Virginia (// (listen)), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2019[update] is over 8.54 million.
|Commonwealth of Virginia|
Old Dominion, Mother of Presidents
|Anthem: "Our Great Virginia"|
Map of the United States with Virginia highlighted
|Before statehood||Colony of Virginia|
|Admitted to the Union||June 25, 1788 (10th)|
|Largest city||Virginia Beach|
|• Governor||Ralph Northam (D)|
|• Lieutenant Governor||Justin Fairfax (D)|
|• Upper house||Senate|
|• Lower house||House of Delegates|
|U.S. House delegation|
|• Total||42,774.2 sq mi (110,785.67 km2)|
|• Length||430 mi (690 km)|
|• Width||200 mi (320 km)|
|Elevation||950 ft (290 m)|
|Highest elevation||5,729 ft (1,746 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|• Density||206.7/sq mi (79.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||14th|
|• Median household income||$71,535|
|• Income rank||10th|
|• Official language||English|
|• Spoken language|
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (EDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-VA|
|Latitude||36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N|
|Longitude||75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W|
|Virginia state symbols|
The Flag of Virginia
The Seal of Virginia
|Bird||Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)|
|Butterfly||Tiger Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio glaucus)|
|Dog breed||American Foxhound (Canis lupis familiaris)|
|Fish||Brook trout, striped bass|
|Insect||Tiger Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio glaucus)|
|Slogan||Virginia is for lovers|
|Tartan||Virginia Quadcentennial Tartan|
|State route marker|
Released in 2000
|Lists of United States state symbols|
The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent English colony in the New World. Virginia's state nickname, the Old Dominion, is a reference to this status. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy while the First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union, leading to a split that created West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.
The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the Western Hemisphere and is made up of a forty member Senate and a one-hundred member House of Delegates. The state government is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport.
Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.7 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina to the south; by Tennessee to the southwest; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River.
The state's southern border is defined as 36°30' north latitude, though surveyor error in the 1700s led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes. From 1802 to 1803, a commission appointed by Virginia and Tennessee surveyed the area and set their border as a line from the summit of White Top Mountain to the top of the Cumberland Mountains. Errors discovered in 1856 led Virginia to propose a new surveying commission in 1871, but in 1893 the U.S. Supreme Court decided in favor of the 1803 line in the case Virginia v. Tennessee. One result of this is the division of the city of Bristol between the two states.
Geology and terrain
The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River and the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay. Sea level rise has eroded the land on Virginia's islands, which include Tangier Island in the bay and Chincoteague, one of 23 barrier islands on the Atlantic coast.
The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the commonwealth, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m). The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.
The Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral, and was the state's largest in at least a century. Due to the area's geologic properties, the earthquake was felt from Northern Florida to Southern Ontario. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted what is now eastern Virginia. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. More than 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, kyanite, sand, or gravel, were also mined in Virginia in 2018[update]. The commonwealth's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns.
|Virginia state-wide averages 1895–2020|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Virginia has a humid subtropical climate that transitions to humid continental west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 25 °F (−4 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. Most of Virginia's records in temperature and precipitation have occurred in the Blue Ridge Mountains and areas west. The Atlantic Ocean and Gulf Stream have a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the commonwealth, making them consistently warmer. Virginia receives an average of 43.34 inches (110 cm) of precipitation annually, with the Shenandoah Valley being the state's driest region due to the mountains on either side.
Virginia has around 35–45 days with thunderstorms annually, and storms are common in the late afternoon and evenings between April and September. These months are also the most common for tornadoes, 19 of which touched down in the state in 2019. Hurricanes and tropical storms can occur from August to October, and though they typically impact coastal regions, the deadliest natural disaster in Virginia was Hurricane Camille, which killed over 150 people in 1969, mainly inland in Nelson County. Between December and March, cold-air damming caused by the Appalachian Mountains can lead to significant snowfalls across the state, such as the January 2016 blizzard, which created the state's highest recorded snowfall of 36.6 inches (93 cm) near Bluemont. Virginia only received 13.1 inches (33 cm) of snow during winter 2018–19, just above the state's average of 10 inches (25 cm).
Climate change in Virginia is leading to higher temperatures year-round as well as more heavy rain and flooding events. Urban heat islands can be found in many Virginia cities and suburbs, particularly in neighborhoods linked to historic redlining. Arlington had the most code orange days in 2019 for high ozone pollution in the air, with 12, followed by Fairfax County with 7. Exposure of particulate matter in Virginia's air has decreased 49% from 13.5 micrograms per cubic meter in 2003 to 6.9 in 2019. The closure and conversion of coal power plants in Virginia and the Ohio Valley region has reduced haze in the mountains, which peaked in 1998. Virginia's 6 coal power plants must shut down by 2025, and current plans call for 30 percent of the state's electricity to be renewable by 2030 and for all of it to be carbon-free by 2050.
Forests cover 62 percent of Virginia as of 2019[update], of which 78 percent is considered hardwood forest, meaning that trees in Virginia are primarily deciduous and broad-leaved. The other 22 percent is pine, with Loblolly and shortleaf pine dominating much of central and eastern Virginia. In the western and mountainous parts of the commonwealth, oak and hickory are most common, while lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance. Gypsy moth infestations in oak trees and the blight in chestnut trees have decreased both of their numbers, leaving more room for hickory and invasive ailanthus trees. In the lowland tidewater and piedmont, yellow pines tend to dominate, with bald cypress wetland forests in the Great Dismal and Nottoway swamps. Other common trees and plants include red bay, wax myrtle, dwarf palmetto, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found.
Virginia is home to more than one million white-tailed deer, whose population have rebounded from an estimated 25,000 to 50,000 during the Great Depression. Native carnivorans include black bears, bobcats, coyotes, both gray and red foxes, raccoons, and skunks. Rodents include groundhogs, weasels, nutria, beavers, both gray squirrels and fox squirrels, chipmunks, and Allegheny woodrats, while bats include brown bats and the Virginia big-eared bat, the state mammal. The Virginia opossum is also the only marsupial native to the United States and Canada, and the native Appalachian cottontail was recognized as a distinct species of rabbit in 1992.
Birds of prey include ospreys, bald eagles, barred owls, red-tailed hawks, turkey vultures, brown pelicans, and 31 pairs of peregrine falcons, which are the focus of a reintroduction program in Shenandoah National Park. Other birds include wild turkeys, quail, seagulls, Carolina chickadees, pileated woodpeckers, red-bellied woodpeckers, and cardinals, the state bird. Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish. The Chesapeake Bay is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish. Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of crayfish, and amphibians include the Cumberland Plateau salamander and Eastern hellbender.
Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, Shenandoah National Park. Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost forty percent (79,579 acres or 322.04 km2) of the park's total 199,173 acres (806.02 km2) area has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System. Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry. The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina, as does the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which marks the beginning of the Outer Banks.
Virginia celebrated its quadricentennial year in 2007, marking 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The observances highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the Civil War, to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism. Fictionalized stories about the early colony, in particular the story of Pocahontas and John Smith, first became popular in the period after the Revolutionary War, and together with other myths surrounding George Washington's childhood and plantation elite in the antebellum period became touchstones of Virginian and American culture and helped shape the state's historic politics and beliefs.
The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago. By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network. Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and more than 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000.
Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits, explored the Chesapeake Bay during the 16th century. In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida. In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America. The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen", and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina". Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda. The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport. In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an English crown colony.
Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the Starving Time in 1609 and the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the Indian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes. By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived. However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants. The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia. African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude. The shift to a system of African slavery in Virginia was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch, who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away, and of John Casor, who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655. Slavery first appears in Virginia statutes in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status.
Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as eighty percent of the population. Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes, and one result of the rebellion was the signing at Middle Plantation of the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states and was part of a pattern of appropriating tribal land by force and treaty. Middle Plantation saw the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693 and was renamed Williamsburg as it became the colonial capital in 1699. In 1747, a group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio Company, with the backing of the British crown, to start English settlement and trade in the Ohio Country west of the Appalachian Mountains. France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War became part of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant Colonel George Washington.
The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others. Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year. After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution. Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.
When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack. In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.
Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789. Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846. Virginia is called the "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states such as Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.
Civil War and aftermath
In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries. The execution of Gabriel Prosser in 1800, Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 marked the growing social discontent over slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31 percent of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved. This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.
Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital. After the 1861 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. Virginian general Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House. After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg, while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville. Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.
During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights. The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883. It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor European Americans. Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater role in Virginia society.
New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered around Richmond. In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding, which was responsible for building six major World War I-era battleships for the U.S. Navy from 1907 to 1923. During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction.
Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding.
The civil rights movement gained many participants in the 1960s. It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools. In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with Loving v. Virginia. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.
The Cold War led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth. The Central Intelligence Agency in Langley was involved in various Cold War events, including as the target of Soviet espionage activities. Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon, built during World War II as the headquarters for the Department of Defense. It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane was flown into the building.
Cities and towns
Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 38 independent cities, the latter acting in many ways as county-equivalents. This general method of treating cities and counties on par with each other is unique to Virginia; only three other independent cities exist elsewhere in the United States, each in a different state. Virginia limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly under what is known as Dillon's Rule. In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county. Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.
Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous. 2.9 million people, 35 percent of Virginians, live in Northern Virginia, which is part of the Washington metropolitan area with 6.2 million people and is the southern end of the Northeast megalopolis. Fairfax County is the most populous locality in the state, with more than 1.1 million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax City, which is one of the independent cities. Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market. Neighboring Prince William County is Virginia's second most populous county, with a population exceeding 450,000, and is home to Marine Corps Base Quantico, the FBI Academy and Manassas National Battlefield Park. Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is the fastest-growing county in the state. Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.
Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population over 1.2 million. As of 2010[update], Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively. Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk. Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1,111 km2). In western Virginia, Roanoke city and Montgomery County, part of the Blacksburg–Christiansburg metropolitan area, both have surpassed a population of over 100,000 since 2018.
|Source: 1860 1910–2010|
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 8,535,519 on July 1, 2019, a 6.68 percent increase since the 2010 United States Census. This includes an increase of 534,495 people into the Commonwealth since the 2010 census. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people. As of 2000, the center of population is located in Goochland County, near Richmond.
Aside from Virginia, the top birth state for Virginians is New York, having overtaken North Carolina in the 1990s, with the Northeast accounting for the largest number of migrants into the state by region.
The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic whites, has declined as a proportion of population from 76 percent in 1990 to 62 percent in 2018, as other ethnicities have increased. People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated. Those who identify on the census as having "American ethnicity" are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestors who have been in North America for so long they choose to identify simply as American. Of the English immigrants to Virginia in the 17th century, three-fourths came as indentured servants. The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution. There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley. On the 2017 American Community Survey, 11.3 percent said they were of German ancestry.
The largest minority group in Virginia are African Americans, who include about one-fifth of the population. Virginia was a major destination of the Atlantic slave trade, and the first generations of enslaved men, women and children were brought primarily from Angola and the Bight of Biafra. The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia. Many African Americans also have European and Native American ancestry, often with asymmetrical male and female ancestry contribution. Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration to northern industrial cities in the first half of the 20th century, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south. According to the Pew Research Center, the state has the highest number of black-white interracial marriages in the United States, and 2.9 percent of Virginians describe themselves as biracial.
More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has resulted in new communities of Hispanics and Asians. As of 2018[update], 9.4 percent of Virginians are Hispanic or Latino (of any race), and 6.8 percent are Asian. The state's Hispanic population rose by 92 percent from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics in the state living in Northern Virginia. Hispanic citizens in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general state population. There is a large Salvadoran population in the DC suburbs of Northern Virginia, and a large Puerto Rican population in the Hampton Roads region of Southeast Virginia. Northern Virginia also has a significant population of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War. Korean Americans have migrated more recently, attracted by the quality school system. The Filipino American community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy and armed forces.
Additionally, 0.5 percent of Virginians are American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.1 percent are Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. Virginia has extended state recognition to eleven Native American tribes resident in the state. Seven tribes also have federal recognition, including six that were recognized in 2018 under an act named for activist Thomasina Jordan. The Pamunkey and Mattaponi have reservations on tributaries of the York River in the Tidewater region.
As of 2010[update], 85.9% (6,299,127) of Virginia residents age five and older spoke English at home as a first language, while 14.1% (1,036,442) did not—6.4% (470,058) spoke Spanish, 0.8% (56,518) Korean, 0.6% (45,881) Vietnamese, 0.6% (42,418) Chinese (including Mandarin), and 0.6% (40,724) Tagalog. English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.
The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.
Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptist denominations combined to form largest group with about 26 percent of the population as of 2014[update], and around 763,655 total members as of 2010[update]. Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention. Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673,853 members. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest.
The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church in most of the Commonwealth, while the Holston Conference represents much of extreme Southwest Virginia. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Congregationalist, and Episcopalian adherents each comprised less than two percent of the population as of 2010[update]. The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches.
In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claimed the secessionist churches' buildings and properties. The resulting property law case, ultimately decided in favor of the mainline diocese, was a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.
Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute one percent of the population, with two hundred congregations in Virginia as of 2017[update]. Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah. Muslims are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration. Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church. Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and the University of Lynchburg.
Virginia's economy has diverse sources of income, including local and federal government, military, farming and high-tech. Virginia had 4.36 million people employed with an unemployment rate of 2.9 percent in March 2020, prior to the coronavirus recession. By April 2020, the unemployment rose to 10.6 percent, which was the 13th-lowest nationwide. The state's average earnings per job was $63,281, the 11th-highest nationwide, and the Gross domestic product (GDP) was $476.4 billion in 2018, the 13th-largest among U.S. states. Canada is the state's leading international market, receiving 17.2 percent of exports.
Virginia has a median household income of $72,600, 11th-highest nationwide, and a poverty rate of 10.7 percent, 12th-lowest nationwide, as of 2018[update]. Montgomery County outside Blacksburg has the highest poverty rate in the state, with 28.5 percent falling below the U.S. Census poverty thresholds. Loudoun County meanwhile has the highest median household income in the nation, and the wider Northern Virginia region is among the highest-income regions nationwide. As of 2013[update], six of the twenty highest-income counties in the United States, including the two highest, as well as three of the fifty highest-income towns, are all located in Northern Virginia. Though the Gini index shows Virginia has less income inequality than the national average, the state's middle class is also smaller than the majority of states.
Virginia has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs. Approximately twelve percent of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia, the second-highest amount after California. Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.
Virginia has one of the highest concentrations of veterans of any state, and is second to California in total Department of Defense employees. The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military personnel and assets of any metropolitan area in the world, including the largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk. In its state government, Virginia employs 106,143 public employees, who combined have a median income of $44,656 as of 2013[update].
Virginia was home to 653,193 separate firms in the 2012 U.S. Census Survey of Business Owners, with 54% of those majority male-owned and 36.2% majority female-owned. Approximately 28.3% of firms were also majority minority-owned, and 11.7% were veteran-owned. Twenty-one Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in Virginia as of 2019[update], with the largest companies by revenue being Freddie Mac, General Dynamics, and Capital One. The largest by their number of employees are Dollar Tree in Chesapeake and Hilton Worldwide Holdings in McLean.
Virginia's business environment has been ranked highly by various publications. In 2019, CNBC named Virginia their Top State for Business, with its deductions being mainly for the high cost of living, while Forbes magazine ranked it fourth, though number one in quality of life. Additionally, in 2014 a survey of 12,000 small business owners found Virginia to be one of the most friendly states for small businesses. Oxfam America however ranked Virginia last in their July 2018 ranking of best states to work in, largely due to a low minimum wage of $7.25, and the state's organized labor laws. Though the topic was debated during in the 2019–20 General Assembly session, Virginia has been a "right to work" state since 1947, and an employment-at-will state since 1906.
Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state, and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California, Texas, and New York. Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, with a total export value of $694 million in 2019. Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor and Tysons Corner areas. The state has the highest average and peak Internet speeds in the United States, with the third-highest worldwide. Northern Virginia's data centers can carry up to seventy percent of the nation's Internet traffic, and in 2015 the region was the largest and fastest growing data center market in the nation.
Tourism in Virginia supported an estimated 234,000 jobs in 2018, making tourism the state's fifth largest industry. It generated $26 billion, an increase 4.4 percent from 2017. The state was eighth nationwide in domestic travel spending in 2018, with Arlington County the top tourist destination in the state by domestic spending, followed by Fairfax County, Loudoun County, and Virginia Beach. Virginia also saw 1.1 million international tourists in 2018, a five percent increase from 2017.
