The shot put is a track and field event involving "putting" (pushing rather than throwing)[1] a heavy spherical ball—the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women's competition began in 1948.

Athletics
Shot put
Tomasz Majewski - 2. Memoriał Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg
Polish double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski
World records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) (2021)
WomenSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) (1987)
Olympic records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 23.30 m (76 ft 5+14 in) (2021)
WomenEast Germany Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (73 ft 6+14 in) (1980)
World Championship records
MenUnited States Ryan Crouser 22.94 m (75 ft 3 in) (2022)
WomenSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) (1987)
New Zealand Valerie Adams 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) (2011)
Demonstration of the spin technique in shot put

HistoryEdit

 
Czechoslovak shot putter Plíhal at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships
 
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stop board

Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, and date back to approximately the first century.[2] In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing.[3]

The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866.[4]

Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 7 ft (2.134 m) in diameter, with a “toe board” or "stop board" about 10 centimetres (4 in) high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made on the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules.

Legal throwsEdit

 
Czechoslovak shot putter Jiří Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck

The following rules (indoor and outdoor) must be adhered to for a legal throw:

  • Upon calling the athlete's name, the athlete may choose any part of the throwing circle to enter inside. They have thirty seconds to commence the throwing motion; otherwise it counts as a forfeit for the current round.
  • The athlete may not wear gloves; IAAF rules permit the taping of individual fingers.
  • The athlete must rest the shot close to the neck, and keep it tight to the neck throughout the motion.
  • The shot must be released above the height of the shoulder, using only one hand.
  • The athlete may touch the inside surface of the circle or toe board, but must not touch the top or outside of the circle or toe board, or the ground beyond the circle. Limbs may, however, extend over the lines of the circle in the air.
  • The shot must land in the throwing sector, which is a circular sector of 34.92° centered on the throwing circle. The throwing sector has been narrowed multiple times over the years to improve safety, most recently in 2004 from 40°. The current throwing sector angle (34.92°) was chosen because it provides a sector whose bounds are easy to measure and lay out on a field (10 metres out from the center of the ring, 6 metres across).[5]
  • The athlete must leave the throwing circle from the back half.

Foul throws occur when an athlete:

  • Does not pause within the circle before beginning the putting motion.
  • Does not complete the putting movement initiated within thirty seconds of having their name called.
  • Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the vertical plane of his shoulder during the put.

At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck then it is technically an illegal put.

  • During the putting motion, touches with any part of the body (including shoes):
    • the top or ends of the toe board
    • the top of the iron ring
    • anywhere outside the circle.
  • Puts a shot which either falls outside the throwing sector or touches a sector line on the initial impact.
  • Leaves the circle before the shot has landed.
  • Does not leave from the rear half of the circle.

Regulation misconceptionsEdit

The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules within professional competition:

  • The athlete must enter the circle from the back (none of the rule books contain such a clause).
  • The athlete entering the circle, then exiting and re-entering it prior to starting the throw results in a foul (all the rule books allow an athlete to leave a circle prior to starting a throw, but this still counts within the 30 second time limit; the allowable method of exiting the circle varies by rule book).
  • Loose clothing, shoelaces, or long hair touching outside the circle during a throw, or an athlete bringing a towel into the circle and then throwing it out prior to the put, results in a foul.

CompetitionEdit

 
Shot put area

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, and it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.

Each of these competitions in the modern era have a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three qualification rounds to determine qualification for the final. There are then three preliminary rounds in the final with the top eight competitors receiving a further three throws. Each competitor in the final is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final three rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner.

WeightEdit

In open competitions the men's shot weighs 16 pounds (7.26 kg), and the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms (8.82 lb). Junior, school, and masters competitions often use different weights of shots, typically below the weights of those used in open competitions; the individual rules for each competition should be consulted in order to determine the correct weights to be used.

Putting stylesEdit

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty-five degrees.

GlideEdit

The origin of this technique dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien from the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. Unlike spin this technique is a linear movement.[6]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle. They would typically adopt a specific type of crouch, involving their bent right leg, in order to begin the throw from a more beneficial posture whilst also isometrically preloading their muscles. The positioning of their bodyweight over their bent leg, which pushes upwards with equal force, generates a preparatory isometric press. The force generated by this press will be channelled into the subsequent throw making it more powerful. To initiate the throw they kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right. As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, the left arm is swung out then pulled back tight, followed by the shoulders, and they then strike in a putting motion with their right arm. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name 'glide'.

SpinEdit

This is also known as the rotational technique.[7] It was first practiced in Europe in the 1950s but did not receive much attention until the 1970s.[8] In 1972 Aleksandr Baryshnikov set his first USSR record using a new putting style, the spin ("круговой мах" in Russian), invented by his coach Viktor Alexeyev.[9][10] The spin involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. In 1976 Baryshnikov went on to set a world record of 22.00 m (72.18 ft) with his spin style, and was the first shot putter to cross the 22-meter mark.[11]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the center of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twisting the hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.

