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Lamassu facing forward. Bas-relief from the king Sargon II's palace at Dur Sharrukin in Assyria (now Khorsabad in Iraq), c. 713–716 BC. From Paul-Émile Botta's excavations in 1843–1844.

The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.


The Neo-Assyrian Empire develops, followed by the Achaemenids. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The early Celts dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Scythians dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Yayoi period in Japanese islands. The Maya civilization rises in Central America, while in Africa, Ancient Egypt begins its decline, rise of the Nubian Empire, and Aksum's birth. The religions of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism (Vedic religion and Vedanta), Jainism and Buddhism develop. Graeco-Roman Europe, India and China see the rise of literature.

World population greatly increases in the course of the millennium, reaching some 170 to 400 million people at its close depending on the estimates used.



The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Events of the 1st millennium BC
  Africa America Asia Europe Oceania
10th century BC 1000 BC rise of Nok culture
1000 BC decline of Tichit -Walata
1000 Beginning of East/South Bantu expansion
1000 BC rise of Chavín de Huántar in Peru[1]
1000 BC Settlement of Poverty Point, Louisiana reached its height[1]
c. 1000 BC Israelites capture Jerusalem
967 BC Solomon anointed king of Israel
925 BC Judah secedes from Israel, Shoshenq I invades Canaan
1000 BC Helladic period ended in Ancient Greece  
9th century BC 872 BC Nile floods the Temple of Luxor
836 BC Civil war in Egypt
814 BC Carthage founded
900 BC La Venta replaces San Lorenzo (Olmec)[1]
900 BC Rise of Tres Zapotes
850 BC Rise of Zapotec civilization in Mexico[1]
841 BC to 828 BC Gonghe Regency  863 BC Bath founded  
8th century BC 740 BC Kushite Piye begins reign
727 BC Kush conquers Egypt, 25 dynasty
701 BC Kushites repels Assyrians from Jerusalem
800 BC Kaminaljuyu established (Maya)
800 BC Rise of Adena culture in Ohio[1]
800 BC Beginning of corn cultivation on Amazon flood plain[1]
771 BC Spring and Autumn period

738 BC Assyria invades Israel
727 BC Babylonia secedes from Assyria
722 BC Israel is conquered by Assyria

800 BC rise of Etruscan civilization
776 BC first Olympiad
753 BC Rome founded
7th century BC 700 BC Pre-Aksumite
674 BC Taharqa defeats Assyrian invasion
671 BC Kushites expelled from Egypt by Assyrians
700 BC Poverty Point (Louisiana) abandoned[1]
700 BC Many temple centres abandoned on coast of Peru[1]
700 BC Upanishads written
631 BC End of the Assyrian Empire
6th century BC 592 BC Psamtik II sack Napata
600 BC Iron making around Great Lakes region
c. 600 BC, Nok culture iron smelting
600 BC Rise of Paracas culture (Peru)[1]
600 BC writing system appears in Mexico
600 BC Ball courts appear in Olmec centres[1]
576 BC Babylon exiles Israel
539 BC Persians conquer Babylon

528 BC Buddhism founded

509 BC Roman Republic established  
5th century BC 500 BC Trans-saharan trade in full bloom from Morocco to Senegal River
500 BC Meroe becomes center of iron production
500 BC Development of Ge'ez alphabet
500 BC Northwest Coast native peoples begin to flourish[1]
500 BC Hieroglyphic inscriptions produced in Zapotec centre of Monte Albán[1]
450 BC Mound building in eastern North America[1]
479 BC Confucius dies

476 BC Beginning of Warring States period

450 BC Tanakh compiled
486 BC Grand Canal begun

490 BC Battle of Marathon
480 BC Battle of Thermopylae
431 BC Peloponnesian War
500 BC Austronesian peoples settle Western Polynesia
4th century BC 343 BC Persia conquers Egypt
338 Khabash revolts against Persian occupation
332 BC Alexander conquers Egypt
400 BC Emergence of Moche civilisation in Peru[1]
350 BC Beginnings of Nasca culture in southern Peru
350 BC Inca metal work[1]
334 BC Greece conquers Persia
321 BC Rise of the Mauryan Empire
395 BC Corinthian War  
3rd century BC 300 BC Tifinagh script developed
300 BC Meroe becomes capital of Kush
202 BC Battle of Zama
250 BC First Mayan hieroglyphics
300 BC The double-spout-and-bridge bottle becomes widespread[1]
250 BC Grave Creek Mound built in West Virginia
221 BC Qin Unified China

206 BC Han Dynasty
261 BC Kalinga war

264 BC First Punic War
218 BC Second Punic War
2nd century BC 200 BC Djenné settled
200 BC Meroitic script in completed form
146 BC Carthage final defeat, Roman province of Africa
200 BC Zapotec state develops in Mexico[1]
200 BC Great temple complex declines at Chavín de Huántar, Peru[1]
200 BC Elite Calima culture burials with rich grave-goods deposited in Malagana, Colombia[1]
185 BC Fall of the Maurya Empire

136 BC to 124 BC Confucianism became the state ideology of China
114 BC Silk Road route expanded

149 BC Third Punic War
146 BC Battle of Corinth
1st century BC   100 BC Aksum develops its Indian, Red Sea trade links
31 BC Rome conquers Egypt
20 BC Meroites thwart Roman conquest
100 BC Rise of the Hopewell exchange system along the Mississippi[2]
100 BC Rise of Teotihuacán in Mexico[2]
50 BC Rise of the Iputiak in Alaska[2]
91 BC Records of the Grand Historian finished 31 BC Battle of Actium

58-50 BC Gallic Wars


Significant peopleEdit

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Technology Communication Math and Science Agriculture Transportation Warfare
  • Intensive agriculture with crops in rows, malleable iron tipped tillage implements, China[9]

Cultural landmarksEdit

Centuries and decadesEdit

See alsoEdit




  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "World Timeline of the Americas 1000 BC - AD 200". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  2. ^ a b c "World Timeline of the Americas 200 BC - AD 600". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  3. ^ a b Zimmer 1952, p. 182-183.
  4. ^ Temple 1986
  5. ^ Temple 1986, pp. 15
  6. ^ No Other Gods: Emergent Monotheism in Israel
  7. ^ Zoroastrianism
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Who Built it First". Ancient Discoveries. A&E Television Networks. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  9. ^ Temple 1986