As of 2017[update], agriculture occupied 28 percent of the land in Virginia with 7.8 million acres (12,188 sq mi; 31,565 km2) of farmland. Nearly 54,000 Virginians work on the state's 43,225 farms, which average 181 acres (0.28 sq mi; 0.73 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia, providing for over 334,000 jobs. Soybeans were the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2017, ahead of corn and cut flowers as other leading agricultural products, however the ongoing China–United States trade war led many Virginia farmers to plant cotton instead of soybeans in 2019. Though it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the third-largest producer of tobacco in the United States.
Virginia is the largest producer of seafood on the East Coast, with scallops, oysters, blue crabs, and clams as the largest seafood harvests by value, and France, Canada, and Hong Kong as the top export destinations. Eastern oyster harvests had increased from 23,000 bushels in 2001 to over 500,000 in 2013, but fell to 248,347 in 2019 because of low salinity in coastal waters due to heavy spring rains. Those same rains however made 2019 a record wine harvest for vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains, which also attract 2.3 million tourists annually. Virginia has the seventh-highest number of wineries in the nation, with 307 as of January 2020[update]. Cabernet franc and Chardonnay are the most grown varieties.
Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4.3%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5.3% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 2.5% on most food. The sales tax rate is .7% higher in Northern Virginia and Newport News, where it is 6.0%. Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on one hundred percent of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.
Virginia's culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South. Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States. The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.
Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the commonwealth. Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can be produced only in the town of Smithfield. Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the commonwealth's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the commonwealth.
Literature in Virginia often deals with the commonwealth's extensive and sometimes troubled past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture. Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice. William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice. Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons. Mount Vernon native Matt Bondurant received critical acclaim for his historic novel The Wettest County in the World about moonshiners in Franklin County during prohibition. Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate.
Fine and performing arts
Rich in cultural heritage, Virginia however ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average. The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia. Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art. Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields. The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.
Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and in suburbs. The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is home of the Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads. Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton. The Barter Theatre in Abingdon, designated the State Theatre of Virginia, won the first Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There is also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.
Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors. Virginia is known for its tradition in the music genres of old-time string and bluegrass, with groups such as the Carter Family and Stanley Brothers, as well as gospel, blues, and shout bands. Contemporary Virginia is also known for folk rock artists like Dave Matthews and Jason Mraz, hip hop stars like Pharrell Williams, Missy Elliott and Pusha T, as well as thrash metal groups like GWAR and Lamb of God. Several members of country music band Old Dominion grew up in the Roanoke area, and took their band name from Virginia's state nickname. Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live. Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.
Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows. Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances. The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville. Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer. Each September, Bay Days celebrates the Chesapeake Bay as well as Hampton's 400-year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September as well. Both feature live music performances, and other unique events.
On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester which includes parades and bluegrass concerts. The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.
The Hampton Roads area is the 42nd-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 54th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 69th as of 2020[update]. Northern Virginia is part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market.
There are 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers including those broadcasting from neighboring jurisdictions. According the Federal Communications Commission, 595 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with 239 such AM stations as of 2020[update]. The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout Virginia, and the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV produces programs such as the PBS NewsHour and Washington Week.
The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot with around 132,000 subscribers, the Richmond Times-Dispatch with 86,219, and The Roanoke Times as of 2018[update]. The paper with nation's most daily readers, USA Today, with 520,000 daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean. USA Today is the flagship publication of Gannett, Inc., which merged with GateHouse Media in 2019, and operates over one hundred local newspapers nationwide. In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post is the dominant newspaper and provides local coverage for the region, while several papers that cover Washington, D.C., such as The Washington Examiner and Politico, have their offices in Virginia.
Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top five states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested. The 2019 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education third best in the country, with a letter grade of B-. All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability. In 2018, 91.6 percent of high school students graduated on-time after four years, and increase of two percent from 2013.
Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As off the 2018–19 academic year,[update] a total of 1,290,576 students were enrolled in 2,293 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including eight charter schools, and an additional 98 alternative and special education centers across 133 school divisions. 2018 marked the first decline in overall enrollment in public schools, by just over 2,000 students, since 1984. Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students. The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 483 state accredited private schools. An additional 17,283 students receive homeschooling.
As of 2019[update], there are 169 colleges and universities in Virginia. In the 2019 U.S. News & World Report ranking of national public universities, the University of Virginia is ranked No. 3, the College of William and Mary is No. 10, Virginia Tech is No. 30, George Mason University is No. 67, and Virginia Commonwealth University is No. 80. James Madison University is ranked the No. 6 regional university in The South. The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college. Virginia State University and Virginia Tech are the state's land-grant universities. Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving more than 225,000 credit students and about 175,000 non-credit students as of 2017[update]. There are 124 private institutions in the state, including nationally ranked liberal arts colleges Washington and Lee University at No. 11, the University of Richmond at No. 25, and the Virginia Military Institute at No. 81. As of 2019[update], the private Liberty University had the largest total enrollment in the state, with 88,283 online and 15,105 on-campus students in Lynchburg. The public George Mason University had the largest on-campus enrollment at 37,677 students.
Virginia has a mixed health record, and was ranked as the 15th overall healthiest state according to the 2019 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings. Virginia also ranks 19th among the states in the rate of premature deaths, with 6,914 per 100,000, and 24th with an infant mortality rate of 5.9 per 1,000 live births. There are however racial and social health disparities. With high rates of heart disease and diabetes, African Americans in Virginia had an average life expectancy 4 years lower than whites and 12 years lower than Asian Americans and Latinos in 2017, and were disproportionately affected by COVID-19 during the coronavirus pandemic. African-American mothers are also three times more likely to die while giving birth in the state. Mortality rates among white middle-class Virginians have also been rising, with drug overdose, suicide, and alcohol poisoning as leading causes.
Weight is an issue for many Virginians, and 30.3% of adults and 13.2% of 10- to 17-year-olds are obese as of 2019[update]. Additionally, 35% of adults are overweight and 23.3% do not exercise regularly. Virginia banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010, and the percent of tobacco smokers in the state has declined from 19% in that year to 14.9% in 2019. Virginia does have among the highest rates of immunization nationwide, ranking 6th for childhood immunization and 14th for both TDaP and HPV vaccines per capita. Virginia was the first U.S. state to mandate HPV vaccination for girls for school attendance, which it did in 2008.
There are 90 hospitals in Virginia with a combined 17,706 hospital beds as of 2020[update]. Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S. News & World Report. Virginia has a ratio of 148.1 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 24th highest nationally, but only 171.9 mental health providers per that number, the 10th lowest nationwide. The rate of uninsured Virginians dropped to 8.8% after the state government passed Medicare expansion in 2019.
Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states. As of 2018[update], the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 70,105 miles (112,823 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States. Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second highest rate of traffic congestion in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest rate of congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes. Virginia hit peak car usage before the year 2000, making it one of the first such states.
Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express (VRE) maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day. Arlington accounted for forty percent of Virginia's public transit trips as of 2013[update], with most of that being from the Washington Metro transit system, which also serves Alexandria and communities in Fairfax County along I-66. The system is currently expanding west into additional areas of Loudoun County. Major freight railroads in Virginia include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation. Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector, FRED buses in Fredericksburg, and OmniRide in Prince William County. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown Ferry which connects Jamestown to Scotland Wharf across the James River.
Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National in Northern Virginia, both of which handle more than twenty million passengers a year; Richmond International; and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport and Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads area. Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs. The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 69,416,600 short tons (62,973,700 t) of total cargo in 2018[update], the fifth most of United States ports. The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport. Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.
Law and government
In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere. In 2008, the government was ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A-minus in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure, tied with Utah and Washington.  Based on data through 2018, the Pew Center also found the state government to be above average in running surpluses, while U.S. News and World Report ranked the state eighth in fiscal stability.
Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. Delegates serve two-year terms, while senators serve four-year terms, with the most recent elections for both taking place in November 2019.
The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections, with the next taking place in November 2021. Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms. The lieutenant governor is the official head of the Senate, and is responsible for breaking ties. The House selects a Speaker, as well as majority and minority leaders.
The judicial system, also the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts, the trial courts of general jurisdiction, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts. The Supreme Court has seven justices who are elected by a majority vote in both the House and Senate, and serve twelve-year terms, with a mandatory retirement age of 73. The Supreme Court selects its own Chief Justice, who is informally limited to two four-year terms.