When the athlete executes the spin, the upper body is twisted hard to the right, so the imaginary lines created by the shoulders and hips are no longer parallel. This action builds up torque, and stretches the muscles, creating an involuntary elasticity in the muscles, providing extra power and momentum. When the athlete prepares to release, the left foot is firmly planted, causing the momentum and energy generated to be conserved, pushing the shot in an upward and outward direction.

Another purpose of the spin is to build up a high rotational speed, by swinging the right leg initially, then to bring all the limbs in tightly, similar to a figure skater bringing in their arms while spinning to increase their speed. Once this fast speed is achieved the shot is released, transferring the energy into the shot put.

Until 2016, a woman had never made an Olympic final (top 8) using the spin technique. The first woman to enter a final and win a medal at the Olympics was Anita Márton.[12][8]

UsageEdit

Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin. However the glide remains popular since the technique leads to greater consistency compared to the rotational technique. Almost all throwers start by using the glide. Tomasz Majewski notes that although most athletes use the spin,[13] he and some other top shot putters achieved success using this classic method (for example he became first to defend the Olympic title in 56 years).

The world record and the next six best male results (23.37, 23.30, 23.15, and 23.12 by Ryan Crouser, 23.23 by Joe Kovacs, and 23.12 and 23.10 by Randy Barnes) were completed with the spin technique, while the eighth-best all-time put of 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) by Ulf Timmermann was completed with the glide technique.

The decision to glide or spin may need to be decided on an individual basis, determined by the thrower's size and power. Short throwers may benefit from the spin and taller throwers may benefit from the glide, but many throwers do not follow this guideline.

Types of shotsEdit

The shot is made of different kinds of materials depending on its intended use. Materials used include sand, iron, cast iron, solid steel, stainless steel, brass, and synthetic materials like polyvinyl. Some metals are more dense than others, making the size of the shot vary. For example, different materials are used to make indoor and outdoor shot – because damage to surroundings must be taken into account – so the latter are smaller. There are various size and weight standards for the implement that depend on the age and gender of the competitors as well as the national customs of the governing body.

World recordsEdit

The current world record holders are:[14]

Type Athlete Mark Date Place
Men
Outdoor Ryan Crouser 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) 18 June 2021 Eugene, Oregon, USA
Indoor Ryan Crouser 22.82 m (74 ft 10+14 in) 24 January 2021 Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
Women
Outdoor Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) 7 June 1987 Moscow, USSR
Indoor Helena Fibingerová 22.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in) 19 February 1977 Jablonec, CZE

Continental recordsEdit

The current records held on each continent are:[15][16]

Area Men's Women's
Mark Athlete Nation Mark Athlete Nation
Africa 21.97 m (72 ft 34 in) Janus Robberts   South Africa 18.43 m (60 ft 5+12 in) Vivian Chukwuemeka   Nigeria
Asia 21.49 m (70 ft 6 in) Tajinderpal Singh Toor   India 21.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in) Meisu Li   China
Europe 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) Ulf Timmermann   East Germany 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) WR Natalya Lisovskaya   Soviet Union
North and Central
America, and Caribbean
23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) WR Ryan Crouser   United States 20.96 m (68 ft 9 in) A Belsy Laza   Cuba
Oceania 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) Tomas Walsh   New Zealand 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) Valerie Adams   New Zealand
South America 22.61 m (74 ft 2 in) Darlan Romani   Brazil 19.30 m (63 ft 3+34 in) A Elisângela Adriano   Brazil

