisoners were killed and, according to the custom in times of war, their young sons—including Zheng He—were castrated.
During the Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty), Chinese commanders castrated thousands of Miao boys when their tribes revolted, and then distributed them as eunuch slaves as gifts to various officials.
Many of the non-Han Chinese peoples who founded states in China after invading originally did not have eunuchs as part of their culture, but adopted it from the Han Chinese.
The Khitan people adopted the practice of using eunuchs from the Chinese and the eunuchs used were non-Khitan prisoners of war. The Khitan were a nomadic Mongolic people and originally did not have eunuchs as part of their culture. When the Khitan founded the Liao Dynasty they developed a harem system with concubines and wives and adopted eunuchs as part of it. All of the eunuchs were captured ethnic Chinese from the Central Plains that came from two sources. The Khitan captured Chinese people who were already eunuchs at the Jin court when they invaded of the Later Jin. Another source was during their war with the Chinese Song dynasty, the Khitan would raid China, capture Han Chinese boys as prisoners of war and emasculate them to become eunuchs. The emasculation of captured Chinese boys guaranteed a continuous supply of eunuchs to serve in the Liao Dynasty harem. The Empress Dowager Chengtian played a large role in the raids to capture and emasculate the boys.
The Khitan Empress Dowager Xiao Chuo (Chengtian) of the Khitan Liao state took power at age 30 in 982 as a regent for her son. She personally led her own army against the Song Chinese in 986 and defeated them in battle, fighting the retreating Chinese army. She then ordered the castration of around 100 ethnic Chinese boys she had captured in China, supplementing the Khitan's supply of eunuchs to serve at her court, among them was Wang Ji'en. The boys were all under ten years old and were selected for their good looks.
The History of Liao 遼史 described and praised Empress Chengtian's capture and mass castration of Chinese boys in a biography on the Chinese eunuch Wang Ji'en.
Some legends say that the Mongol Genghis Khan was castrated by a Tangut princess using a knife, who wanted revenge against his treatment of the Tanguts and to stop him from raping her.
During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911 CE), the sons and grandsons of the rebel Yaqub Beg in China were all sentenced to castration. Surviving members of Yaqub Beg's family included his 4 sons, 4 grandchildren (2 grandsons and 2 granddaughters), and 4 wives. They either died in prison in Lanzhou, Gansu, or were killed by the Chinese. His sons Yima Kuli, K'ati Kuli, Maiti Kuli, and grandson Aisan Ahung were the only survivors in 1879. They were all underage children, and put on trial, sentenced to an agonizing death if they were complicit in their father's rebellious "sedition", or if they were innocent of their fathers crimes, were to be sentenced to castration and serving as a eunuch slave to Chinese troops, when they reached 11 years old, and handed over to the Imperial Household to be executed or castrated. Although some sources assert that the sentence of castration was carried out, official sources from the U.S. State Department and activists involved in the incident state that Yaqub Beg's son and grandsons had their sentence commuted to life imprisonment with a fund provided for their support. The last remaining Imperial eunuch, Sun Yaoting, died in 1996.
The eunuchs of Korea, called Naesi (내시, 內侍), were officials to the king and other royalty in traditional Korean society. The first recorded appearance of a Korean eunuch was in Goryeosa ("History of Goryeo"), a compilation about the Goryeo period. In 1392, with the founding of the Joseon Dynasty, the Naesi system was revised, and the department was renamed the "Department of Naesi" (내시부, 內侍府).
The Naesi system included two ranks, those of Sangseon (상선, 尙膳, "Chief of Naesi"), who held the official title of senior second rank, and Naegwan (내관, 內官, "Common official naesi"), both of which held rank as officers. 140 naesi in total served the palace in Joseon Dynasty period. They also took the exam on Confucianism every month. The naesi system was repealed in 1894 following Gabo reform.
According to legend, castration consisted of daubing a boy's genitals with human feces and having a dog bite them off. During the Yuan Dynasty, eunuchs became a desirable commodity for tributes, and dog bites were replaced by more sophisticated surgical techniques.
The Vietnamese adopted the eunuch system and castration techniques from China. Records show that the Vietnamese created eunuchs through castration in a painful procedure by removing the entire genitalia with both penis and testicles being cut off with a sharp knife or metal blade. The procedure was agonizing since the entire penis was cut off. The young man's thighs and abdomen would be tied and others would pin him down on a table. The genitals would be sterilized with pepper water and then cut off. A tube would be then inserted into the urethra to allow urination during healing. Any facial hair such as the beard would fall off and the eunuch's voice would become like a girl's. The eunuchs served as slaves to the Vietnamese palace women in the harem like the consorts, concubines, maids, Queen, and Princesses, doing most of the work. The only man allowed in the Palace was the Emperor, the only others allowed were his women and the eunuchs since they were not able to have sexual relations with the women. The eunuchs were assigned to do work for the palace women like massaging and applying make up to the women and preparing them for sex with the Emperor.
The Trần Dynasty sent Vietnamese boy eunuchs as tribute to Ming Dynasty China several times, in 1383, 1384 and 1385 Nguyen Dao, Nguyen Toan, Tru Ca, and Ngo Tin were among several Vietnamese eunuchs sent to China.
During the Fourth Chinese domination of Vietnam, the Ming Chinese under the Yongle Emperor castrated many young Vietnamese boys, choosing them for their handsomeness and ability, and brought them to Nanjing to serve as eunuchs. Among them were the architect-engineer Nguyễn An and Nguyen Lang (阮浪). Vietnamese were among the many eunuchs of different origins found at Yongle's court. Among the eunuchs in charge of the Capital Battalions of Beijing was Xing An, a Vietnamese.