The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States. The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard. Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia in 1982, 113 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation, and three inmates are on the state's death row as of 2019[update]. Virginia has the fourth lowest violent crime rate and 13th-lowest property crime rate as of 2018[update] according to FBI data. Since Virginia ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 23.4 percent in 2019, the lowest nationwide.
Over the 20th century, Virginia shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided one-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization. The legacy of slavery in the state effectively disfranchised African Americans until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Greater enfranchisement and demographic shifts have changed the electorate. In 1980, 56 percent of eligible voters were born in the state; in 2019 that number was 45 percent, a result of strong international and domestic immigration into the state.
Regional differences also play a large part in Virginia politics. While urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base, rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy". Rural Democratic support has nevertheless persisted in union-influenced Roanoke in Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region. State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.
State elections in Virginia occur in odd-numbered years, with executive department elections occurring in years following U.S. presidential elections and Senate elections occurring in the years prior to presidential elections, as both have four-year terms. House of Delegates elections take place concurrent with each of those elections as members have two-year terms. National politics often play a role in state election outcomes, and Virginia has elected governors of the party opposite the U.S. president in ten of the last eleven contests, with only Terry McAuliffe beating the trend.
McAuliffe, a Democrat, was elected Governor in the 2013 elections by two percentage points during Barack Obama's second presidential term. Republicans, however, held a super-majority (68–32) of seats in the House of Delegates, which they had first gained in the 2011 state elections. Republicans also held a one-vote majority the state senate, which they then maintained in the 2015 election. Eleven house district lines used in these elections, drawn following the 2010 U.S. Census, were later judged unconstitutional for discriminating against African Americans.
The 2017 statewide elections resulted in Democrats holding the three highest offices, with outgoing lieutenant governor Ralph Northam winning the governorship, Justin Fairfax elected lieutenant governor, and Mark Herring continuing as attorney general. In concurrent House of Delegates elections, Democrats flipped fifteen of the Republicans' previous sixteen-seat majority. Control of the House came down to the tied election in the 94th district, which was won by Republicans through drawing of lots, giving the party a slim 51–49 majority in the 2018–19 legislative sessions. Despite a political crisis that February, Democrats took full control of the General Assembly in the November 2019 elections, the first after several districts were redrawn because of discrimination.
In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen successes. Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006, to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb, and again in 2012, to Webb's replacement, former Governor Tim Kaine. In 2008, Democrats won both United States Senate seats; former Governor Mark Warner was elected to replace retiring Republican John Warner. In the 2010 mid-term elections, the first under President Obama, Republicans flipped three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats, while in the 2018 mid-terms, the first under President Trump, Democrats flipped three seats from Republicans. Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Democrats currently hold seven and Republicans hold four.
Though Virginia was considered a "swing state" in recent presidential elections, Democrat Barack Obama carried Virginia's 13 electoral votes in 2008 and 2012, while Democrat Hillary Clinton carried the state in 2016. Virginia had previously voted for Republican presidential candidates in 13 out of 14 presidential elections from 1952 to 2004, including 10 in a row from 1968 to 2004. Virginia currently holds its presidential primary election on Super Tuesday, the same day as thirteen other states, with the most recent held on March 3, 2020.
Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise. The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state, the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C. and North Carolina, and a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums. A proposed arena in Virginia Beach designed for an NBA franchise became the latest unsuccessful sports initiative when the city council there ended support in 2017. Norfolk is however host to two minor league teams: The AAA Norfolk Tides and the ECHL's Norfolk Admirals. The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008. Additionally, the Washington Nationals, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, Atlanta Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Yankees, and Toronto Blue Jays also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia. The state is also home to a United Soccer League club, the Richmond Kickers.
The Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn and their training facility is in Richmond, and the Washington Capitals train at MedStar Capitals Iceplex in Ballston. Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship, an LPGA Tour tournament. NASCAR currently schedules Monster Energy NASCAR Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond Raceway. Virginia natives currently competing in the series include Denny Hamlin and Elliott Sadler.
Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics. Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Twelve other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Atlantic 10 Conference, Big South Conference, and Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others (Hampton and Norfolk State) compete in Division I. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.
The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers, and "The Cavalier State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War to romanticize the antebellum period. Sports teams from the University of Virginia are called the Cavaliers. The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.
The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930. The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century. The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus. In March 2015, Virginia named "Our Great Virginia", which uses the tune of "Oh Shenandoah", as the traditional state song and "Sweet Virginia Breeze" as the popular state song.
- "Factpack" (PDF). Virginia General Assembly. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008.
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on November 2, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Society, National Geographic (January 3, 2012). "United States Regions". Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "Mid-Atlantic Home : Mid–Atlantic Information Office : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
- "QuickFacts Virginia; UNITED STATES". 2019 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 4, 2020. Archived from the original on February 2, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Balz, Dan (October 12, 2007). "Painting America Purple". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
- Jacobs, Jack (July 30, 2019). "General Assembly commemorates origins of democracy in America". The Virginia Gazette. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2004. p. 71. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 3, 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in Potomac Conflict". The Sea Grant Law Center. University of Mississippi. 2003. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
- Hubbard, Jr. 2009, p. 140.
- Van Zandt 1976, pp. 92–95.
- Smith 2015, pp. 71–72.
- Mathews, Dalena; Sorrell, Robert (October 6, 2018). "Pieces of the Past: Supreme Court looked at controversy over Bristol border location". Bristol Herald Courier. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- "Fact Sheet 102–98 – The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". United States Geological Survey. November 18, 1998. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- "Rivers and Watersheds". The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 23, 2007. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- Kormann, Carolyn (June 8, 2018). "Tangier, the Sinking Island in the Chesapeake". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- White, Amy Brecount (April 16, 2020). "Shifting sands: Virginia's barrier islands are constantly on the move". Roadtrippers. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, p. 3.
- Pazzaglia 2006, pp. 135–138.
- "Virginia's Agricultural Resources". Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Burnham & Burnham 2018, p. 277.
- "Physiographic Regions of Virginia". The Geology of Virginia. College of William and Mary. February 16, 2007. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- Palmer 1998, pp. 49–51.
- Frost, Peter (August 23, 2011). "Virginia earthquake largest recorded in commonwealth". The Daily Press. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Choi, Charles Q. (August 23, 2012). "2011 Virginia earthquake felt by third of U.S." CBS News. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- Mayell, Hillary (November 13, 2001). "Chesapeake Bay Crater Offers Clues to Ancient Cataclysm". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- "Coal" (PDF). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy. July 31, 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- "Comparison of Annually Reported Tonnage Data" (XLS). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. 2018. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
- "Caves" (PDF). Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 17, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- Hamilton 2016, pp. 12–13.
- U.S. Climate Divisional Dataset (2020). "Climate at a Glance". NOAA National Centers for Environmental information. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Burnham & Burnham 2018, pp. xvii-xxi, 64
- Dresbach, Jim (April 11, 2019). "Severe weather awareness for spring, summer". Pentagram. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Annual tornado drill in Virginia will be held March 17". WSET-TV. Associated Press. February 12, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Halverson, Jeff (August 19, 2019). "Virginia's deadliest natural disaster unfolded 50 years ago from Hurricane Camille". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Halverson, Jeff (February 7, 2018). "Your primer to understanding Mid-Atlantic cold air damming and 'the wedge'". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Leayman, Emily (January 22, 2020). "Snowiest Day On Record: The Day Fairfax Co. Saw 25.5 Inches Fall". Patch. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Boyer, John (March 23, 2019). "We made it to the end of Richmond's snow season. Here's how our numbers stacked up". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Watts, Brent (July 6, 2016). "Virginia summers getting more hot and humid". WDBJ-TV. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Vogelsong, Sarah (January 15, 2020). "In Virginia and U.S., urban heat islands and past redlining practices may be linked, study finds". The Virginia Mercury. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Report Card: Virginia". State of the Air: 2020. American Lung Association. April 22, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Virginia". America's Health Rankings 2019. United Health Foundation. November 19, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Myatt, Kevin (August 27, 2019). "Weather Journal: You really can see more clearly on hot summer days than you used to". The Roanoke Star. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Sweeney, Darren (April 13, 2020). "Bulk of Virginia's coal plants must shut down before 2025 under new state law". S&P Global. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- O'Keefe, Jimmy (October 4, 2019). "Virginia to develop 4 new solar energy projects". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 22, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
- "State of the Forest Annual Report on Virginia's Forests 2019" (PDF). Virginia Department of Forestry. December 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- Ward, Justin (August 17, 2016). "Gyspy Moths on wide, destructive path in Southwest Virginia". WDBJ-TV. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
- Carroll & Miller 2002, pp. xi–xii.