All-time top 25Edit

Men (outdoor)Edit

Ath.# Perf.# Mark Technique Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 23.37 m (76 ft 8 in) spin Ryan Crouser   United States 18 JUN 2021 Eugene [19]
2 23.30 m (76 ft 5+14 in) Crouser #2 05 AUG 2021 Tokyo
2 3 23.23 m (76 ft 2+12 in) spin Joe Kovacs   United States 07 SEP 2022 Zürich [20]
4 23.15 m (75 ft 11+14 in) Crouser #3 21 AUG 2021 Eugene
3 5 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) spin Randy Barnes   United States 20 MAY 1990 Westwood
5 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) Crouser #4 24 JUN 2022 Eugene [21]
7 23.10 m (75 ft 9+14 in) Barnes #2 26 MAY 1990 San Jose
4 8 23.06 m (75 ft 7+34 in) glide Ulf Timmermann   East Germany 22 MAY 1988 Chania
9 23.02 m (75 ft 6+14 in) Crouser #5 28 MAY 2022 Eugene [22]
10 23.01 m (75 ft 5+34 in) Crouser #6 22 MAY 2021 Tucson
11 22.94 m (75 ft 3 in) Crouser #7 17 JUL 2022 Eugene [23]
12 22.92 m (75 ft 2+14 in) Crouser #8 18 JUN 2021 Eugene
5 13 22.91 m (75 ft 1+34 in) glide Alessandro Andrei   Italy 12 AUG 1987 Viareggio
13 22.91 m (75 ft 1+34 in) Kovacs #2 05 OCT 2019 Doha [24]
Crouser #9 18 JUL 2020 Marietta
16 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) Crouser #10 05 OCT 2019 Doha
6 16 22.90 m (75 ft 1+12 in) spin Tom Walsh   New Zealand 05 OCT 2019 Doha [24]
18 22.89 m (75 ft 1 in) Kovacs #3 17 JUL 2022 Eugene [25]
Kovacs #4 08 AUG 2022 Székesfehérvár [26]
20 22.87 m (75 ft 14 in) Kovacs #5 24 JUN 2022 Eugene [27]
7 21 22.86 m (75 ft 0 in) A spin Brian Oldfield   United States 10 MAY 1975 El Paso
22 22.84 m (74 ft 11 in) Andrei #2 12 AUG 1987 Viareggio
Crouser #11 13 SEP 2021 Zagreb
24 22.81 m (74 ft 10 in) Crouser #12 26 AUG 2021 Lausanne
8 25 22.75 m (74 ft 7+12 in) glide Werner Günthör    Switzerland 23 AUG 1988 Bern
25 22.75 m (74 ft 7+12 in) Crouser #13 12 MAY 2022 Ponce [28]
9 22.67 m (74 ft 4+12 in) spin Kevin Toth   United States 19 April 2003 Lawrence
10 22.64 m (74 ft 3+14 in) glide Udo Beyer   East Germany 20 AUG 1986 Berlin
11 22.61 m (74 ft 2 in) spin Darlan Romani   Brazil 30 JUN 2019 Stanford [29]
12 22.54 m (73 ft 11+14 in) spin Christian Cantwell   United States 05 JUN 2004 Gresham
13 22.52 m (73 ft 10+12 in) glide John Brenner   United States 26 APR 1987 Walnut
14 22.51 m (73 ft 10 in) spin Adam Nelson   United States 18 MAY 2002 Portland
15 22.44 m (73 ft 7+14 in) spin Darrell Hill   United States 31 AUG 2017 Brussels [30]
16 22.43 m (73 ft 7 in) spin Reese Hoffa   United States 03 AUG 2007 London
17 22.32 m (73 ft 2+12 in) spin Michał Haratyk   Poland 28 JUL 2019 Warsaw [31]
18 22.29 m (73 ft 1+12 in) spin Josh Awotunde   United States 17 JUL 2022 Eugene [32]
19 22.28 m (73 ft 1 in) spin Ryan Whiting   United States 10 MAY 2013 Doha
20 22.25 m (72 ft 11+34 in) spin Konrad Bukowiecki   Poland 14 SEP 2019 Chorzów [33]
21 22.24 m (72 ft 11+12 in) glide Sergey Smirnov   Soviet Union 21 JUN 1986 Tallinn
22 22.22 m (72 ft 10+34 in) spin Bob Bertemes   Luxembourg 04 AUG 2019 Luxembourg City [34]
23 22.21 m (72 ft 10+14 in) A spin Dylan Armstrong   Canada 25 JUN 2011 Calgary
24 22.20 m (72 ft 10 in) spin John Godina   United States 22 MAY 2005 Carson
glide David Storl   Germany 09 JUL 2015 Lausanne [35]

Notable seriesEdit

  • Ryan Crouser threw 23.12 on 24 June 2022. 23.01, 23.11 and 22.98 (ancillary throws) were recorded for his remaining attempts. This was the first time the 23-metre barrier has been broken more than once in a series.[36]

