International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded on 17 July 1912 as the International Amateur Athletic Federation by representatives from 17 national athletics federations at the organization's first congress in Stockholm, Sweden. Since October 1993, it has been headquartered in Monaco.
|Formation||17 July 1912|
|215 member federations|
Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word amateur in its name until its 2001 congress, at which it changed its name to the International Association of Athletics Federations.
The process to found the IAAF was started at a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden on 17 July 1912 soon after the completion of the 1912 Summer Olympics in that city. Here 27 representatives from 17 national federations agreed to meet at a congress in Germany the following year overseen by Sigfrid Edström who was to become the fledgling organisation's first president. The congress that started on 20 August 1913 in Berlin is when the foundation of the IAAF was formally completed.
In 2015, a whistleblower leaked IAAF's blood test records from major competitions. The records revealed that, between 2001 and 2012, athletes with suspicious drug test results won a third of the medals in endurance events at the Olympics and World Championships—a total of 146 medals including 55 golds—but the IAAF caught none of them. After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading "anti-doping" expert, said, "Never have I seen such an alarmingly abnormal set of blood values. So many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen." Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), said his organisation was "very disturbed by these new allegations ... which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide", and that its "independent commission will investigate the claims".
Around the same time, the University of Tübingen in Germany claimed that the IAAF suppressed publication of a 2011 report in which "[h]undreds of athletes", as many as a third of the world's top athletes, "admitted violating anti-doping rules".
On 1 November 2015, former IAAF president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption and money laundering. Diack allegedly accepted "$1.2 million from the Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011."
In November 2015, WADA published its report, which found "systemic failures" in the IAAF had prevented an "effective" anti-doping programme and concluded that Russia should be banned from competing in international competitions because of its athletes' test results. The report continued that "the IAAF allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility" and that "corruption was embedded" in the organization.
In January 2016, as a result of the doping scandal and WADA's report, the IAAF's biggest sponsor, Adidas, announced that it was ending its sponsorship deal with the IAAF four years early. The BBC reported that as a result the IAAF would lose $33 million (£23 million) worth of revenue. The 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019. World-record holding sprinter Michael Johnson described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA. In February 2016, Nestlé announced that it was ending its IAAF sponsorship.
In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAF's ruling council, the IAAF upheld its ban on Russia's track and field team from entering the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. In February 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation disqualified by decision of the IAAF Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system.
The IAAF has since resisted demands that Russia be re-instated, on the basis that the country repeatedly failed to satisfy all the agreed criteria. The decision was supported by Sean Ingle of The Guardian who wrote in a column that the IAAF should maintain their ban on Russia through the 2016 Olympics in Rio. That meant Russian athletes could compete at all major events in the following years, including the 2017 IAAF World Championships in London and the 2018 European Championships in Berlin only as neutral athletes. In September 2018, the IAAF faced a legal challenge by Russia to overturn the suspension after the reinstatement of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency, but Hugo Lowell of the i newspaper reported the country's status would not change. The legal case was later dropped.