In the Lê Dynasty the Vietnamese Emperor Lê Thánh Tông was aggressive in his relations with foreign countries including China. A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during his reign. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that the Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in trade between China and Vietnam instead of actually being blown off course by the wind and they were punished as part of a crackdown on foreign trade by Vietnam.
Several Malay envoys from the Malacca sultanate were attacked and captured in 1469 by the Lê Dynasty of Annam (Vietnam) as they were returning to Malacca from China. The Vietnamese enslaved and castrated the young from among the captured.
A 1472 entry in the Ming Shilu reported that when some Chinese from Nanhai county escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out up to 100 Chinese men remained captives in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries. China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration.
A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that 13 Chinese men from Wenchang including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong's Qin subprefecture (Qinzhou), after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, during the Chenghua Emperor's rule (1447–1487). Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, while the youngest, Wu Rui (吳瑞) was selected for castration since he was the only young man and he became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thang Long. After years of service, he was promoted at the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497 to a military position in northern Vietnam. A soldier told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang magistrate and then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the palace.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Dai Viet (now Quảng Ninh Province) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Le Thanh Tong. This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.
Commoners were banned from undergoing castration in Vietnam, only adult men of high social rank could be castrated, most eunuchs were born as such with a congenital abnormality. The Vietnamese government mandated that boys born with defective genitalia were to be reported to officials, in exchange for the town being freed from mandatory labor requirements. The boy would have the option of serving as a eunuch official or serving the palace women when he became ten years old. This law was put in place in 1838 during the Nguyễn Dynasty. The only males allowed inside the Forbidden City at Huế were the Emperor and his eunuchs.
The presence of eunuchs in Vietnam was used by the French colonizers to degrade the Vietnamese.
Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar, who established the Qajar Dynasty in Iran (in the 18th century), was a victim of castration by officers of the previous kingdom. When he conquered Lotf Ali Khan, the last king of the Zand Dynasty, Qajar had Lotf Ali Khan castrated in revenge.
In the over 13 centuries of the Arab slave trade in Africa unknown number of Africans were enslaved and shipped to the Middle East. It is claimed that a vast majority of the male black slaves, estimated at around 80%, were castrated.
"The Caliphate in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace." The Arab slave trade typically dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys at the age of eight to twelve had their scrotum and penis completely amputated. Around 9 out of 10 bled to death during the procedure, but the high price brought by eunuchs on the market made the practice profitable.
Trafficking of boys for prostitution in modern timesEdit
An article in the Gulf Times revealed in 2005 a major sex trade in mostly Nepalese boys who were lured to India and sold to brothels in Mumbai, Hyderabad, New Delhi, Lucknow and Gorakhpur. One victim was lured from Nepal at the age of 14, sold into slavery, locked up, beaten, starved, and forcibly castrated. He reported that he was held in a brothel with 40 to 50 other boys, many of whom were also castrated. He escaped and made his way back to Nepal. Two non-governmental organizations, one that works with homosexuals in Nepal, and one that works to rescue and rehabilitate trafficked women and children, were co-operating to help and rescue these boys.
"Voluntary" chemical or surgical castration has been in practice in many countries—reports are available from American and European countries in particular for over eighty years (chemical for circa thirty)—as an option for treatment for people who have broken laws of a sexual nature, allowing them to return to the community from otherwise lengthy detentions. The effectiveness and ethics of this treatment are heavily debated.
A temporary "chemical castration" has been studied and developed as a preventive measure and punishment for several repeated sex crimes, such as rape or other sexually related violence. This has also been used to punish homosexuality, such as the punishment suffered by Alan Turing.
In modern times, the Czech Republic practices surgically castrating convicted sex offenders. According to the reports compiled by Council of Europe, a human-rights forum, the central European country physically castrated at least 94 prisoners in the 10 years up to April 2008. The Czech Republic defends this procedure as voluntary and effective. According to Dr. Martin Hollý, director of the Psychiatric Hospital Bohnice in Prague, none of the nearly 100 sex offenders who had been physically castrated had committed further offences. One serial offender stated that being castrated was the "best decision" he ever made: "On the one hand you have to protect the potential victims and on the other hand I wanted to be protected from myself, I wanted to live like a normal person." Don Grubin, a professor at Newcastle University's Institute of Neuroscience who also runs a chemical castration program backed by the U.K.'s Ministry of Justice, was initially opposed to physical castration. After visiting the Czech Republic, however, he agreed that some form of castration might be of benefit to some sex offenders.
In nonhuman animals, the behavioral effects of gonad removal differ along lines of species and not sex, i.e. there are species where mating behavior ceases if the gonads are removed and other species where it does not cease, but removal of ovaries in females halt mating behavior in all of the same nonhuman animals in which male castration halts mating behavior. Therefore some scientists argue that the notion that castration/spaying would drastically reduce sex drive in human males but not in human females is zoologically nonsensical, citing that humans belong to the animal kingdom.
Some criminologists argue that the apparently lower recidivism rates in castrated male sex offenders compared to non-castrated ones does not prove that it is a biological effect of castration (correlation does not equal causation) but can be explained by other factors. One suggested factor from game theory is that men who are willing to accept castration to get a shorter prison sentence are those who value freedom from prison higher than men who are not willing to pay the price for freedom in the form of their testicles. This hypothesis can explain their apparent lower recidivism as a result of working harder to conceal the evidence for their crimes, and argue that their parole is a danger of releasing offenders who only hide their crimes more efficiently and are not any less likely to commit new crimes. These criminologists also argue that police investigators treating castrated men as less likely to reoffend than non-castrated men may cause an investigation bias and self-fulfilling prophecy.