- Clarkson, Tee (March 3, 2018). "Clarkson: Deer populations abound, but number of hunters continues to decline". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- "Wildlife Information". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. June 2, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- University of Florida (December 17, 2009). "Ancient origins of modern opossum revealed". Science Daily. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- Barry, R. & Lazell, J. (2008). "Sylvilagus obscurus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T41301A10434606. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41301A10434606.en.
- Funk, William H. (October 8, 2017). "Peregrine falcons slow to return to Appalachia". The Chesapeake Bay Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
- "Virginia Fishes". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. Archived from the original on November 10, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- "Bay Biology". Chesapeake Bay Program. January 5, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- "Virginia". National Park Service. 2008. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Carroll & Miller 2002, p. 158.
- "Virginia's Forest Resources". Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- "Park Locations". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. November 9, 2007. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- Smith 2008, pp. 152–153, 356.
- Shapiro, Laurie Gwen (June 22, 2014). "Pocahontas: Fantasy and Reality". Slate Magazine. Archived from the original on June 23, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- Wallenstein 2007, pp. 406–407.
- Kunkle, Fredrick; Vogel, Steve (May 14, 2007). "President Bush Caps Celebration Of Success in Face of Adversity". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- "Virginia Military Dead Database Introduction". Library of Virginia. Government of Virginia. 2009. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- Puglionesi, Alicia (April 4, 2019). "How a Romanticized Take on Pocahontas Become a Touchstone of American Culture". History Chanel. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Abrams 1999, p. xv. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAbrams1999 (help)
- Wood, Karenne, ed. (2007). The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail (PDF) (second ed.). Charlottesville, Virginia: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. ISBN 978-0-9786604-3-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2009.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 4–11.
- Cotton, Lee (July 1999). "Powhatan Indian Lifeways". National Park Service. Archived from the original on September 24, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- Glanville, Jim (2009). "16th Century Spanish Invasions of Southwest Virginia" (PDF). Historical Society of Western Virginia Journal (Reprint). XVII (1): 34–42. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Wallenstein 2007, pp. 8–9.
- Moran 2007, p. 8.
- Stewart 2008, p. 22.
- Vollmann 2002, pp. 695–696.
- Conlin 2009, pp. 30–31.
- Gordon 2004, p. 17.
- Hoffer 2006, p. 132; Grizzard & Smith 2007, pp. 128–133
- "The lost colony and Jamestown droughts" Archived September 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Stahle, D. W., M. K. Cleaveland, D. B. Blanton, M. D. Therrell, and D. A. Gay. 1998. Science 280:564–567.
- Wallenstein 2007, p. 22.
- Hashaw 2007, pp. 76–77, 239–240.
- Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
- Foner, Philip S. (1980). "Slaves and Free Blacks in the Southern Colonies". History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013.
- Hashaw 2007, pp. 211–215.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 51–59.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 76–77.
- Anderson 2000, p. 23.
- Anderson 2000, pp. 42–43.
- "Signers of the Declaration (Richard Henry Lee)". National Park Service. April 13, 2006. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
- Gutzman 2007, pp. 24–29.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 125–133.
- Schwartz, Stephan A. (May 2000). "George Mason: Forgotten Founder, He Conceived the Bill of Rights". Smithsonian. 31 (2): 142.
- Cooper 2007, p. 58.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 131–133.
- Wallenstein 2007, p. 104.
- Robertson 1993, pp. 8–12
- Davis 2006, pp. 125, 208–210.
- "Census Data for Year 1860". University of Virginia. 2007. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- Morgan 1998, p. 490.
- Goodwin 2012, pp. 4.
- Tripp, Steve. "Lynchburg During the Civil War". Encyclopedia of Virginia. Library of Virginia. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Robertson 1993, p. 170.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 249–250.
- Morgan 1992, pp. 160–166.
- Dailey, Gilmore & Simon 2000, pp. 90–96.
- Wallenstein 2007, pp. 253–254.
- Davis 2006, pp. 328–329.
- "Our Heritage". Northrop Grumman. December 20, 2011. Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Feuer 1999, pp. 50–52.
- Goodwin 2012, p. 238.
- Greenspan 2009, pp. 37–43.
- Wallenstein 2007, pp. 340–341.
- Wallenstein 2007, pp. 357.
- Heinemann et al. 2007, pp. 359–366.
- Accordino 2000, pp. 76–78.
- Kelly, Christopher (November 29, 2001). "Forensic feat IDs nearly all Pentagon victims". Stripe. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- "Biggest US Cities By Population - Virginia - 2018 Population". Biggest US Cities. July 1, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- "County & County Equivalent Areas". United States Census Bureau. April 19, 2005. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
- Niemeier, Bernie (September 28, 2009). "Unique structural issues make progress in Virginia difficult". Virginia Business. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- "Dillon's Rule: Legal Framework for Decision Making" (PDF). University of Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
- Olivo, Antonio (January 25, 2018). "Virginia's population growth is most robust in Washington suburbs". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "Doing Business in Fairfax County". Fairfax County Economic Development Authority. June 26, 2007. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2007.
- Cooper, Kyle (December 31, 2019). "Loudoun County one of the fastest growing in the country". WTOP. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- Battiata, Mary (November 27, 2005). "Silent Streams". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- Davis, Marc (January 31, 2008). "Chesapeake, Suffolk on track to pass neighbors in terms of population". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Virginia 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2010. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "NNSY History". United States Navy. August 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- "All About Suffolk". Suffolk. February 12, 2007. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Ranaivo, Yann (January 31, 2020). "New population estimates: Montgomery County passes Roanoke". The Roanoke Star. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
- "Results from the 1860 Census". The Civil War Home Page. Archived from the original on June 4, 2004.
- Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- "State Resident Population—Components of Change: 2010 to 2018" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. December 27, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- "Center Of Population Project". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2000. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Aisch, Gregor; Gebeloff, Robert; Quealy, Kevin (August 14, 2014). "Where We Came From and Where We Went, State by State". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "Virginia – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Virginia". U.S. Census Bureau. 2018. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Miller et al. 2003, pp. 6, 147.
- Lieberson, Stanley & Waters, Mary C. (1986). "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 487 (79): 82–86. doi:10.1177/0002716286487001004.
- Fischer, David Hackett (1989). Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 633–639. ISBN 978-0-19-503794-4.
- W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). America's promise: a concise history of the United States Archived April 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 29. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8.
- "Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia". Virginia Is For Lovers. January 3, 2008. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
- "Scots-Irish Heritage – Virginia Is For Lovers". Virginia.org. 2011. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Keller, Christian B. (2001). "Pennsylvania and Virginia Germans during the Civil War". Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 109: 37–86. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- "Total Ancestry Reported". 2013–2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- Pinn 2009, p. 175; Chambers 2005, pp. 10–14
- Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L. (January 8, 2015). "The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States". American Journal of Human Genetics. 96 (1): 37–53. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010. PMC 4289685. PMID 25529636.
- Frey, William H. (May 2004). "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000" (PDF). The Living Cities Census Series: 1–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2008.
- "Virginia ranks highest in U.S. for black-white marriages". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- Raby, John (February 3, 2011). "Virginians in the census: 8 million total, 1M in Fairfax County". The Virginian-Pilot. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
- Cai, Qian (February 2008). "Hispanic Immigrants And Citizens In Virginia". Numbers Count. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
- Wilder, Layla (March 28, 2008). "Centreville: The Gazette". Gazette. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Wilder, Layla (August 1, 2015). "Centreville: The census". census. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Wood, Joseph (January 1997). "Vietnamese American Place Making in Northern Virginia". Geographical Review. 87 (1): 58–72. doi:10.2307/215658. JSTOR 215658.
- Wilder, Layla (March 28, 2008). "Centreville: The New Koreatown?". Fairfax County Times. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Firestone, Nora (June 12, 2008). "Locals celebrate Philippine Independence Day". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.