Women (outdoor)Edit

Ath.# Perf.# Mark Technique Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 22.63 m (74 ft 2+34 in) glide Natalya Lisovskaya   Soviet Union 07 JUN 1987 Moscow
2 22.60 m (74 ft 1+34 in) Lisovskaya #2 07 JUN 1987 Moscow
3 22.55 m (73 ft 11+34 in) Lisovskaya #3 05 JUL 1988 Tallinn
4 22.53 m (73 ft 11 in) Lisovskaya #4 27 MAY 1984 Sochi
Lisovskaya #5 14 AUG 1988 Kyiv
2 6 22.45 m (73 ft 7+34 in) glide Ilona Slupianek   East Germany 11 MAY 1980 Potsdam
7 22.41 m (73 ft 6+14 in) Slupianek #2 24 JUL 1980 Moscow
8 22.40 m (73 ft 5+34 in) Slupianek #3 03 JUN 1983 Berlin
9 22.38 m (73 ft 5 in) Slupianek #4 25 MAY 1980 Karl-Marx-Stadt
10 22.36 m (73 ft 4+14 in) Slupianek #5 02 MAY 1980 Celje
11 22.34 m (73 ft 3+12 in) Slupianek #6 07 MAY 1980 Berlin
Slupianek #7 18 JUL 1980 Cottbus
3 13 22.32 m (73 ft 2+12 in) glide Helena Fibingerová   Czechoslovakia 20 AUG 1977 Nitra
14 22.24 m (72 ft 11+12 in) Lisovskaya #6 01 OCT 1988 Seoul
15 22.22 m (72 ft 10+34 in) Slupianek #8 13 JUL 1980 Potsdam
4 16 22.19 m (72 ft 9+12 in) glide Claudia Losch   West Germany 23 AUG 1987 Hainfeld
17 22.13 m (72 ft 7+14 in) Slupianek #9 29 APR 1980 Split
18 22.06 m (72 ft 4+12 in) Lisovskaya #7 06 AUG 1988 Moscow
19 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in) Slupianek #10 28 MAY 1980 Berlin
Slupianek #11 31 MAY 1980 Potsdam
21 22.04 m (72 ft 3+12 in) Slupianek #12 04 JUL 1979 Potsdam
Slupianek #13 29 JUL 1979 Potsdam
23 21.99 m (72 ft 1+12 in) Fibingerová #2 26 SEP 1976 Opava
24 21.98 m (72 ft 1+14 in) Slupianek #14 17 JUL 1979 Berlin
25 21.96 m (72 ft 12 in) Fibingerová #3 08 JUN 1977 Ostrava
Lisovskaya #8 16 AUG 1984 Prague
Lisovskaya #9 28 AUG 1988 Vilnius
5 21.89 m (71 ft 9+34 in) glide Ivanka Khristova   Bulgaria 04 JUL 1976 Belmeken
6 21.86 m (71 ft 8+12 in) glide Marianne Adam   East Germany 23 JUN 1979 Leipzig
7 21.76 m (71 ft 4+12 in) glide Li Meisu   China 23 APR 1988 Shijiazhuang
8 21.73 m (71 ft 3+12 in) glide Natalya Akhrimenko   Soviet Union 21 MAY 1988 Leselidze
9 21.69 m (71 ft 1+34 in) glide Vita Pavlysh   Ukraine 20 AUG 1998 Budapest
10 21.66 m (71 ft 34 in) glide Sui Xinmei   China 09 JUN 1990 Beijing
11 21.61 m (70 ft 10+34 in) glide Verzhinia Veselinova   Bulgaria 21 AUG 1982 Sofia
12 21.58 m (70 ft 9+12 in) glide Margitta Droese-Pufe   East Germany 28 MAY 1978 Erfurt
13 21.57 m (70 ft 9 in) glide Ines Müller   East Germany 16 MAY 1988 Athens
14 21.53 m (70 ft 7+12 in) glide Nunu Abashidze   Soviet Union 20 JUN 1984 Kyiv
15 21.52 m (70 ft 7 in) glide Huang Zhihong   China 27 JUN 1990 Beijing
16 21.46 m (70 ft 4+34 in) glide Larisa Peleshenko   Russia 26 AUG 2000 Budapest
17 21.45 m (70 ft 4+14 in) glide Nadezhda Chizhova   Soviet Union 29 SEP 1973 Varna
18 21.43 m (70 ft 3+12 in) glide Eva Wilms   West Germany 17 JUN 1977 Munich
19 21.42 m (70 ft 3+14 in) glide Svetlana Krachevskaya   Soviet Union 24 JUL 1980 Moscow
20 21.31 m (69 ft 10+34 in) glide Heike Hartwig   East Germany 16 MAY 1988 Athens
21 21.27 m (69 ft 9+14 in) glide Liane Schmuhl   East Germany 26 JUN 1982 Cottbus
22 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) glide Valerie Adams   New Zealand 29 AUG 2011 Daegu
23 21.22 m (69 ft 7+14 in) glide Astrid Kumbernuss   Germany 05 AUG 1995 Gothenburg
24 21.21 m (69 ft 7 in) glide Kathrin Neimke   East Germany 05 SEP 1987 Rome
25 21.19 m (69 ft 6+14 in) glide Helma Knorscheidt   East Germany 24 MAY 1984 Berlin

Men (indoor)Edit

  • Correct as of April 2022.[39]
Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 22.82 m (74 ft 10+14 in)   Ryan Crouser (USA) 24 January 2021 Fayetteville
2 22.66 m (74 ft 4 in)   Randy Barnes (USA) 20 January 1989 Los Angeles
3 22.55 m (73 ft 11+34 in)   Ulf Timmermann (GDR) 11 February 1989 Senftenberg
4 22.53 m (73 ft 11 in)   Darlan Romani (BRA) 19 March 2022 Belgrade
5 22.40 m (73 ft 5+34 in)   Adam Nelson (USA) 15 February 2008 Fayetteville
6 22.31 m (73 ft 2+14 in)   Tom Walsh (NZL) 3 March 2018 Birmingham
7 22.26 m (73 ft 14 in)   Werner Günthör (SUI) 8 February 1987 Magglingen
8 22.23 m (72 ft 11 in) A   Ryan Whiting (USA) 23 February 2014 Albuquerque
9 22.18 m (72 ft 9 in)   Christian Cantwell (USA) 22 February 2008 Warrensburg
10 22.17 m (72 ft 8+34 in)   Tomáš Staněk (CZE) 6 February 2018 Düsseldorf [40]
11 22.11 m (72 ft 6+14 in)   Reese Hoffa (USA) 10 March 2006 Moscow
12 22.09 m (72 ft 5+12 in)   Mika Halvari (FIN) 7 February 2000 Tampere
13 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in)   Joe Kovacs (USA) 13 February 2021 Geneva
14 22.02 m (72 ft 2+34 in)   George Woods (USA) 8 February 1974 Inglewood
15 22.00 m (72 ft 2 in)   Konrad Bukowiecki (POL) 15 February 2018 Toruń
16 21.88 m (71 ft 9+14 in)   David Storl (GER) 9 March 2012 Istanbul
17 21.85 m (71 ft 8 in)   Turner Washington (USA) 13 February 2021 Lubbock
18 21.84 m (71 ft 7+34 in)   Filip Mihaljević (CRO) 27 February 2020 Belgrade
19 21.83 m (71 ft 7+14 in)   Oleksandr Bahach (UKR) 21 February 1991 Brovary
  John Godina (USA) 26 February 2005 Boston
  Michał Haratyk (POL) 12 February 2021 Łódź
22 21.81 m (71 ft 6+12 in)   Payton Otterdahl (USA) 23 February 2019 Brookings
23 21.79 m (71 ft 5+34 in)   Remigius Machura (TCH) 13 February 1985 Prague
24 21.77 m (71 ft 5 in)   Mike Stulce (USA) 13 February 1993 Birmingham
25 21.74 m (71 ft 3+34 in)   Adrian Piperi (USA) 6 February 2021 College Station
  Josh Awotunde (USA) 27 February 2022 Spokane

