80s BC is the time period from 89 BC – 80 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- Consuls: Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo and Lucius Porcius Cato.
- Social War:
- Lex Plautia Papiria extends citizenship to all Italians who applied for it within 60 days. The new citizens are enrolled in eight designated tribes, to prevent domination of the assemblies.
- Lex Pompeia grants Latin rights to cities in Cisalpine Gaul.
- Pompeii is annexed by the Roman Republic.
- Cicero ends his service in the Roman army.
- The Social War ends with the defeat of the Italian allies by the Romans. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, age 50, becomes the first Roman commander to march on Rome with his army and to capture the city by force. This extraordinary act is prompted by his desire to maintain his consular command for the First Mithridatic War in Asia Minor.
- The First Roman Civil War starts with a democratic uprising led by Gaius Marius, but the democrats under the tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus are crushed by the conservatives under Sulla. Marius flees to Africa.
- First Civil War in Rome, between Marius and Sulla. Some Italian cities are destroyed: for instance, Forlì, rebuilt by the praetor Livius Clodius afterwards.
- The Dardani, Scordisci, and the Maedi attack the Roman province of Macedonia.
- May – King Mithridates VI of Pontus invades Greece. Defeating the Roman forces four times in succession, he conquers Bithynia, Phrygia, Mysia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Ionia and Cappadocia. The Roman province of Asia is dismantled. On the king's orders, the local authorities in every city of the province round up and put to death all resident Italians in a single day (App.Mith.§§85–91). Plutarch (Sulla 24.4) says that 150,000 are killed, other sources calculate a figure of 80,000 people.
- Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the populares faction.
- Sulla arrives in Greece and besieges Athens. He orders Lucius Licinius Lucullus to raise a fleet from Rome's allies around the eastern Mediterranean.
- Ostia is razed by Gaius Marius as he comes back from Africa with an army to take Rome by force.
- March 29 – Emperor Han Wudi dies after a 54-year reign in which he leads the Han dynasty (China) through its greatest expansion, the Empire's borders span from modern Kyrgyzstan in the west, to Korea in the east, and to northern Vietnam in the south.
- Antikythera mechanism manufactured.
- First Mithridatic War
- March 1 – Sulla captures Athens from the Pontic army, removing the tyrant Aristion.
- Lucius Licinius Lucullus decisively defeats the Mithridatic fleet in the Battle of Tenedos.
- The Roman forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat the Pontic forces of Archelaus in the Battle of Chaeronea.
- The Dardani ally with Pontus and are defeated by Sulla soon after.
- First Mithridatic War: Lucius Cornelius Sulla again defeats Archelaus in the decisive Battle of Orchomenus.
- Battle of Cana: The Arab Nabataean Kingdom decisively defeats the Greek Seleucid Empire, slaying King Antiochus XII Dionysus, at modern-day Umm Qais in Jordan.
- The First Mithridatic War comes to an end.
- Spring – Lucius Cornelius Sulla returns to Italy from his campaigns in Greece and lands with his legions unopposed at Brundisium. He defeats the popular forces of Gaius Norbanus in the Battle of Mount Tifata.
- Gnaeus Pompeius, age 22, raises, on his own initiative, a private army of three legions from his father's veterans and clientelae in Picenum.
- Lucius Licinius Murena, the Roman governor of Asia, clashes with the Pontic forces of Mithridates VI, starting the Second Mithridatic War.
- A fire breaks out which burns down the Temple of Jupiter (Jupiter Capitolinus) and destroys the collection of Sibylline Books.
- Sulla defeats Samnite allies of Rome in the Battle of the Colline Gate, and takes control of Rome.
- Gaius Marius the Younger is besieged at the fortress city of Praeneste in Latium. After a fierce resistance, Marius commits suicide.
- Pompey is ordered by Sulla to stamp out Marian rebels in Sicily and Africa, while the young Gaius Julius Caesar is acting as a subordinate of Sulla in the east.
- After his campaigns in Sicily and Africa, Pompeius gets the insulting nickname of adulescentulus carnifex, the "teenage butcher".
- Lucius Licinius Murena launches a raid against Pontus in the Battle of Halys, starting the Second Mithridatic War.
- Burebista unifies the Dacian population forming the first (and biggest) unified Dacian Kingdom, on the territory of modern Romania and surroundings. 82 BC is also the starting year of his reign.
- The Aurigid shower parent comet C/1911 N1 (Kiess) returns to the inner solar system and sheds the dust particles that one revolution later cause the 1935, 1986, 1994, and 2007 Aurigid meteor outbursts on Earth.
- Sulla is appointed dictator and reforms the Roman government.
- The Second Mithridatic War ends with the status quo.
- Cicero wins his first case.
- Quintus Sertorius re-enters Iberia with a tiny army (2,600 men) and opens a successful campaign against the Sullan forces.
- Battle of the Baetis River: A force of Populares exiles under Sertorius defeat the legal Roman army of Lucius Fulfidias in Hispania, starting the Sertorian War; Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius takes command on behalf of Sulla.
- Pompeii becomes the Roman colony Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompei.