Certain neurologists argue that while testosterone most likely increases internal sexual stimulation, a reduction of sex drive is unlikely to result in a reduction of inappropriate sexual behavior, as reduced internal stimulation from hormones merely increases the required external stimulation to reach orgasm. These neurologists cite that spreading of brain activity that stimulate more brain activity can increase their activity and tire the circuits out, the brain’s path to orgasm, enough to tire out with less external stimulation if the internal signal is stronger, and require more specific external stimulation to reach “satisfaction” if the internal signal is weaker.[clarification needed] Therefore, they argue, a reduced testosterone level would make it more difficult, not easier, to manage remaining vestiges of sex drive by masturbating without the use of pornography or to otherwise get by with more socially and legally acceptable substitutes for desires that it would be unacceptable to act on. These neurologists also cite that many people, both men and women, find that higher levels of initial sexual arousal make it easier to masturbate to orgasm without the preferred type of external stimuli, as predicted by the hypothesis.
In Europe, when women were not permitted to sing in church or cathedral choirs in the Roman Catholic Church, boys were castrated to prevent their voices breaking at puberty and to develop a special high voice. The first documents mentioning castrati are Italian church records from the 1550s. In the baroque and classical music eras these singers were highly appreciated by opera composers as well. Mozart's Exultate Jubilate, Allegri's Miserere and other famous pieces from this period now sung by sopranos and countertenors were written for castrati. Some of the alto parts of Handel's Messiah were first sung by a castrato. Famous castrati include Farinelli, Senesino, Carestini, and Caffarelli. The last true castrato was Alessandro Moreschi (1858–1922) who served in the Sistine Chapel Choir. It was not until the late 19th century that the Roman Catholic Church officially condemned the production of castrati. In Modern times, the Mexican Javier Medina is the only professional opera singer that can perform as a castrato, since he suffered from an involuntary chemical castration, as a result from a cancer treatment that he had before he reached puberty.
A number of religions have included castration as a central theme of their practice. These include:
- The cult of Cybele, in which devotees castrated themselves in ecstatic emulation of Attis: see Gallus.
- The Valesians.
In South Asia, many hijras live in well-defined, organized, all-hijra communities, led by a guru. The power of the hijras as a sexually ambiguous category can only be understood in the religious context of Hinduism. In some Hindu beliefs, ritual, and art, the power of the combined man/woman, or androgyne, is a frequent and significant theme. Bahuchara Mata, the main object of hijra veneration, is specifically associated with transvestism and transgenderism.
While castration is not a major part of Christianity, Jesus himself acknowledged in a discussion about avoiding adultery and divorce that some are involuntarily castrated or born that way, while some others "make themselves eunuchs" willingly out of a desire to be chaste Matthew 19:1–12. Given Jesus' frequent use of metaphor and hyperbole, e.g. Luke 9:62, the church has broadly discouraged any understanding of this passage as recommending literal "self-castration". That is consistent with Jesus' claims (as a rabbi) to uphold the Law given to Moses, e.g. Matthew 5:17, a Law which also discouraged literal castration Deut 23:1. However, in his own comments Jesus had no condemnation for any of the above. In Acts 8:34–8:39, a eunuch is baptized by Philip the Evangelist, demonstrating acceptance of castrated individuals in his church.
The first canon of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD forbid clergy members to voluntarily castrate themselves "when in perfect health", but freely accepted those who had been either castrated by others against their will, castrated due to a medical sickness or necessity, or those born as eunuchs.
Well-known Christian eunuchs (or alleged eunuchs) include:
- Origen, who is reported by Eusebius to have castrated himself based on his reading of the Gospel of Matthew 19:12 and other passages in Matthew and Mark that appear to endorse voluntary amputation to avoid sin, although there is some doubt concerning this story. Schaff considers the account genuine but cites Baur et al. in opposition. Origen argues against such literal interpretations of the passages from Matthew and Mark in his First Principles.
- Bishop Melito of Sardis (d. ca 180), who was a eunuch, according to the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea, though, significantly the word "virgin" was substituted in Rufinus' Latin translation of Eusebius.
- Boston Corbett, who was inspired by this same verse 19:12 to castrate himself (Corbett was the 19th-century American soldier who is generally believed to have fired the shot that killed John Wilkes Booth).
Judaism strictly forbids the castration of either humans or animals. While Deuteronomy 23:1 expels castrated men from the assembly of Israel; it means they are forbidden to marry or if married must divorce from their wives (though permitting the castrated to marry or remain married to female converts to Judaism). The laws of castration including cases of irreversible or un-reversed vasectomy and all other cases where the flow of sperm is known to have been placed into a permanent state of dysfunction with either no hope or no desire to take the steps to repair. This interpretation reinforced by Isaiah 56:3–5 lovingly encourages eunuchs who follow after God's laws.
According to Rashi, Kham (Ham) castrated his father Noah.
In Judaism, castrated animals are deemed unfit for sacrifice in the Temple (Lev 22:24). Castrated members of the priestly caste are forbidden to enter certain parts of the temple, to approach the altar, or to make sacrifices, although they could eat their share of the offerings and receive the priestly and Levite gifts (Lev. 21:16–24).
A subject of castration who is altered before the onset of puberty will retain a high voice, non-muscular build, and small genitals. He may well be taller than average, as the production of sex hormones in puberty—more specifically, estrogen via aromatization of testosterone—stops long bone growth. The person may not develop pubic hair and will have a small sex drive or none at all.