Women (indoor)Edit

  • Correct as of May 2022.[41]
Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 22.50 m (73 ft 9+34 in)   Helena Fibingerová (TCH) 19 February 1977 Jablonec
2 22.14 m (72 ft 7+12 in)   Natalya Lisovskaya (URS) 7 February 1987 Penza
3 21.60 m (70 ft 10+14 in)   Valentina Fedyushina (UKR) 28 December 1991 Simferopol
4 21.59 m (70 ft 10 in)   Ilona Slupianek (GDR) 24 January 1979 Berlin
5 21.46 m (70 ft 4+34 in)   Claudia Losch (FRG) 4 February 1986 Zweibrücken
6 21.26 m (69 ft 9 in)   Ines Müller (GDR) 24 February 1985 Berlin
  Natalya Akhrimenko (URS) 24 January 1987 Leningrad
8 21.23 m (69 ft 7+34 in)   Margitta Droese-Pufe (GDR) 26 February 1978 Senftenberg
9 21.15 m (69 ft 4+12 in)   Irina Korzhanenko (RUS) 18 February 1999 Moscow
10 21.10 m (69 ft 2+12 in)   Sui Xinmei (CHN) 3 March 1990 Beijing
11 21.08 m (69 ft 1+34 in)   Li Meisu (CHN) 25 March 1988 Beijing
12 21.06 m (69 ft 1 in)   Eva Wilms (FRG) 19 February 1977 Dortmund
  Nunu Abashidze (URS) 8 February 1984 Budapest
14 21.03 m (68 ft 11+34 in)   Helma Knorscheidt (GDR) 4 August 1983 Berlin
15 20.98 m (68 ft 9+34 in)   Valerie Adams (NZL) 28 August 2013 Zürich
16 20.94 m (68 ft 8+14 in)   Kathrin Neimke (GDR) 3 February 1988 Senftenberg
17 20.85 m (68 ft 4+34 in)   Heidi Krieger (GDR) 25 January 1987 Berlin
18 20.78 m (68 ft 2 in)   Ivanka Khristova (BUL) 14 February 1976 Sofia
19 20.75 m (68 ft 34 in)   Heike Hartwig (GDR) 7 February 1987 Senftenberg
20 20.74 m (68 ft 12 in)   Verzhiniya Veselinova (BUL) 21 February 1982 Sofia
21 20.73 m (68 ft 0 in)   Vita Pavlysh (UKR) 22 February 2004 Sumy
22 20.71 m (67 ft 11+14 in)   Larisa Peleshenko (URS) 11 February 1988 Volgograd
23 20.70 m (67 ft 10+34 in)   Liane Schmuhl (GDR) 27 February 1982 Senftenberg
24 20.69 m (67 ft 10+12 in)   Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS) 22 January 1999 Moscow
25 20.62 m (67 ft 7+34 in)   Nadezhda Chizhova (URS) 9 March 1974 Gothenburg

