The Samnites (Oscan: Safineis) were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium, which is located in modern inland Abruzzo, Molise, and Campania in south-central Italy.

Samnite soldiers depicted on a tomb frieze in Nola. From the 4th Century BC
Italy in 400 BC, with the Samnites living in the dark green region.

An Oscan-speaking people, who originated as an offshoot of the Sabines, they formed a confederation consisting of four tribes: the Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri. Ancient Greek historians considered the Umbri as the ancestors of the Samnites.[1][2][3] Their migration was in a southward direction, according to the rite of ver sacrum.[4]

Although allied together against the Gauls in 354 BC, they later became enemies of the Romans and fought them in a series of three wars. Despite an overwhelming victory at the Battle of the Caudine Forks (321 BC), the Samnites were subjugated in 290 BC. Although severely weakened, the Samnites would still side against the Romans, first in the Pyrrhic War and then with Hannibal in the Second Punic War. They also fought in the Social War and later in Sulla's civil war as allies of the Roman consuls Papirius Carbo and Gaius Marius against Sulla, who defeated them and their leader Pontius Telesinus at the Battle of the Colline Gate (82 BC). Afterward, they were assimilated by the Romans and ceased to exist as a distinct people.

The Samnites had an economy focused upon livestock and agriculture. Samnite agriculture was highly advanced for its time, and they practiced transhumance. Aside from relying on agriculture, the Samnites exported goods such as ceramics, bronze, iron, olives, wool, pottery, and terracottas. Their trade networks extended across Campania, Latium, Apulia, and Magna Graecia.

Samnite society was stratified into cantons. Each city was a vicus. Many vici were grouped into a pagus, and many pagi were grouped into a touto. There were four Samnite touto, one for each of the Samnite tribes. Aside from this system of government, a few Samnite cities had political entities similar to a senate. It was rare, although possible, for the Samnites to unify under a coalition; normally the tribes and cities functioned independently from one another.

Samnite religion worshipped both spirits called numina and gods and goddesses. The Samnites honored their gods by sacrificing live animals and using votive offerings. Superstition was prominent in the Samnite religion. It was believed that magical chants could influence reality, that magical amulets could protect people, and that augurs could see the future. Samnite priests would manage religious festivals and they could bind people to oaths. Sanctuaries were a major part of the Samnite religion. These might have been used to benefit from trade networks, may have marked the border between territories, and may have been intertwined with government. Samnite sanctuaries may have also been used to reinforce group identity.


Oscan inscription. From right to left it reads: "V[ibius] Popidius, son of V[ibius], chief magistrate, was responsible for this work and approved it."

The Indo-European root Saβeno or Sabh evolved into the word Safen, which later became Safin. The word Safin may have been the first word used to describe the Samnite people and the Samnite Kingdom.[5][6][7] Etymologically, this name is generally recognized to be a form of the name of the Sabines, who were Umbrians.[8] From Safinim, Sabinus, Sabellus and Samnis, an Indo-European root can be extracted, *sabh-, which becomes Sab- in Latino-Faliscan and Saf- in Osco-Umbrian: Sabini and *Safineis.[9] Some archaeologists believe Safin refers to all the people of the Italian peninsula, others say just the people of Molise.[10][11] It could also be an adjective used to describe a group of people. It appears on graves near Abruzzo from the 5th century, as well as Oscan inscriptions and slabs in Penna Sant'Andrea.[10] The last known usage of the word is on a coin from the Social War.[11]

Safin would go through a series of changes culminating in Safinim, the Oscan word for Samnium, meaning "cult place of the Safin people."[12] This became the word for the Samnite people, Safineis.[5][13][14] as well as other words in Greek such as Saini, Saineis, Samnītēs, Sabellī, and Saunìtai. These terms likely originated in the 5th century BC and derive from saunion, the Greek word for javelin.[15]

At some point in prehistory, a population speaking a common language extended over both Samnium and Umbria. Salmon conjectures that it was common Italic and puts forward a date of 600 BC, after which the common language began to separate into dialects. This date does not necessarily correspond to any historical or archaeological evidence; developing a synthetic view of the ethnology of proto-historic Italy is an incomplete and ongoing task.[16]

Linguist Julius Pokorny carries the etymology somewhat further back. Conjecturing that the -a- was altered from an -o- during some prehistoric residence in Illyria, he derives the names from an o-grade extension *swo-bho- of an extended e-grade *swe-bho- of the possessive adjective, *s(e)we-, of the reflexive pronoun, *se-, "oneself" (the source of English self). The result is a set of Indo-European tribal names (if not the endonym of the Indo-Europeans): Germanic Suebi and Semnones, Suiones; Celtic Senones; Slavic Serbs and Sorbs; Italic Sabelli, Sabini, etc., as well as a large number of kinship terms.[17]