- Walburn Viviano, Meg (October 8, 2018). "Seven Virginia Tribes Celebrate Federal Recognition on York River". Chesapeake Bay Magazine. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
- Hilleary, Cecily (January 31, 2018). "US Recognizes 6 Virginia Native American Tribes". Voice of America. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- Manske, Madison; Zernik, Alexandra (May 7, 2019). "After centuries in Virginia, tribe still waiting for U.S. recognition". WHSV-TV. Capital News Service. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
- "Virginia". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Joseph 2006, p. 63.
- Clay III, Edwin S.; Bangs, Patricia (May 9, 2005). "Virginia's Many Voices". Fairfax County, Virginia. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007.
- Miller, John J. (August 2, 2005). "Exotic Tangier". National Review. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
- "Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics". Pew Research Center. 2014. Archived from the original on March 12, 2019. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
- "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
- Vegh, Steven G. (November 10, 2006). "2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va. Baptist association". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- "SBCV passes 500 mark". Baptist Press. November 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- Boorstein, Michelle (March 10, 2014). "Supreme Court won't hear appeal of dispute over Episcopal Church's property in Va". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Walker, Lance. "USA-Virginia". Mormon Newsroom. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on June 30, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2017.
- Olitzky 1996, p. 359.
- Alfaham, Sarah (September 11, 2008). "Muslims' visibility in region growing". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Charlottesville Daily Progress. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- "Megachurch Search Results". Hartford Institute for Religion Research. 2008. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- Blackwell, John Reid (April 19, 2019). "Virginia's jobless rate unchanged from February to March at 2.9 percent, but down from 3.2 percent a year ago". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- "Virginia unemployment claims during pandemic greater than number filed during Great Recession". The Fauquier Times. May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Stebbins, Samuel; Sauter, Michael B. (February 18, 2020). "Most of the best business-friendly states are found west of the Mississippi". USA Today. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- Stebbins, Samuel (August 1, 2019). "The fastest growing and shrinking state economies by GDP". USA Today. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- "State Exports from Virginia". United States Census. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Hamza, Adam (October 4, 2019). "Data show poverty and income trends in Virginia". NBC12. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- Carol Morello (December 12, 2013). "The D.C. suburbs dominate the list of wealthiest U.S. counties". Washington Post.
- Hagan, Shelly; Lu, Wei (February 13, 2019). "These Are the Wealthiest Towns in the U.S." Bloomberg. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- Belt, Deb (October 3, 2019). "Virginia Poverty Rate Stable, Loudoun County Has Top Income". Patch Leesburg. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- Sauter, Michael B. (February 17, 2020). "Income It Takes to Be Considered Middle Class in Every State". 24/7 Wall Street. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Vogel, Steve (May 27, 2007). "How the Pentagon Got Its Shape". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- Helderman, Rosalind S. (May 6, 2010). "Virginia's love-hate relationship with federal spending". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Sauter, Michael B.; Uible, Lisa; Nelson, Lisa; Hess, Alexander E. M. (August 3, 2012). "States That Get The Most Federal Money". Fox Business Network. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- Ellis, Nicole Anderson (September 1, 2008). "Virginia weighs its dependence on defense spending". Virginia Business. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- Fox, Justin (February 8, 2007). "The Federal Job Machine". Time. Archived from the original on December 3, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
- "Bob McDonnell says Virginia is No. 1 state in veterans per capita". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- "Virginia Finally Comes Into Play". CBS News. October 17, 2008. Archived from the original on October 21, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- "Virginia Transportation Modeling Program". Virginia Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
- "Salaries of Virginia state employees 2012–13". Richmond Times-Dispatch. June 30, 2013. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
- "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Virginia". United States Census. 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Gilligan, Gregory J. (May 17, 2019). "Seven companies in the Richmond region make the Fortune 500 list". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- Kolmar, Chris (February 2020). "The 100 Largest Companies In Virginia For 2020". Zippa.com. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
- Martz, Michael (July 10, 2019). "Virginia regains No. 1 ranking by CNBC of best states for business". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Sharf, Samantha (December 19, 2019). "How We Ranked The Best States For Business 2019". Forbes. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- "Best and Worst States for Business Owners". Fundivo. August 27, 2014. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- Levitz, Eric (February 11, 2020). "VA Democrats Kill Pro-Union Bill After Learning CEOs Oppose It". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Michael, Karen (July 4, 2016). "Labor Law: No notice required to terminate an "at will" employee". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Poersch, Gregory (April 2, 2008). "1 of Out of 11 Workers in Virginia in Tech Industry, Highest Concentration in the Nation, AeA Says". American Electronics Association. Reuters. Archived from the original on January 22, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
- Censer, Marjorie (October 4, 2011). "Virginia loses tech jobs but maintains highest concentration in U.S." TechAmerica. Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Richards, Gregory (February 24, 2007). "Computer chips now lead Virginia exports". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- Soldner, Allan (August 8, 2014). "Virginia has the Fastest Internet Speed within the US, Report Shows". The Week. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
- Bacqué, Peter (December 13, 2013). "Va. Power certifies West Creek as potential data center site". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Rareshide, Michael. "Top 10 Largest Data Center Markets in the United States". Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Dolan-Del Vecchio, Erik. "Largest U.S. Data Center Markets Continue To Boom". Bisnow Media. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Taylor, Laura (June 10, 2019). "Governor Northam says tourism revenues reach $26 billion in Virginia in 2018". WSET-TV. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Gambrell, Holly (September 30, 2019). "Northern Virginia leads state's tourism with 3 local counties topping the list". Northern Virginia Magazine. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Patterson, Erin (October 23, 2019). "International tourism to Virginia reaches record level". 13NewsNow. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Wetzler, Jessica (July 6, 2019). "Agriculture 'Lifeblood' Of The Region, Economy". The Daily News-Record. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- "Virginia Agriculture—Facts and Figures". Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- "Virginia's Top 20 Farm Commodities". Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Vogelsong, Sarah (January 17, 2020). "2019 was good for cotton, bad for soybeans and tobacco in Virginia". Virginia Mercury. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- McBryde, John (January 21, 2015). "Virginia's Bountiful Seafood Harvest". Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
- "Governor McAuliffe Launches New Virginia Oyster Trail" (PDF) (Press release). Governor of Virginia. August 19, 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 10, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- Cox, Jeremy; Wheeler, Timothy B. (November 11, 2019). "Low salinity wallops oysters in The Chesapeake Bay". Delaware Business Now. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Ambrose, Kevin (January 23, 2020). "'The best vintage I have experienced in Virginia': Weather in 2019 made for wonderful wine". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Bhattarai, Abha (September 23, 2016). "As wine sales hit record highs, Virginia wineries are in a race for grapes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 19, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- "Statistics". Wines Vines Analytics. January 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Luck, Jessica (October 27, 2017). "Crushing it: Why this year's harvest could put Virginia wine on the national map". C-Ville. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- "Sales and Use Tax". Virginia Department of Taxation. April 25, 2014. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Virginia Tax Facts" (PDF). Virginia Department of Taxation. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- McGraw 2005, p. 14.
- Fischer & Kelly 2000, pp. 102–103.
- "Roots of Virginia Culture" (PDF). Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2007. Smithsonian Institution. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- Williamson 2008, p. 41.
- Gray & Robinson 2004, pp. 81, 103.
- Kirkpatrick, Mary Alice. "Summary of Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice". Library of Southern Literature. University of North Carolina. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
- Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 2, 2006). "William Styron, Novelist, Dies at 81". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
- Dirda, Michael (November 7, 2004). "A Coed in Full". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- Jackman, Tom (May 27, 2012). "Fairfax native Matt Bondurant's book is now the movie 'Lawless'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- Fain, Travis (June 27, 2014). "Gov. taps new OIG, elections chief, hires House member". Daily Press. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
- "State Arts Agency Funding and Grant Making" (PDF) (Press release). National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. March 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- Smith 2008, pp. 22–25.
- Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp. 88, 206, 292.
- "Mission & History". Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. 2007. Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
- Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp. 165–166.
- Goodwin 2012, p. 154.
- Rice, Ruth (November 27, 2006). "Holiday magic: Arcadia play tells tale of Christmas poem". The Tribune-Democrat. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- "The Roots and Branches of Virginia Music". Folkways. Smithsonian Institution. 2007. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Pace, Reggie (August 14, 2013). "12 Virginia Bands You Should Listen to Now". Paste. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- Dickens, Tad (June 3, 2014). "Old Dominion country band has Roanoke Valley roots". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp. 29, 121, 363, 432.