Castrations after the onset of puberty will typically reduce the sex drive considerably or eliminate it altogether. Castrated people are automatically sterile, because the testes (for males) and ovaries (for females) produce sex cells needed for sexual reproduction. Once removed, the subject is infertile. The voice does not change. Some castrated people report mood changes, such as depression or a more serene outlook on life, although this might not be due to chemical changes but instead emotional changes due to the implications of the procedure. Body strength and muscle mass can decrease somewhat. Body hair may sometimes decrease. Castration prevents male pattern baldness if it is done before hair is lost. However, castration will not restore hair growth after hair has already been lost due to male pattern baldness.
Without hormone replacement therapy (HRT), typical symptoms (similar to those experienced by menopausal women) include hot flashes, gradual bone-density loss resulting in osteopenia or osteoporosis, and potential weight gain or redistribution of body fat to the hips/chest. Replacement of testosterone in the form of gel, patches, or injections can largely reverse these effects, although breast enlargement has also been reported as a possible side effect of testosterone usage.
A study conducted at a mental institution in Kansas, where a large number of male inmates had been castrated, found that the eunuchs lived an average of 14 years longer than the uncastrated men. A similar study of 81 historical eunuchs in Korea's royal court found a 14 to 19 year increase in lifespan compared to intact men of similar socioeconomic background; these eunuchs had a centenarian rate of over 3%.
Psychoanalysis and literary theoryEdit
In the case of chemical castration, ongoing regular injections of anti-androgens are required. Chemical castration does not actually remove the testicles or ovaries of the subject, nor is it a form of sterilization.
Chemical castration seems to have a greater effect on bone density than physical castration. Since the development of teriparatide, this severe bone loss has been able to be reversed in nearly every case. At this time there is a limitation on the use of this medication to 24 months until the long-term use is better evaluated.
With the advent of chemical castration, physical castration is not generally recommended by the medical community unless medically necessary or desired, though some have undergone the procedure voluntarily.
Humans commonly castrate domestic animals not intended for breeding. Domestic animals are usually castrated to avoid unwanted or uncontrolled reproduction; to reduce or prevent other manifestations of sexual behaviour such as defending the herd from humans and other threats, or intra-herd aggression (e.g. fighting between groups of entire (uncastrated) males of a species); or to reduce other consequences of sexual behavior that may make animal husbandry more difficult, such as boundary/fence/enclosure destruction when attempting to get to nearby females of the species.
Male horses are usually castrated (gelded) using emasculators, because stallions are rather aggressive and troublesome. The same applies to male mules, although they are sterile. Male cattle are castrated to improve fattening and docility in feedlots or for use as oxen. Breeding individuals are kept entire and used for breeding: they may fetch higher prices when sold.
Livestock may be castrated when used for food to increase growth or weight or both of individual male animals and because of the undesirable taste and odor of the meat from sexually mature males. In domestic pigs the taint, called boar taint, is caused by androstenone and skatole concentrations stored in the fat tissues of the animal after sexual maturity. Boar taint is only found in a small minority of pigs and can be controlled through breeding selection, diet and management. It is released when the fat is heated and has a distinct odor and flavor that is widely considered unpalatable to consumers. Consequently, in commercial meat production, male pigs are either castrated shortly after birth or slaughtered before they reach sexual maturity. Recent research in Brazil has shown that castration of pigs is unnecessary because most pigs do not have the 'boar taint'. This is due to many breeds of pigs simply not having the heredity for the boar taint and the fact that pigs are normally slaughtered at a young market weight.
In the case of pets, castration is usually called neutering, and is encouraged to prevent overpopulation of the community by unwanted animals, and to reduce certain diseases such as prostate disease and testicular cancer in male dogs (oophorectomy in female pets is often called spaying). Testicular cancer is rare in dogs, but prostate problems are somewhat common in unaltered male dogs when they get older. Neutered individuals have a much lower risk of developing prostate problems in comparison. Unaltered male cats are more likely to develop an obstruction in their urethra, preventing them from urinating to some degree; however, neutering does not seem to make much difference statistically because many neutered toms also have the problem. A specialized vocabulary has arisen for neutered animals of given species:
- Barrow (pig)
- Bullock (cattle)
- Capon (chicken)
- Gelding (horse)
- Gib (cat, ferret)
- Ox (cattle) (Castration performed on mature bull)
- Stag (cattle, sheep)
- Steer (cattle) (Castration performed on young calf)
- Wether (sheep, goat)
An incompletely castrated male in livestock species (horse and cattle) is known as a rig.
Methods of veterinary castration include instant surgical removal, the use of an elastrator tool to secure a band around the testicles that disrupts the blood supply, the use of a Burdizzo tool or emasculators to crush the spermatic cords and disrupt the blood supply, pharmacological injections and implants and immunological techniques to inoculate the animal against his own sexual hormones.
Certain animals, like horses and swine, are usually surgically treated with a scrotal castration (which can be done with the animal standing while sedated and after local anesthetic has been applied), while others, like dogs and cats, are anesthetised and recumbent when surgically castrated with a pre-scrotal incision in the case of dogs, or a pre-scrotal or scrotal incision used for cats.
In veterinary practice an "open" castration refers to a castration in which the inguinal tunic is incised and not sutured. A "closed" castration refers to when the procedure is performed so that the inguinal tunic is sutured together after incision.
- Ashley Treatment
- Birth control
- Castration anxiety
- Castrato, a castrated male singer
- Chemical castration
- Inguinal orchiectomy, the approach typically used to treat testicular cancer
- List of transgender-related topics
- Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run, a serial killer who castrated his male victims
- Penis removal
- Spaying and neutering (for animals)
- Shuster, LT; Gostout, BS; Grossardt, BR; Rocca, WA (September 2008). "Prophylactic oophorectomy in pre-menopausal women and long term health – a review". Menopause Int. 14: 111–6. doi:10.1258/mi.2008.008016. PMC . PMID 18714076.