Origins and early history

Map of Ancient Samnium

The Greek geographer Strabo wrote that the Samnite civilization originated from a group of Sabine exiles. According to this account, during either a famine, or as part of an attempt to end a war with the Umbrians, the Sabines vowed to hold a Ver Sacrum. As part of this ritual, all things produced that year were sacrificed, including babies.[18] Once these babies had reached adulthood they were exiled, and then guided by a bull to their new homeland.[19][20] Upon reaching this land they sacrificed this bull to Mars.[11][21] Other Samnite tribes claimed to have been guided by different animals. The Hirpini claimed they were guided by a wolf, and the Picentes claimed to have been guided by a woodpecker.[22][23] Alternatively, the Samnites may have been connected to Sparta. This legend is possibly apocryphal. It might have been created by the Greeks for an alliance with the Samnites, or to include the Italic peoples within their worldview, and possibly to highlight similarities between the Samnites and Spartans.[24] Archaeological evidence shows that Samnite civilization likely developed from a preexisting Italian culture.[25]

After the Etruscans abandoned Campania in the 5th century, the Samnites conquered the region.[26] Cities like Pompeii and Herculaneum were conquered.[27] It is unclear what Samnite cities took part in the campaign, or why.[28] They could have wanted its fertile soil, or to alleviate overpopulation. This theory relies on the Samnites having a poor agricultural industry, which is contradicted by other evidence. Alternatively, the Samnites could have wanted access to the Volturno River and other resources. Once Greek hegemony in Italy waned, the Samnites invaded and conquered much of their former land.[29][30][31] They conquered cities like Cumae, only failing to take Naples.[32][33][34] In the ensuing centuries, they would wage more war against the Campanians, Volscians, Epirot Greeks, and other Latin communities.[35][36]

Samnite Wars

Lucanian depiction of the Battle of Caudine Forks

The Samnites and Romans first came into contact after the Roman conquest of the Volscians. In 354 BC, they agreed to set their border at the Liris River.[37] Livy, a Roman historian who serves as a source on the Samnite Wars, states that when the Samnites attacked the Campanians, the latter civilization formed an alliance with the Romans. Igniting war between them and the Samnites in 343 BC.[38][39][40] This account of the war's cause is not universally accepted by modern historians.[41][42] Livy may be writing propaganda or trying to compare this war to other conflicts. After three Samnite defeats and a Roman invasion, the Samnites agreed to sign a peace treaty.[43][44][45]

There are two accounts of the cause of the Second Samnite War. Possibly, Rome declared war due to a Samnite alliance with the Vestini and wars against Fregellae and Paleopolis. Additionally, the Romans wished to use the economic prosperity of the city of Venafrum for their own benefit.[37] Conflict may have also emerged because the Samnites desired to solidify their hold over crucial economic positions.[5] After the Roman defeat at the Battle of the Caudine Forks both sides agreed to an armistice.[40][41][46] Fighting resumed in 326 BC.[41] The war ended after a Roman campaign into Apulia and Samnium.[43] Following the end of the war, the Romans annexed Bovianum and Fregellae, and forced the Samnites out of Apulia.[41][44][45]

In 298 BC, the Third Samnite War broke out due to tension over the Lucanians, who had asked Rome for protection.[5][44][47] On another front, treaties between the Romans and Picentes caused conflict with the Etruscans. This war came to end after the Samnite defeat at the Battle of Aquilonia.[43] Afterwards, Samnium was conquered and the Samnites were assimilated into Roman society.[37][45][48]

Later history

Social War coin depicting the Samnite soldiers taking an oath to fight the Romans

The Samnites were one of the Italian peoples that allied with King Pyrrhus of Epirus during the Pyrrhic War.[49] After Pyrrhus left for Sicily, the Romans invaded Samnium and were crushed at the Battle of the Cranita Hills, but after the defeat of Pyrrhus, the Samnites could not resist on their own and surrendered to Rome. Some of them joined and aided Hannibal during the Second Punic War, but most stayed loyal to Rome.[50] After the Romans refused to grant the Samnites citizenship, they, along with other Italic peoples, rebelled against the Romans. This war, known as the Social War, lasted almost four years and resulted in a Roman victory. After this bloody conflict, Samnites and other Italic tribes were granted citizenship to avoid the possibility of another war.