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Robert Garrett
  United States
Miltiadis Gouskos
  Greece
Georgios Papasideris
  Greece
1900 Paris
details
Richard Sheldon
  United States
Josiah McCracken
  United States
Robert Garrett
  United States
1904 St. Louis
details
Ralph Rose
  United States
Wesley Coe
  United States
Lawrence Feuerbach
  United States
1908 London
details
Ralph Rose
  United States
Denis Horgan
  Great Britain
John Garrels
  United States
1912 Stockholm
details
Pat McDonald
  United States
Ralph Rose
  United States
Lawrence Whitney
  United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Ville Pörhölä
  Finland
Elmer Niklander
  Finland
Harry Liversedge
  United States
1924 Paris
details
Bud Houser
  United States
Glenn Hartranft
  United States
Ralph Hills
  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
John Kuck
  United States
Herman Brix
  United States
Emil Hirschfeld
  Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Leo Sexton
  United States
Harlow Rothert
  United States
František Douda
  Czechoslovakia
1936 Berlin
details
Hans Woellke
  Germany
Sulo Bärlund
  Finland
Gerhard Stöck
  Germany
1948 London
details
Wilbur Thompson
  United States
Jim Delaney
  United States
Jim Fuchs
  United States
1952 Helsinki
details
Parry O'Brien
  United States
Darrow Hooper
  United States
Jim Fuchs
  United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Parry O'Brien
  United States
Bill Nieder
  United States
Jiří Skobla
  Czechoslovakia
1960 Rome
details
Bill Nieder
  United States
Parry O'Brien
  United States
Dallas Long
  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Dallas Long
  United States
Randy Matson
  United States
Vilmos Varjú
  Hungary
1968 Mexico City
details
Randy Matson
  United States
George Woods
  United States
Eduard Gushchin
  Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Władysław Komar
  Poland
George Woods
  United States
Hartmut Briesenick
  East Germany
1976 Montreal
details
Udo Beyer
  East Germany
Yevgeniy Mironov
  Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
  Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Vladimir Kiselyov
  Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
  Soviet Union
Udo Beyer
  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alessandro Andrei
  Italy
Mike Carter
  United States
Dave Laut
  United States
1988 Seoul
details
Ulf Timmermann
  East Germany
Randy Barnes
  United States
Werner Günthör
  Switzerland
1992 Barcelona
details
Mike Stulce
  United States
Jim Doehring
  United States
Vyacheslav Lykho
  Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Randy Barnes
  United States
John Godina
  United States
Oleksandr Bagach
  Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Arsi Harju
  Finland
Adam Nelson
  United States
John Godina
  United States
2004 Athens
details
Adam Nelson
  United States
Joachim Olsen
  Denmark
Manuel Martínez
  Spain
2008 Beijing
details
Tomasz Majewski
  Poland
Christian Cantwell
  United States
Dylan Armstrong
  Canada
2012 London
details
Tomasz Majewski
  Poland
David Storl
  Germany
Reese Hoffa
  United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Ryan Crouser
  United States
Joe Kovacs
  United States
Tom Walsh
  New Zealand
2020 Tokyo
details
Ryan Crouser
  United States
Joe Kovacs
  United States
Tom Walsh
  New Zealand

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1948 London
details
Micheline Ostermeyer
  France
Amelia Piccinini
  Italy
Ina Schäffer
  Austria
1952 Helsinki
details
Galina Zybina
  Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
  Germany
Klavdiya Tochenova
  Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Tamara Tyshkevich
  Soviet Union
Galina Zybina
  Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
  United Team of Germany
1960 Rome
details
Tamara Press
  Soviet Union
Johanna Lüttge
  United Team of Germany
Earlene Brown
  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Tamara Press
  Soviet Union
Renate Culmberger
  United Team of Germany
Galina Zybina
  Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Margitta Gummel
  East Germany
Marita Lange
  East Germany
Nadezhda Chizhova
  Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Nadezhda Chizhova
  Soviet Union
Margitta Gummel
  East Germany
Ivanka Khristova
  Bulgaria
1976 Montreal
details
Ivanka Khristova
  Bulgaria
Nadezhda Chizhova
  Soviet Union
Helena Fibingerová
  Czechoslovakia
1980 Moscow
details
Ilona Slupianek
  East Germany
Svetlana Krachevskaya
  Soviet Union
Margitta Pufe
  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Claudia Losch
  West Germany
Mihaela Loghin
  Romania
Gael Martin
  Australia
1988 Seoul
details
Natalya Lisovskaya
  Soviet Union
Kathrin Neimke
  East Germany
Li Meisu
  China
1992 Barcelona
details
Svetlana Krivelyova
  Unified Team
Huang Zhihong
  China
Kathrin Neimke
  Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Astrid Kumbernuss
  Germany
Sui Xinmei
  China
Irina Khudoroshkina
  Russia
2000 Sydney
details
Yanina Karolchik
  Belarus
Larisa Peleshenko
  Russia
Astrid Kumbernuss
  Germany
2004 Athens
details
Yumileidi Cumbá
  Cuba
Nadine Kleinert
  Germany
Not awarded[42]
2008 Beijing
details
Valerie Vili
  New Zealand
Misleydis González
  Cuba
Gong Lijiao
  China
2012 London
details
Valerie Adams
  New Zealand
Gong Lijiao
  China
Li Ling
  China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Michelle Carter
  United States
Valerie Adams
  New Zealand
Anita Márton
  Hungary
2020 Tokyo
details
Gong Lijiao
  China
Raven Saunders
  United States
Valerie Adams
  New Zealand