- "MaleCare.com". MaleCare.com. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Some Sex Offenders Opt for Castration. ABC News".
- Eastmond, Antony (1998). Royal imagery in medieval Georgia. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0271016280.
- "Time for the truth about Catholic sex abuse in the Netherlands". RNW.
- Ernst Faber (1902). Chronological handbook of the history of China: a manuscript left by the late Rev. Ernst Faber. Pub. by the General Evangelical Protestant missionary society of Germany. p. 3. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Ernst Faber (1897). China in the light of history. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 18. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- John Joseph Lalor (1882). Cyclopaedia of political science, political economy, and of the political history of the United States, Volume 1. Rand, McNally. p. 406. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph Calder Miller (2009). Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. p. 136. ISBN 0-8214-1877-7. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner (1919). China of the Chinese. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 146. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph Calder Miller (2009). Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-8214-1877-7. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Bayerischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege (2001). Qin Shihuang. Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege. p. 273. ISBN 3-87490-711-2. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- Mark Edward Lewis (2007). The early Chinese empires: Qin and Han. Harvard University Press. p. 252. ISBN 0-674-02477-X. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- History of Science Society (1952). Osiris, Volume 10. Saint Catherine Press. p. 144. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). The History of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 76. ISBN 1-61530-181-X. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Qian Ma (2005). Women in traditional Chinese theater: the heroine's play. University Press of America. p. 149. ISBN 0-7618-3217-3. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner (1919). China of the Chinese. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 152. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Ch'ien Ssu-Ma (2008). The Grand Scribe's Records: The Memoirs of Han China, Part 1. Indiana University Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-253-34028-4. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1988). The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 976. ISBN 0-521-24332-7. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Journal of Asian history, Volume 25. O. Harrassowitz. 1991. p. 127. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty. SUNY Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- 祝建龙 (Zhu Jianlong), 二〇〇九年四月 (April 2009), 12.(Page 18 on online document viewer, Page 12 on actual document)
- 祝建龙 (Zhu Jianlong), 二〇〇九年四月 (April 2009), 13.(Page 19 on online document viewer, Page 13 on actual document)
- "Notable Women of China". google.com.
- "Warfare in Chinese History". google.com.
- "The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the ..." google.com.
- "Harmony and War". google.com.
- "China: A History". google.com.
- "Women Shall Not Rule". google.com.
- "Women Shall Not Rule". google.com.
- *The Eunuchs and Sinicization in the Non-Han Conquest Dynasties of China Archived 5 September 2013 at Archive.is
- Jennifer W. Jay
- University of Alberta, Canada
- This paper was presented at the Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast Conference, 16–18 June 1995, at Forest Grove, Oregon, U.S.A. Research for this project was facilitated by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. (Although the link is to a forum, the paper is posted in its full length there since it is not available online as it was never published. The following links are to papers and articles where the original paper by Jennifer W. Jay was referenced in the bibliography)
- 5.Jennifer W. Jay. (1995), The Eunuchs And Sinicization In The Non-Han Conquest Dynasties In China, Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast Conference, 16–18 June 1995, at Forest Grove, Oregon, U.S.A. Archived 25 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Eunuchs and Sinicization in the Non-Han Conquest Dynasties of China." Selected Papers in ASPAC 1995. Also reprinted in Chinese Culture and Education, Selected Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Chinese-Canadian Academic and Professional Society of Canada, Vancouver, 1995, pp. 25–41. Archived 29 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Jay, Jennifer W Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada
- Eunuchs and Sinicization in the non-Han Conquest Dynasties of China
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-06.  Jennifer, W. Jay. The Eunuchs and Sinicization in the Non-Han Conquest of China. A paper presented to the Asian Studies on the Pacific Coast Conference 1995. Not published.]
- Tuotuo 1974, pp.109.1480–82 (or Liaoshi, 109.1480–82)
- "遼史卷一百０九 列傳第三十九_遼史（元）脫脫等撰_国学导航". guoxue123.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014.
- guji.artx.cn. "辽史 – 卷一百一 列传第三十九 – 脱脱著 – 契丹族,耶律阿保机,辽朝 – 中国古籍全录". artx.cn.
- "梦远书城_辽史". my285.com.
- 遼史 卷七一至一百十五 (列傳 第一至四五) (遼 史 卷 一 百 九) (列 傳 第 三 十 九)(伶 官) Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "辽史-卷一百九 列传第三十九". wenxue100.com.
- "《辽史》作者：脱脱_第115頁". sto.cc. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014.
- "王继恩传_白话二十四史". fox2008.cn.
- "王继恩_英语例句-英文例子-在线翻译_栗子搜！". liziso.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014.
- "白话辽史-王继恩传". wenxue100.com.
- "王继恩传". eywedu.com.