Since the establishment of the IAAF, it has had six presidents:
|Lord Burghley (later Lord Exeter)||United Kingdom||1946–1976|
|Lord Coe||United Kingdom||2015–|
- Asian Athletics Association in Asia AAA –
- Confederation of African Athletics in Africa CAA –
- Confederación Sudamericana de Atletismo in South America CONSUDATLE –
- European Athletic Association in Europe EAA –
- North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association in North America NACAC –
- Oceania Athletics Association in Oceania OAA –
- Senior (all the athletes over 20 years old) (age-group competition over age 35 has become the domain of World Masters Athletics)
- Junior (athletes aged 18 or 19 years on 31 December of the year of the competition)
- Youth (athletes aged 16 or 17 years on 31 December of the year of the competition)
Included in its charge are the standardization of timekeeping methods and world records. The IAAF also organizes many major athletics competitions worldwide, including:
World Athletics SeriesEdit
|IAAF World Championships in Athletics||Every two years||1983|
|IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics||Every two years||1985|
|IAAF World Cross Country Championships||Every two years||1973|
|IAAF World Half Marathon Championships||Every two years||1992|
|IAAF World U20 Championships||Every two years||1986|
|IAAF World U18 Championships in Athletics||Every two years||1999|
|IAAF World Race Walking Cup||Every two years||1961|
|IAAF World Marathon Cup||Every two years||1985|
|IAAF Continental Cup†||Every four years||1977|
|IAAF World Relays||Every two years||2014|
- † = Formerly IAAF World Cup
|IAAF Diamond League||2010|
|IAAF World Challenge Meetings||2010|
|IAAF World Indoor Tour||2016|
|IAAF Label Road Races|
|IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings|
|IAAF World Combined Events Challenge||1998|
|IAAF World Race Walking Challenge||2003|
IAAF Road Race Label EventsEdit
|IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings||2015|
|IAAF World Athletics Tour||2009|
|IAAF Golden League||2009|
|IAAF Super Grand Prix||2009|
|IAAF Grand Prix||2009|
|IAAF World Athletics Final||2009|
|IAAF World Road Running Championships||2007|
|IAAF Grand Prix Final||2002|
|IAAF World Cross Challenge||2000|
|IAAF World Road Relay Championships||1998|
IAAF partner organisationsEdit
As of 1 November 2015:
- Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS)
- International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU)
- International Paralympic Committee (IPC Athletics)
- International Trail Running Association (ITRA)
- World Masters Athletics (WMA)
- World Mountain Running Association (WMRA)
- Elite Ltd (for incorporation of statistics from all-athletics.com into IAAF website)
- "Athletics: Sebastian Coe Elected IAAF President". BBC Sport: Athletics. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- Reprint (page 226) at Google Books UK (books.google.co.uk).
The 1912 Stockholm Olympics: Essays on the Competitions, the People, the City, eds. Leif Yttergren and Hans Bolling, Jefferson NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2012. ISBN 978-0-7864-7131-7.
Translated from the Swedish: Stockholmsolympiaden 1912 (Stockholm: Stockholmia, 2012).
- "IAAF Presidential Election History". Jesse Squire, Daily Relay, 18 August 2015.
- "The Beginning of the IAAF: A study of its background and foundation". Dr. Hans Bolling, (adviser: Prof. em. Jan Lindroth), Stockholm/Sweden 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Roan, Dan (2 August 2015). "Leaked IAAF Doping Files: WADA 'Very Alarmed' by Allegations". BBC Sport: Athletics. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "IAAF Accused of Suppressing Athletes' Doping Study". BBC Sport: Athletics. 16 August 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Former IAAF President Under Criminal Investigation for Doping Cover-Up". Sports Illustrated. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Athletics doping: Interpol to co-ordinate probe". BBC News. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Athletics Doping: WADA Report Calls for Russia Ban". BBC Sport: Athletics. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "IAAF scandal worse than Fifa's, says US great Michael Johnson". 10 December 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Mark Daly and Dan Roan (24 January 2016). "Adidas to end IAAF sponsorship deal early in wake of doping crisis". BBC Sport: Athletics. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Nestle ends IAAF sponsorship deal". 10 February 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Nesha Starcevic and Stephen Wilson (17 June 2016). "IAAF upholds bans on Russian athletes for Rio Games". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Ingle, Sean (6 March 2016). "Why the IAAF must ensure Russia remains banned for Rio Olympics". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Ingle, Sean (1 March 2018). "Sebastian Coe tells Russia: IAAF will still play hardball despite IOC decision". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Lowell, Hugo (20 September 2018). "Russian athletics to remain in wilderness despite Wada ruling". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "IAAF National Member Federations". IAAF.org. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). IAAF.
- "Basic Information Guide: 2011 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, Punta Umbria, Spain". IAAF. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- "IAAF Competition Rules 2016-2017" (PDF). International Association of Athletics Federations. 1 November 2015. p. 315. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "IAAF: Official IAAF world rankings first step in fundamental changes in athletics| News | iaaf.org". iaaf.org. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
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