- Ptolemy XII Auletes succeeds Ptolemy XI Alexander II to the throne of Egypt.
- Ptolemy XI marries Berenice III, but murders his bride for unknown reasons.
- Alexandria comes under Roman jurisdiction.
- Roman artists begin to extend the space of a room visually with painted scenes of figures on a shallow stage or with a landscape or cityscape.
- Lucius Munatius Plancus, Roman consul (approximate date)
- October 1 – Sallust, Roman historian (d. 34 BC)
- Fausta Cornelia, twin sister of Faustus Cornelius Sulla, wife of Gaius Memmius and later of Titus Annius Milo
- Faustus Cornelius Sulla, Roman senator, son of the dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (d. 46 BC)
- Atia Balba Caesonia, niece of Julius Caesar and mother of Augustus (d. 43 BC)
- Marcus Junius Brutus, conspirator and assassin in the murder of Julius Caesar (approximate date)
- Tiberius Claudius Nero, Roman politician and father of Tiberius (d. 33 BC)
- Catullus, Roman poet (approximate date) (d. c. 54 BC)
- Servilius Casca, Roman politician (d. c. 42 BC)
- Surena, Parthian general (d. 53 BC)
- Fulvia, Roman matron and wife of Mark Antony (approximate date)
- Julia, daughter of Julius Caesar and Cornelia (approximate date) (d. 54 BC)
- Mark Antony, Roman politician and General (who later married Cleopatra) (approximate date) (d. 30 BC)
- May 28 – Licinius Macer Calvus, Roman orator and poet (d. c. 47 BC)
- Marcus Caelius Rufus, Roman orator and politician (d. c. 48 BC)
- Varro Atacinus, Roman poet and writer (d. c. 35 BC)
- Vercingetorix, Gaul warrior and leader (d. 46 BC)
- Aulus Sempronius Asellio, Roman praetor (murdered by creditors)
- Lucius Porcius Cato, Roman politician and general
- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, Roman politician (b. c. 163 BC)
- Titus Didius, killed in battle during the Social War
- Demetrius III Eucaerus, king of the Seleucid Empire
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Roman consul
- Lady Gouyi, mother of Zhao of Han (b. 113)
- Li Guangli, Chinese general (Han Dynasty)
- Manius Aquillius, Roman consul and general
- Ptolemy X Alexander I, king (pharaoh) of Egypt
- Publius Sulpicius Rufus, Roman statesman
- Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur, Roman consul
- Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Italian tribe leader
- March 29 – Han Wudi, emperor of the Han dynasty (b. 157 BC)
- Apollodorus of Artemita, Greek writer
- Gaius Atilius Serranus, Roman consul and senator
- Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, Roman politician
- Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, Roman general and politician
- Gotarzes I, ruler (shah) of the Parthian Empire
- Lucius Cornelius Merula, Roman politician and priest
- Lucius Julius Caesar, Roman consul (killed by partisans of Gaius Marius)
- Marcus Antonius, Roman consul (executed by order of Marius and Cinna)
- Publius Licinius Crassus, Roman consul and censor (killed by Marians invading Rome)
- Quintus Ancharius, Roman politician (executed by order of Marius and Cinna)
- January 13 – Gaius Marius, Roman general and politician (b. 157 BC)
- March 1 – Aristion, Greek philosopher and tyrant
- Jin Midi, Chinese politician and co-regent (b. 134 BC)
- Sima Qian, Chinese historian (b. 145 BC)
- Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman politician (b. c. 140 BC)
- Mnesarchus of Athens, Stoic philosopher (b. c. 160 BC)
- Apellicon of Teos, Greek book collector (approximate date)
- Gaius Flavius Fimbria, Roman politician and general
- Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Roman consul (killed by mutinying troops)
- Philip I Philadelphus, Seleucid king (approximate date)
- Antiochus XII Dionysus, king of the Seleucid Empire (killed in battle)
- Gaius Carrinas, Roman politician and general (executed by order of Sulla)
- Gaius Fabius Hadrianus, Roman politician and governor
- Gaius Marcius Censorinus, Roman politician and general (executed by order of Sulla)
- Gaius Marius the Younger, Roman politician (commits suicide)
- Gaius Norbanus, Roman consul and governor (commits suicide)
- Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, Roman consul (executed by order of Sulla)
- Marcus Marius Gratidianus, Roman praetor and politician (executed by order of Sulla)
- Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, Roman consul (murdered by order of Marius the Younger)
- Quintus Valerius Soranus, Roman politician and Latin poet (executed by order of Sulla)
- Artaxias I (or Arshak), king of Iberia (Georgia)
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Roman politician
- Ptolemy IX Lathyros, king of Ptolemaic Egypt
- Berenice III, queen regnant of Egypt (b. 120 BC)
- Caecilia Metella Dalmatica, daughter of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus (approximate date)
- Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus, Greek freedman
- Ptolemy XI Alexander II, king (pharaoh) of Egypt
- Sang Hongyang, Chinese politician of the Han Dynasty
- Shangguan Jie, Chinese politician of the Han Dynasty
- Princess Eyi, Han Chinese princess