- 脫脫 (Tuotuo). 遼史/卷109 列傳第39: 伶官 宦官 (History of Liao) (in Chinese). 維基文庫 (Chinese Wikisource). Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Rolf Potts (9 November 1999). "Horse races, open spaces and the fate of Genghis Khan's balls". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- Lynn Pan (1985). Into China's heart: an emigré's journey along the Yellow River. Weatherhill. p. 111. ISBN 0-8348-0205-8. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Allan D. Cooper (2009). The geography of genocide. University Press of America. p. 187. ISBN 0-7618-4097-4. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Československá spolećnost orientalistická (1960). New Orient, Volumes 1–3. Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies. p. iv. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- John Man (2007). Genghis Khan: Life, Death, and Resurrection. Macmillan. p. 247. ISBN 0-312-36624-8. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- John DeFrancis (1993). In the footsteps of Genghis Khan. University of Hawaii Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-8248-1493-2. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- Translations of the Peking Gazette. 1880. p. 83. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4. D. Appleton and Company. 1888. p. 145. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 19. Appleton. 1886. p. 145. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- James D. Hague (1904). Clarence King Memoirs: The Helmet of Mambrino. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 50. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- "THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN.; CASE OF THE KINGMA CHILDREN--LETTER FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT". New York Times. New York. 1880-03-20. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- Jung Chang (2014). Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China. New York: Anchor. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-385-35037-2. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
- "내시 : 지식백과" (in Korean). 100.naver.com. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
- Peter McAllister (2010). Manthropology: The Science of Why the Modern Male Is Not the Man He Used to Be. Macmillan. p. 280. ISBN 0-312-55543-1. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph Calder Miller (2009). Children in slavery through the ages. Ohio University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-8214-1877-7. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Viet Bao. 5 October 2012. Event occurs at 14:00 (GMT+7). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Ngôi sao. Theo Đất Việt. 4 October 2012. Event occurs at 11:16 (GMT+7). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Báo Mới. Báo Đất Việt. 5 August 2012. Event occurs at 19:25 (GMT+7). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". 2sao. Theo Đất Việt. 8 August 2012. Event occurs at 15:15 (GMT+7). Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Treonline. ĐVO. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Hành trình đau khổ của những hoạn quan thời xưa". Báo Gia đình & Xã hội. Theo Báo Đất Việt. 24 August 2011. Event occurs at 14:25 (GMT+7). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing News. Theo Công An Nhân Dân. 18 July 2013. Event occurs at 09:04 (GMT+7). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- Theo Công An Nhân Dân (18 July 2013). "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing news. Event occurs at 09:04 (GMT+7). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Lê Quyết – GĐXH (6 June 2012). "Hoang lạnh khu mộ địa thái giám độc nhất Việt Nam". Vĩ Nhân Online. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Kim Thoa – Lê Quyết (2012-12-27). "Chuyện ở khu nghĩa địa thái giám Việt Nam". Người Đưa Tin. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung nhà Nguyễn: Những phận đời đặc biệt | Xã hội | Dân trí". Dantri.com.vn. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
- Lê Khắc Niên (Bee.net) (29 July 2011). "Thái giám dưới thời Minh Mạng". Báo Dân trí. Event occurs at 22:39 (GMT+7). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Văn Nguyễn (24 May 2011). "Những thái giám trong hậu cung triều Nguyễn". Báo Dân trí. Event occurs at 11:21 (GMT+7). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". VnExpress. 18 July 2013. Event occurs at 16:21 (GMT+7). Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyễn Đắc Xuân (13 June 2010). "Thái giám – người phục vụ đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". queviet.pl (Hội người Việt Nam tại Ba Lan). Khoa học Đời Sống. Event occurs at 23:24 (GMT+7). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Thái giám và bí mật phòng the của vua chúa Việt Nam". Góc Cuộc Sống. Theo Đất Việt. 2 August 2013. Event occurs at 02:29 (GMT+7). Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Thái giám, loại công chức đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". Gác Thọ Lộc. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyen Dac Xuan (May 2013). "The safe sex and thier(sic) amorous duties". (No.4, Vol.3, May 2013 Vietnam Heritage Magazine). Vol.3 (No.4). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Tsai (1996), p. 15 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 15, at Google Books
- Nguyẽ̂n (2008), p. 169 The History Buddhism in Vietnam, Vol. IIID.5, p. 169, at Google Books
- Wang (2000), p. 135 Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China, p. 135, at Google Books
- Goodrich (1976), p. 691 Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368–1644, p. 691, at Google Books
- Campbell (2009), p. 147 Children in Slavery Through the Ages, p. 147, at Google Books
- Tran (2006), p. 116 Việt Nam: Borderless Histories, p. 116, at Google Books