World Championship medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Edward Sarul (POL)   Ulf Timmermann (GDR)   Remigius Machura (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
  Werner Günthör (SUI)   Alessandro Andrei (ITA)   John Brenner (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Werner Günthör (SUI)   Lars Arvid Nilsen (NOR)   Aleksandr Klimenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Werner Günthör (SUI)   Randy Barnes (USA)   Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  John Godina (USA)   Mika Halvari (FIN)   Randy Barnes (USA)
1997 Athens
details
  John Godina (USA)   Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)   C. J. Hunter (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  C. J. Hunter (USA)   Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)   Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
  John Godina (USA)   Adam Nelson (USA)   Arsi Harju (FIN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)   Adam Nelson (USA)   Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Adam Nelson (USA)   Rutger Smith (NED)   Ralf Bartels (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
  Reese Hoffa (USA)   Adam Nelson (USA)   Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
  Christian Cantwell (USA)   Tomasz Majewski (POL)   Ralf Bartels (GER)
2011 Daegu
details
  David Storl (GER)   Dylan Armstrong (CAN)   Christian Cantwell (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
  David Storl (GER)   Ryan Whiting (USA)   Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2015 Beijing
details
  Joe Kovacs (USA)   David Storl (GER)   O'Dayne Richards (JAM)
2017 London
details
  Tom Walsh (NZL)   Joe Kovacs (USA)   Stipe Žunić (CRO)
2019 Doha
details
  Joe Kovacs (USA)   Ryan Crouser (USA)   Tom Walsh (NZL)
2022 Eugene
details
  Ryan Crouser (USA)   Joe Kovacs (USA)   Josh Awotunde (USA)

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Helena Fibingerová (TCH)   Helma Knorscheidt (GDR)   Ilona Schoknecht-Slupianek (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)   Kathrin Neimke (GDR)   Ines Müller (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Huang Zhihong (CHN)   Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)   Svetlana Krivelyova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Huang Zhihong (CHN)   Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)   Kathrin Neimke (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)   Huang Zhihong (CHN)   Svetla Mitkova (BUL)
1997 Athens
details
  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)   Vita Pavlysh (UKR)   Stephanie Storp (GER)
1999 Seville
details
  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)   Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Yanina Karolchik (BLR)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)   Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)   Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)   Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki[43]
details
  Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)   Valerie Vili (NZL)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
  Valerie Vili (NZL)   Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2009 Berlin
details
  Valerie Vili (NZL)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2011 Daegu
details
  Valerie Adams (NZL)   Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)   Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
  Valerie Adams (NZL)   Christina Schwanitz (GER)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
  Christina Schwanitz (GER)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)   Michelle Carter (USA)
2017 London
details
  Gong Lijiao (CHN)   Anita Márton (HUN)   Michelle Carter (USA)
2019 Doha
details
  Gong Lijiao (CHN)   Danniel Thomas-Dodd (JAM)   Christina Schwanitz (GER)
2022 Eugene
details
  Chase Ealey (USA)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)   Jessica Schilder (NED)

World Indoor Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]
details
  Remigius Machura (TCH)   Udo Beyer (GDR)   Jānis Bojārs (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Ulf Timmermann (GDR)   Werner Günthör (SUI)   Sergey Smirnov (URS)
1989 Budapest
details
  Ulf Timmermann (GDR)   Randy Barnes (USA)   Georg Andersen (NOR)
1991 Seville
details
  Werner Günthör (SUI)   Klaus Bodenmüller (AUT)   Ron Backes (USA)
1993 Toronto
details
  Mike Stulce (USA)   Jim Doehring (USA)   Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Mika Halvari (FIN)   C. J. Hunter (USA)   Dragan Perić (FRY)
1997 Paris
details
  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)   Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)   John Godina (USA)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)   John Godina (USA)   Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2001 Lisbon
details
  John Godina (USA)   Adam Nelson (USA)   Manuel Martínez (ESP)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Manuel Martínez (ESP)   John Godina (USA)   Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2004 Budapest
details
  Christian Cantwell (USA)   Reese Hoffa (USA)   Joachim Olsen (DEN)
2006 Moscow
details
  Reese Hoffa (USA)   Joachim Olsen (DEN)   Pavel Sofin (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
  Christian Cantwell (USA)   Reese Hoffa (USA)   Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2010 Doha
details
  Christian Cantwell (USA)   Ralf Bartels (GER)   Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Ryan Whiting (USA)   David Storl (GER)   Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2014 Sopot
details
  Ryan Whiting (USA)   David Storl (GER)   Tomas Walsh (NZL)
2016 Portland
details
  Tomas Walsh (NZL)   Andrei Gag (ROU)   Filip Mihaljević (CRO)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Tomas Walsh (NZL)   David Storl (GER)   Tomáš Staněk (CZE)
2022 Belgrade
details
  Darlan Romani (BRA)   Ryan Crouser (USA)   Tomas Walsh (NZL)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]
details
  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)   Ines Müller (GDR)   Nunu Abashidze (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)   Ilona Briesenick (GDR)   Claudia Losch (FRG)
1989 Budapest
details
  Claudia Losch (FRG)   Huang Zhihong (CHN)   Christa Wiese (GDR)
1991 Seville
details
  Sui Xinmei (CHN)   Huang Zhihong (CHN)   Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)
1993 Toronto
details
  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)   Stephanie Storp (GER)   Zhang Liuhong (CHN)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Kathrin Neimke (GER)   Connie Price-Smith (USA)   Grit Hammer (GER)
1997 Paris
details
  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)   Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)   Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)   Krystyna Danilczyk-Zabawska (POL)   Teri Steer-Tunks (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
  Larisa Peleshenko (RUS)   Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)   Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)   Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)   Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)   Yumileidi Cumbá (CUB)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2006 Moscow
details
  Natallia Mikhnevich (BLR)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)   Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
  Valerie Vili (NZL)   Li Meiju (CHN)   Misleydis González (CUB)
2010 Doha
details
  Valerie Adams (NZL)   Anna Avdeyeva (RUS)   Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Valerie Adams (NZL)   Michelle Carter (USA)   Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
  Valerie Adams (NZL)   Christina Schwanitz (GER)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2016 Portland
details
  Michelle Carter (USA)   Anita Márton (HUN)   Valerie Adams (NZL)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Anita Márton (HUN)   Danniel Thomas-Dodd (JAM)   Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2022 Belgrade
details
  Auriol Dongmo (POR)   Chase Ealey (USA)   Jessica Schilder (NED)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bestsEdit