- Scott & Scott 2004, pp. 307–308
- Goodwin 2012, pp. 25, 287.
- Meyer, Marianne (June 7, 2007). "Live!". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- "Virginia Lake Festival". Virginia Tourism Corporation. 2008. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Goodwin 2012, pp. 25–26.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). The Nielsen Company. September 28, 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Virginia TV Stations". MondoTimes. 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "FM Query". Federal Communications Commission. June 1, 20202. Retrieved June 1, 2020. Check date values in:
- "AM Query". Federal Communications Commission. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Channick, Robert (May 29, 2018). "Tronc buys Virginian-Pilot newspaper in Norfolk". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Dying Richmond Times-Dispatch Announces It Will Stop Making Endorsements". Blue Virginia. October 21, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Top 10 Virginia Daily Newspapers by Circulation". Agility PR. January 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Berr, Jonathan (October 17, 2019). "Will USA Today Ditch Its Print Edition?". Forbes. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Bogage, Jacob (March 30, 2020). "Gannett will furlough workers at more than 100 newspapers over next three months". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- McCance, McGregor (August 1, 2018). "James E. Ryan, Ninth President of University of Virginia, Takes Office Today". Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
- Walsh, John (October 19, 2018). "University of Virginia Tuition Will Be Free for Students Whose Families Earn Less than $80,000". businessinsider.com. Archived from the original on April 29, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
- "Virginia State Comparisons Data". National Assessment of Educational Progress. 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Early, John (September 4, 2019). "VDOE: Virginia Schools Rank 3rd in Nation for K-12 Achievement". NBC29. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- "Virginia School Report Card". Virginia Department of Education. 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
- Connors, Mike; Gregory, Sara (October 1, 2018). "Graduation rates inch up around Virginia; some Hampton Roads divisions see improvement". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on March 5, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "State Report Cards". Virginia Department of Education. 2018. Archived from the original on November 29, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- "Public School report" (CSV). Virginia Department of Education. 2018. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Lombard, Hamilton (December 17, 2018). "Virginia's school enrollment declined in 2018 for the first time in decades". Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Governor's School Program". Virginia Department of Education. 2019. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "School Locater". Virginia Council for Private Education. 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Home-Schooled Students and Religious Exemptions" (XLS). Virginia Department of Education. 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "College Navigator—Search Results". National Center for Education Statistics. United States Department of Education. 2019. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Top Public National Universities 2019". U.S. News and World Report. September 9, 2018. Archived from the original on February 23, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "Regional Universities South Rankings". U.S. News and World Report. September 9, 2018. Archived from the original on March 15, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Mattingly, Justin (December 20, 2018). "'We were no different': Virginia Military Institute integrated 50 years ago". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "SWCC Presidential Profile" (PDF). Virginia's Community Colleges. September 17, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- National Liberal Arts Colleges Ranking (U.S. News) Archived March 27, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, accessed May 21, 2017
- Hayes, Heather B. (December 31, 2018). "Teaching outside the box". Virginia Business. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "George Mason University Key Facts for 2019" (PDF). George Mason University. December 12, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved July 13, 2019.
- "Sentara Norfolk General Hospital-Sentara Heart Hospital, Norfolk, Va". Best Hospitals. U.S. News & World Report. 2007. Archived from the original on July 17, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Szabo, Liz (May 12, 2004). "America's first 'test-tube baby'". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Willis, Samantha (December 1, 2017). "Racial disparity in health care". Richmond Free Press. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Eller, Donnelle (May 5, 2020). "Fact check: Black people make up disproportionate share of COVID-19 deaths in Richmond, Virginia". USA Today. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Hafner, Katherine (June 29, 2018). "Black women in Virginia die in childbirth at 3 times the rate of any other race. What's going on?". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Rife, Luanne (March 21, 2018). "Report finds death rates rise for white, middle-class Virginians". The Roanoke Times. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Childhood Obesity New Data". State of Childhood Obesity. 2019. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Janney, Elizabeth (May 10, 2018). "Virginia Is Fatter Than 21 Other States: Report". Patch. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Va. restaurant owners bracing for smoke ban". The Washington Times. Associated Press. November 30, 2009. Archived from the original on December 1, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- Kumar, Anita (February 27, 2012). "Va. Senate kills bill repealing HPV vaccine requirement for girls". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- "Individual Hospital Statistics for Virginia". American Hospital Directory. May 7, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville". Best Hospitals. U.S. News & World Report. 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- O'Connell, Jonathan (December 18, 2013). "Metro considers building 'inner loop' of new stations to ease congestion in system's core". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 15, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- O'Leary, Amy A. (April 1998). "Beyond the Byrd Road Act: VDOT's Relationship with Virginia's Urban Counties" (PDF). Virginia Department of Transportation. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 8, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- "Virginia's Highway System". Virginia Department of Transportation. February 13, 2018. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Mummolo, Jonathan (September 19, 2007). "A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: D.C. 2nd in Traffic". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
- "Measuring Traffic Congestion in Virginia". Virginia Performs. April 9, 2009. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- Badger, Emily. "The American decline in driving actually began way earlier than you think". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
- Buske, Jennifer (October 14, 2010). "VRE sets ridership record". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
- "FY 2015-FY 2024 Proposed Capital Improvement Plan". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- Hosh, Kafia A. (April 15, 2011). "Federal, Va. officials object to underground Metro station at Dulles airport". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- Smith, Max (July 11, 2019). "Ahead of I-395 tolling start, Virginia looks at more bus service". WTOP. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- "Ferry Information". Virginia Department of Transportation. December 4, 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
- "Airports". Virginia Department of Aviation. 2006. Archived from the original on April 29, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- "Hampton Roads Harbor 2018 Trade Overview" (PDF). The Port of Virginia. April 5, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
- Goodwin 2012, p. 305.
- Ruane, Michael E. (December 17, 2006). "At Va. Spaceport, Rocket Launches 1,000 Dreams". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Hart, Kim (April 21, 2007). "Travel agency launches tourists on out-of-this-world adventures". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- Somashekhar, Sandhya (March 4, 2008). "Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
- "Revenue in 9 States Falls Short of Expenses Over the Long Term" (PDF). The Pew Center on the States. March 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- Leayman, Emily (May 14, 2019). "Virginia Ranks In Top 10 States In Country: U.S. News". Patch. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- Strum, Albert L.; Howard, A. E. Dick (June 1977). "Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia by A. E. Dick Howard". The American Political Science Review. 71 (2): 714–715. doi:10.2307/1978427. JSTOR 1978427.
- "Virginia Courts In Brief" (PDF). Virginia Judicial System. May 5, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 4, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- Green, Frank (May 12, 2010). "Hassell to step down as the state's chief justice". Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- Lettner, Kimberly (2008). "Message from the Chief". The Division of Capitol Police. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Listman, Jr., John W.; Carter, III, Lt. Col. Chester C. (August 20, 2007). "Serving Commonwealth and Country". Virginia Army National Guard. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- Green, Frank (March 13, 2019). "No moratorium on death penalty imminent in Virginia, but no new death sentences in almost 8 years". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Barton, Jaclyn (October 9, 2019). "Virginia ranks among states with lowest crime rates". Associated Press. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Burnett, Rebecca (February 18, 2020). "Virginia has lowest jail recidivism rate in the US". WAVY-TV. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Vozzella, Laura (April 23, 2016). "Shad Planking, a venerable Va. political confab, tries to reel in a new crowd". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
- Sweeney, James R. (1999). ""Sheep without a Shepherd": The New Deal Faction in the Virginia Democratic Party". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 29 (2): 438. doi:10.1111/1741-5705.00043. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Burchett, Michael H. (Summer 1997). "Promise and prejudice: Wise County, Virginia and the Great Migration, 1910–1920". The Journal of Negro History. 82 (3): 312–327. doi:10.2307/2717675. JSTOR 2717675.
- Tavernise, Sabrina; Gebeloff, Robert (November 9, 2019). "How Voters Turned Virginia From Deep Red to Solid Blue". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- Turque, Bill; Wiggins, Ovetta; Stewart, Nikita (February 13, 2008). "In Virginia, Results Signal A State in Play for November". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- Miller, Gary; Schofield, Norman (May 2003). "Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States". The American Political Science Review. 97 (2): 245–260. doi:10.1017/s0003055403000650. JSTOR 3118207.