- 黄啟臣 (2008-03-16). "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 國學網－－中國經濟史論壇(China Economic History Forum). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 中國評論學術出版社(China Review Academic Publishers Unlimited). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "中国评论学术出版社". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "中国评论新闻：郑和下西洋与广东商人的海外移民". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "鄭和下西洋與廣東商人的海外移民". 中國評論新聞網. 2006-03-08. p. 1. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "中国评论新闻：郑和下西洋与广东商人的海外移民". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "中國評論新聞". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "鄭和下西洋與廣東商人的海外移民". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "明代廣東海上絲綢之路的高度發展". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "中國評論新聞". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "中國評論新聞：鄭和下西洋與廣東商人的海外移民". Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "郑和下西洋与广东商人的海外移民人文历史". published at 15:28 military time. 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15–17 世紀廣東人與越南" (PDF). 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
此外,沿海平民在海上航行或捕撈漁獵,遇風漂流至越南者時有發生。如成化十三年, 廣東珠池奉御陳彜奏:南海縣民遭風飄至安南被編入軍隊及被閹禁者超過 100 人。5成化中, 海南文昌人吳瑞與同鄉劉求等 13 人到欽州做生意,遇風飄至安南,當局將他們"俱發屯田, 以瑞獨少,宮之"。6... 6《明孝宗實錄》卷一百五十三,弘治十二年八月辛卯。
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15–17 世紀廣東人與越南". 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Tsai (1996), p. 15 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 15, at Google Books
- Rost (1887), p. 252 Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory", and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, p. 252, at Google Books
- Rost (1887), p. 252 Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China and Indian archipelage: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Second Series, Volume 1, p. 252, at Google Books
- Wade 2005, p. 3785/86
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 203-大明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之二百十九". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○满剌加国使臣端亚妈剌的那查等奏成化五年本国使臣微者然那入贡还至当洋被风漂至安南国微者然那与其傔从俱为其国所杀其余黥为官奴而幼者皆为所害又言安南据占城城池欲并吞满剌加之地本国以皆为王臣未敢兴兵与战适安南使臣亦来朝端亚妈剌的那查乞与廷辨兵部尚书陈钺以为此已往事不必深校宜戒其将来 上乃因安南使臣还谕其王黎灏曰尔国与满剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦结好藩屏王室岂可自恃富强以干国典以贪天祸满剌加使臣所奏朝廷虽未轻信尔亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其国复谕满剌加使臣曰自古圣王之驭四夷不追咎于既往安南果复侵陵尔国宜训练士马以御之 Traditional Chinese:○滿剌加國使臣端亞媽剌的那查等奏成化五年本國使臣微者然那入貢還至當洋被風漂至安南國微者然那與其傔從俱為其國所殺其餘黥為官奴而幼者皆為所害又言安南據占城城池欲併吞滿剌加之地本國以皆為王臣未敢興兵與戰適安南使臣亦來朝端亞媽剌的那查乞與廷辨兵部尚書陳鉞以為此已往事不必深校宜戒其將來 上乃因安南使臣還諭其王黎灝曰爾國與滿剌加俱奉正朔宜修睦結好藩屏王室豈可自恃富強以幹國典以貪天禍滿剌加使臣所奏朝廷雖未輕信爾亦宜省躬思咎畏天守法自保其國複諭滿剌加使臣曰自古聖王之馭四夷不追咎于既往安南果複侵陵爾國宜訓練士馬以禦之
- Wade 2005, p. 2078/79
- Leo K. Shin (2007). "Ming China and Its Border with Annam". In Diana Lary. The Chinese State at the Borders (PDF) (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 92. ISBN 0774813334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 106-明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之一百六". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○癸亥广东守珠池奉御陈彝奏南海县民为风飘至安南国被其国王编以为军其后逸归言中国人飘泊被留及所为阉禁者百余人奏下户部请移文巡抚镇守等官禁约军民人等毋得指以□贩私通番国且令守珠军人设法堤备从之 Traditional Chinese:○癸亥廣東守珠池奉禦陳彝奏南海縣民為風飄至安南國被其國王編以為軍其後逸歸言中國人飄泊被留及所為閹禁者百余人奏下戶部請移文巡撫鎮守等官禁約軍民人等毋得指以□販私通番國且令守珠軍人設法堤備從之
- Tsai (1996), p. 16 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 16, at Google Books
- Tsai (1996), p. 245 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 245, at Google Books
- Lary (2007), p. 91 The Chinese State at the Borders, p. 91, at Google Books
- Leo K. Shin (2007). Diana Lary, ed. The Chinese State at the Borders (PDF) (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 91. ISBN 0774813334. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Cooke (2011), p. 109 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 109, at Google Books
- Wade 2005, p. 2704/05
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 47-明实录孝宗实录-- > 146-明孝宗敬皇帝实录卷之一百五十三". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
Simplified Chinese:○金星昼见于辰位○辛卯吴瑞者广东文昌县人成化中与同乡刘求等十三人于钦州贸易遭风飘至安南海边罗者得之送本国求等俱发屯田以瑞独少宫之弘治十年国王黎灏卒瑞往东津点军得谅山卫军杨三知归路缘山行九日达龙州主头目韦琛家谋告守备官送还琛不欲久之安南国知之恐泄其国事遣探儿持百金为赎琛少之议未决而凭祥州知州李广宁闻之卒兵夺送于分守官都御史邓廷瓒遣送至京礼部请罪琛为边人之戒奖广宁为土官之劝从之瑞送司礼监给役 Traditional Chinese:○金星晝見於辰位○辛卯吳瑞者廣東文昌縣人成化中與同鄉劉求等十三人於欽州貿易遭風飄至安南海邊羅者得之送本國求等俱發屯田以瑞獨少宮之弘治十年國王黎灝卒瑞往東津點軍得諒山衛軍楊三知歸路緣山行九日達龍州主頭目韋琛家謀告守備官送還琛不欲久之安南國知之恐洩其國事遣探兒持百金為贖琛少之議未決而憑祥州知州李廣寧聞之卒兵奪送於分守官都御史鄧廷瓚遣送至京禮部請罪琛為邊人之戒獎廣寧為土官之勸從之瑞送司禮監給役
- Cooke (2011), p. 108 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 108, at Google Books
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế (Associate Professor Nguyen Hai Ke) (28 March 2013). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế (Associate Professor Nguyen Hai Ke) (2013-04-22). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". published at 18:56 military time. 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., eds. (1993). "Phần 26 (Bản kỷ thực lục Q2(a) Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472).)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., eds. (1993). "DVSK Bản Kỷ Thực Lục 12: Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472) ... Phần 1(Đại Việt Sử Ký Bản Kỷ Thực Lục Quyển XII [1a] Kỷ Nhà Lê Thánh Tông Thuần Hoàng Đế)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện Khoa Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản Khoa Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Chandler (1987), p. 129 In Search of Southeast Asia: A Modern History, p. 129, at Google Books
- Andaya (2006), p. 177 The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia, p. 177, at Google Books
- Woodside (1971), p. 66 Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Nguyen and Ch'ing Civil Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, p. 66, at Google Books
- Fodor's (2012), p. 31 Fodor's See It Vietnam, 3rd Edition, p. 31, at Google Books
- Stearns (2006), p. 1 Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China, p. 1, at Google Books
- Thomas Jefferson, A Bill for Proportioning Crimes and Punishments 1778 Papers 2:492—504l
- Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "Former sex worker's tale spurs rescue mission". Gulf Times. Gulf-Times.com. 10 April 2005. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
“I spent seven years in hell,” says Raju, now 21, trying hard not to cry. Thapa Magar took him to Rani Haveli, a brothel in Mumbai that specialized in male sex workers and sold him for Nepali Rs 85,000. A Muslim man ran the flesh trade there in young boys and girls, most of them lured from Nepal. For two years, Raju was kept locked up, taught to dress as a girl and castrated. Many of the other boys there were castrated as well. Beatings and starvation became a part of his life. “There were 40 to 50 boys in the place,” a gaunt, brooding Raju recalls. “Most of them were Nepalese.”