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language:: SND :: Putt v n1".
  2. ^ Colin White (31 December 2009). Projectile Dynamics in Sport: Principles and Applications. Taylor & Francis. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-415-47331-6. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  3. ^ "Hammer Throw". IAAF. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  4. ^ Shot Put – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-02-28.
  5. ^ "Laying Out Sector Angles for the Track and Field Throwing Events" (PDF). USA Track & Field Pacific Northwest. Retrieved 2022-03-19. The shot, discus, hammer & weight throw sector is 34.92º. This angle was chosen due to its simple geometry.
  6. ^ "Follow These Directions for the Glide Technique in Shot Put".
  7. ^ "Rotational vs. Glide Revisited - Comparing Shot Techniques [ARTICLE] | the Track & Field / Cross Country Coaches Insider". Archived from the original on 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  8. ^ a b "Shot Put Spin and Glide Technique Comparison". 2013-09-17.
  9. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov biography on sportsdaily.ru (in Russian) reference tested at 11 May 2009
  10. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov, Athlete from Russia (in Russian) Archived 2010-09-17 at the Wayback Machine reference tested at 11 May 2009
  11. ^ Григорий РУДЕРМАН (Израиль), заслуженный тренер России «Метания в хх веке : тенденции развития.» reference tested at 11 May 2009
  12. ^ http://www.ltfca.com/assets/glide-vs-spin.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  13. ^ Playboy Poland 8/2012, page 44,45
  14. ^ "Ryan Crouser breaks world indoor shot put record with 2 best throws in history". 24 January 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "Men's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Women's Outdoor Shot Put | Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Shot Put Men Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  18. ^ "All-time men's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Crouser smashes world shot put record with 23.37m in Eugene | REPORT | World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org. Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  20. ^ Jess Whittington (7 September 2022). "Kovacs throws 23.23m in superb shot put showdown on Sechselautenplatz". World Athletics. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  21. ^ Karen Rosen (25 June 2022). "Kerley cruises to speedy 100m triumph at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  22. ^ Cathal Dennehy (29 May 2022). "Norman reigns in fierce 400m clash with record run in Eugene". World Athletics. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  23. ^ "Men's Shot Put Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 17 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  24. ^ a b "Shot Put Results" (PDF). IAAF. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  25. ^ "Men's Shot Put Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 17 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  26. ^ Chris Broadbent (8 August 2022). "McLaughlin sets European all-comers' record of 51.68 in Szekesfehervar". World Athletics. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  27. ^ Karen Rosen (25 June 2022). "Kerley cruises to speedy 100m triumph at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  28. ^ Javier Clavelo Robinson (13 May 2022). "Crouser crushes world lead and Johnson gets shock win in Ponce". World Athletics. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  29. ^ Brian Russell (1 July 2019). "Romani takes surprise shot put win in Stanford – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  30. ^ Mike Rowbottom (31 August 2017). "Hill hits the shot put jackpot in Brussels' Place de la Monnaie – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  31. ^ "Haratyk smashes Polish shot put record with 22.32m in Warsaw". European Athletics. 28 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  32. ^ "Men's Shot Put Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 17 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  33. ^ Bob Ramsak (14 September 2019). "Bukowiecki improves to 22.25m in Chorzow". IAAF. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  34. ^ "Cessange -Luxembourg- (Luxembourg), 3–4.8.2019 -Mémorial J.-P. Kops & J.-M. Reuter-". trackinsun.blogspot.com. 4 August 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  36. ^ Karen Rosen (25 June 2022). "Kerley cruises to speedy 100m triumph at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  37. ^ "Shot Put Women Senior Outdoor". IAAF. 6 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  38. ^ "All-time women's best Shot Put". alltime-athletics.com. 30 August 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  39. ^ "Shot Put - men - senior - indoor". World Athletics. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  40. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  41. ^ "Shot Put - women - senior - indoor". World Athletics. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  42. ^ Athens 2004 Athletics Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  43. ^ Revision of results following sanctions of Tsikhan and Ostapchuk

External linksEdit