- Craig, Tim (December 11, 2007). "Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va. Senate". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- Clemons, Michael L.; Jones, Charles E. (July 2000). "African American Legislative Politics in Virginia". Journal of Black Studies. 30 (6, Special Issue: African American State Legislative Politics): 744–767. doi:10.1177/002193470003000603. JSTOR 2645922.
- Chinni, Dante (November 12, 2017). "Inside the Data: What the Virginia Election Results Mean for '18". NBC News. Archived from the original on November 19, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Fisher, Marc (November 6, 2013). "McAuliffe narrowly wins Va. governor's race". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Backus, Fred; Dutton, Sarah; Kaplan, Rebecca (November 6, 2013). "McAuliffe wins nailbiter Virginia governor's race". CBS News. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Gabriel, Trip (November 6, 2013). "Virginia G.O.P. Assesses Loss to Rival It Saw as Weak". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Vozzella, Laura; Portnoy, Jenna (November 3, 2015). "McAuliffe's hopes for Senate majority dashed". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Weiner, Rachel (June 26, 2018). "Court strikes down Virginia House districts as racial gerrymandering". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Nirappil, Fenit (November 8, 2017). "Democrats make significant gains in Virginia legislature; control of House in play". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 12, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Moomaw, Graham (January 4, 2018). "Del. David E. Yancey wins tiebreaker for key Virginia House of Delegates seat". Fredericksburg.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
- Gabriel, Trip (November 6, 2019). "Virginia Election: Democrats Take Full Control of State Government". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Merelli, Annalisa (November 6, 2019). "Newly redrawn voting districts hand Virginia Democrats a sweeping victory". Quartz. Archived from the original on November 7, 2019. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Lewis, Bob (November 11, 2012). "In the aftermath of the 2012 election, battleground Virginia's political winners and losers". Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 12, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- Kumar, Anita (November 5, 2008). "Warner Rolls Past His Fellow Former Governor". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Przybyla, Heidi (November 7, 2012). "Obama Repeats Win in Former Republican Stronghold Virginia". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- Leonor, Mel (March 3, 2020). "Virginia Democratic primary turnout highest on record, surpassing 2008". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
- Minium, Harry (July 19, 2001). "Region Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes "Short List" for Existing Team's Move" (PDF). The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
- Utt, Ronald D. (October 2, 1998). "Cities in Denial: The False Promise of Subsidized Tourist and Entertainment Complexes". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- Phillips, Michael (August 17, 2013). "Virginia contemplates making play for new Redskins stadium". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- "Arena developer wins petition; court will hear appeal in lawsuit against Virginia Beach". 13 News Now. December 20, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- O'Connor, John (April 2, 2010). "Squirrels will nest at Diamond for several years". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Baseball in Virginia". Virginia is for Lovers. 2011. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "Richmond Kickers". United Soccer League. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- Phillips, Michael (August 22, 2013). "Washington Redskins go home to spruced-up facility". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- "NASCAR in Virginia". Virginia is for Lovers. 2011. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- Brief, Sam (December 1, 2018). "Virginia Tech Tops the List of Longest Bowl Streaks After Beating Marshall". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- Sylwester, MaryJo; Witosky, Tom (February 18, 2004). "Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
- Brady, Erik (December 14, 2006). "Virginia town is big game central". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Welch 2006, pp. 1–3.
- "Capitol Classroom". Virginia General Assembly. December 13, 2007. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- The Encyclopedia of Virginia 1999, pp. 2–15
- Berrier, Ralph (January 11, 2008). "Carry me back to the state song search". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- "Listen: Virginia Now Has 2 State Songs". Patch. March 27, 2015. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- Accordino, John J. (2000). Captives of the Cold War Economy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96561-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-40642-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Burnham, Bill; Burnham, Mary (2018). Hiking Virginia: A Guide to Virginia's Greatest Hiking Adventures. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-1-4930-3127-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Carroll, Steven; Miller, Mark (2002). Wild Virginia: A Guide to Thirty Roadless Recreation Areas Including Shenandoah National Park. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-2315-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-706-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Conlin, Joseph R. (2009). The American Past: A Survey of American History. Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-56609-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cooper, Jean L. (2007). A Guide to Historic Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-173-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Dailey, Jane Elizabeth; Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth; Simon, Bryant (2000). Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00193-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Davis, David Brion (2006). Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514073-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- The Encyclopedia of Virginia. 1 (4 ed.). St. Clair Shores, MI: Somerset Publishers. 1999. ISBN 978-0-403-09753-1.
- Feuer, A.B. (1999). The U.S. Navy in World War I: combat at sea and in the air. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96212-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Fischer, David Hackett; Kelly, James C. (2000). Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-1774-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Goodwin, Bill (2012). Frommer's Virginia (11 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-22449-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power. New York: HarperCollins. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-06-009362-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gray, Richard J.; Robinson, Owen (2004). A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22404-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Greenspan, Anders (2009). Creating Colonial Williamsburg: The Restoration of Virginia's Eighteenth-Century Capital (2 ed.). Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-3343-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Grizzard, Frank E.; Smith, D. Boyd (2007). Jamestown Colony: a political, social, and cultural history. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-637-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gutzman, Kevin R. C. (2007). Virginia's American Revolution: From Dominion to Republic, 1776–1840. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-2131-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hamilton, John (August 15, 2016). Virginia. ABDO. ISBN 978-1-6807-7453-5. Retrieved May 29, 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hashaw, Tim (2007). The Birth of Black America. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-1718-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Heinemann, Ronald L.; Kolp, John G.; Parent, Jr., Anthony S.; Shade, William G. (2007). Old Dominion, New Commonwealth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hoffer, Peter Charles (2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early America. Baltimore: JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8483-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Howard, Blair; Burnham, Mary; Burnham, Bill (2006). The Virginia Handbook (3 ed.). Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58843-512-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hubbard, Jr., Bill (2009). American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Politics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2453-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- McGraw, Eliza (June 24, 2005). Two Covenants: Representations of Southern Jewishness. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3043-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Miller, Kerby A.; Schrier, Arnold; Boling, Bruce D.; Doyle, David N. (2003). Irish immigrants in the land of Canaan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504513-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Moran, Michael G. (2007). Inventing Virginia: Sir Walter Raleigh and the Rhetoric of Colonization, 1584–1590. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-8694-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Morgan, Lynda (1992). Emancipation in Virginia's Tobacco Belt, 1850–1870. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0-8203-1415-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Morgan, Philip D. (1998). Slave Counterpoint. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4717-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Palmer, Tim (1998). America by Rivers. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-55963-264-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Pazzaglia, Frank James (2006). Excursions in Geology and History: Field Trips in the Middle Atlantic States. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. ISBN 978-0-8137-0008-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Pinn, Anthony B. (2009). African American Religious Cultures. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-470-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Olitzky, Kerry (1996). The American Synagogue: A Historical Dictionary and Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-28856-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Robertson, James I. (1993). Civil War Virginia: Battleground for a Nation. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-1457-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Scott, David L.; Scott, Kay W. (2004). Guide to the National Park Areas. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-2988-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smith, Gary Alden (2015). State and National Boundaries of the United States. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-1-47660-434-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smith, Julian (2008). Moon Virginia: Including Washington, D.C (4 ed.). Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel. ISBN 978-1-59880-011-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stewart, George (2008). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-59017-273-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Van Zandt, Franklin K. (1976). Boundaries of the United States and the several States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 95.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vollmann, William T. (2002). Argall: The True Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-200150-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wallenstein, Peter (2007). Cradle of America: Four Centuries of Virginia History. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1507-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Welch, Deborah (2006). Virginia: An Illustrated History. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-1115-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Williamson, CiCi (2008). The Best of Virginia Farms Cookbook and Tour Book. Birmingham, AL: Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 978-0-89732-657-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- State Government website
- Virginia General Assembly
- Virginia's Judicial system
- Constitution of Virginia
- Virginia State and County Government Websites
Tourism and recreation
Culture and history
- Virginia Historical Society
- Virginia's First People
- WPA Guide to the Old Dominion
- Library of Virginia
Maps and Demographics
- USGS geographic resources of Virginia
- Virginia State Climatology Office
- Virginia State Facts from USDA, Economic Research Service
- Geographic data related to Virginia at OpenStreetMap
| List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Ratified Constitution on June 25, 1788 (10th)