- Katherine Amlin. "Chemical Castration: The Benefits and Disadvantages Intrinsic to Injecting Male Pedophiliacs with Depo-Provera". Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- "'Chemical castration' OK'd for Montana inmates". N.Y. Times News Service. 1997. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- "Council of Europe report on the Czech Republic". Cpt.coe.int. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Dan Bilefsky (10 March 2009). "Europeans Debate Castration of Sex Offenders". The New York Times. Europe;Czech Republic. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Whitehead, Tom (20 May 2009). "Sex offences advisor backs castration". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- "Cutting the numbers re-offending?". Channel 4. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
- Robert Aunger, Valerie Curtis (2015)"Gaining Control: How human behavior evolved"
- (2015). "The myth of female sexual complexity"
- Christine Horne, Michael J. Lovaglia (2008). "Experiments in Criminology and Law: A Research Revolution"
- Lorie A. Fridell (2016). "Producing Bias-Free Policing: A Science-Based Approach"
- KC Berridge (2015). "Pleasure systems in the brain"
- Lisa Feldman Barrett (2017). "How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain"
- John Rosselli, "Castrato" article in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001.
- Ellis, Samantha. "All mouth and no trousers". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Javier Medina - "I'm A Natural Castrato" - The Finantial Times 
- "Religion and expressive culture – Hijra". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine". Ccel.org. 13 July 2005. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- Eusebius' Church History Book 6, Chapter 8 Origen's Daring Deed note 1809: "This act of Origen’s has been greatly discussed, and some have even gone so far as to believe that he never committed the act ... There is no reason, however, to doubt the report, for which we have unimpeachable testimony, and which is in itself not at all surprising ..."
- Talmud Shabbos 110b
- Quran, 57:27-28
- Hamilton, J. B. (1960). "Effect of castration in adolescent and young adult males upon further changes in the proportions of bare and hairy scalp". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 20 (10): 1309–1318. doi:10.1210/jcem-20-10-1309. PMID 13711016.
- "The various types of eunuch in the Byzantine state: their role and symbolic meaning". Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- ""HRT for Men Is Risky, Too" by Robert W. Griffith, MD". Healthandage.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Why Women Live Longer".
- "Upside to castration? Eunuchs lived longer, study finds".
- "Can Castration Be a Solution for Sex Offenders? Man Who Mutilated Himself in Jail Thinks So, but Debate on Its Effectiveness Continues in Va., Elsewhere" by Candace Rondeaux for the Washington Post, 5 July 2006
- "Chemical castration – breaking the cycle of paraphiliac recidivism" Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Social Justice, Spring, 1999 by Christopher Meisenkothen.
- "Castrated California Child Molester Wants Freedom". Fox News. 3 July 2006.
- Genetics of Boar Taint: Implications for the Future Use of Intact Males Archived 31 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Managing Boar Taint: Focus on Genetic Markers". The Pig Site. 12 August 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
-  Archived 10 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Mythbusting Boar Taint". The Pig Site. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade (illustrated ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393078175. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James, eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812243366. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Keay, John (2010). China: A History. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 0007372086. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Lary, Diana (2007). Diana Lary, ed. The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- McMahon, Keith (2013). Women Shall Not Rule: Imperial Wives and Concubines in China from Han to Liao. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442222905. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Peterson, Barbara Bennett, ed. (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765619296. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan) (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Tuotuo. Liaoshi [History of Liao]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974 (or Tuotuo, Liaoshi (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974))
- Toqto'a; et al. (1344). Liao Shi (宋史) [History of Liao] (in Chinese).
- Van Derven, H. J., ed. (2000). Warfare in Chinese History. Volume 47 of Sinica Leidensia / Sinica Leidensia (illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004117741. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Wade, Geoff (2005), Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, retrieved 6 September 2013
- Wang, Yuan-Kang (2013). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231522401. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Patrick Barbier, The World of the Castrati: the History of an Extraordinary Operatic Phenomenon Souvenir, 1996, ISBN 0-285-63309-0
- Susan Elliott, Cutting Too Close for Comfort: Paul's Letter to the Galatians in Its Anatolian Cultic Context Reviews in Review of Biblical Literature
- Travis Nygard and Alec Sonsteby. "Castration." In The Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body, edited by Victoria Pitts, pages 502–507. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.
- Theresa McCuaig, "Understanding Castration." 2009.
- 祝建龙 (Zhu Jianlong) (April 2009). 辽代后宫制度研究 [Research on the System of Imperial Harem in the Liao Dynasty] (Master's) (in Chinese). 吉林大学 (Jilin University). Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- English language Abstracts of the thesis
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castration.|
- Castration Through the Ages
- The Journal of Clinical Endrocrinology and Metabolism
- Neutering NOT Org Website arguing against the castration of domestic animals
- Boar taint in pigs selected for components of efficient lean growth rate
- Castration — information site