The Samnites supported the faction of Marius and Carbo in the civil war against Sulla. The Samnites and their allies were led by Pontius Telesinus and a Lucanian named Marcus Lamponius. They gathered an army of 40,000 men and fought a battle against Sulla at the Colline Gates.[51] After their defeat in the battle, and subsequently the war, Pontius was executed.[52][53][54]

As a consequence of Sulla's victory and his establishment as dictator of Rome he ordered the punishment of those who had opposed him.[55] Samnites, who were some of the most prominent supporters of the Marians, were punished so severely that it was recorded, "some of their cities have now dwindled into villages, some indeed being entirely deserted." The Samnites did not play any prominent role in history after this, and they were Latinized and assimilated into the Roman world.[20][56] Several of their gentes would go on to achieve high distinction, including the Cassii, the Herennii, and the Vibii.[11]




Samnite coin depicting a javelin head with a laurel wreath

Most of Samnium consisted of rugged and mountainous terrain lacking in natural resources. This resulted in a mixed economy focused on using the small amounts of fertile land to practice highly developed forms of subsistence agriculture, mixed farming, animal husbandry, sheep farming, pastoralism, and smallholdings.[29][57][58] The prosperity of the Samnite agricultural industry likely resulted in conflicts between them and other civilizations, and possibly one of the causes of the Samnite Wars.[35]

The prominence of pastoralism and livestock in the Samnite economy was also a consequence of their homeland's terrain.[59][60][61] Horses, poultry, cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep were all common and important kinds of livestock.[62] These animals were valued because they could serve as a tradeable good, and as a source of food. Transhumance, or the seasonal movement of livestock from summer to winter pastures, was an important aspect of the Samnite economy.[35][63][64] Annual short distance transhumance formed the basis of the aristocracy's wealth.[65] Long distance transhumance was practiced between Apulia and Samnium.[57][35]

During the fifth and fourth centuries BC, an increasing population combined with trade links to other Italians contributed to further agricultural and urban development. This change was most drastic in Larinum. The city began as a major grain producer with a mill and a threshing floor, and later developed into the hub for all economic activity in the Biferno Valley.[66] The Samnites exported goods such as cereals, cabbages, olives, olive oil, wine, bronze, iron, textiles, legumes, and vines.[67][68][69] They also imported materials such as bronze bowls and bucchero from places like Campania, Etruria, Latium, Apulia, and Magna Graecia.[60][35] These trade networks resulted in the adoption of products and ideas from other cultures such as the Sabines, Latins, and Etruscans.[35][70][71]

Samnite currency developed in the late fifth and early fourth centuries BC, likely as a consequence of interaction with the Greeks, and war, which created a need for mercenaries. Their bronze or silver currency might have been produced in Naples, and then "ordered" from the city's workshops. Alternatively, Samnite cities might have supplied the materials necessary for making currency. Or coins could have been imported from cities that Samnite mercenaries worked for. Such as Taranto. Currency at this time generally depicted places like Allifae, Nola, Philistia, or peoples such as the Campani. These images are associated with the development of the Samnite political structure. Coins may have not been used by individuals, but instead by government institutions to finance administrative tasks. Following this early period of high currency production, the Samnites began to mint less money.[35][72]

Samnite loom weight with a design of fibulas and tweezers

Wool and leather were likely harvested by the Samnites in significant quantities, as evidenced by the numerous loom weights found throughout Samnium. Most loom weights used incised lines, dots, oval stamps, gem impressions, or imprints from metal signet rings to create patterns. Common patterns included pyramids, stars, or dotted or incised cross motifs. Motifs could have been shaped like leaves, flowers, pomegranates, or mythological figures. One loom weight from the town of Locri is decorated with a gem impression of a satyr playing the lyre. Numerous pieces of Samnite pottery with Greek words incised into them have been found. These Greek words may have served a variety of possibilities, such as instructing the weaver how to order the threads in the textile patterns, or they could also have marked the piece's quality. The Greek inscriptions may also have stated the weight of either the loom weight or the cloth, and possibly the cloth's dimensions.[73]

The Samnites also produced amphorae, terracottas, and impasto pottery with black gloss. Protective coating, also called varnish,[74] was used to cover pottery and amphorae. Most amphorae came from Rhodes, and pottery was commonly purchased from Greece.[75] Pottery was also rarely imported from North Africa or areas by the Adriatic. After the urbanization of Samnite society, the production of Hellenistic or Italian pottery dramatically increased.[76] Ceramics, pottery, and amphorae often used patterns. The majority of these patterns were trademarks or signatures from the craftsmen. On other occasions, they depicted places such as the island of Rhodes, or named government officials., such as the Meddíss Túvtíks.[11][77] One example of a pottery stamp is:[15]

Detfri (slave) of Herennis Sattis signed in planta pedis.

— Impressed on a tile in Pietrabbondante in the Second Century BC.


A depiction of the Samnite Pagus-vicus system

Throughout the Iron Age Samnium was ruled by chieftains and aristocrats who used funerary displays to flaunt their wealth. During the early third and fourth centuries, the Samnite political system developed into an organization focused on rural settlements led by magistrates.[12] The Samnite settlements, or vici, were at the bottom of the Samnite social hierarchy. They were grouped into cantons called pagi, which were run by an elected official known as a meddiss. The pagi were organized into toutos, which were the Samnite tribes. Each touto was led by an annually elected official with supreme executive and judicial powers called the meddíss túvtiks.

Political entities similar to councils, assemblies, or senates such as the kombennio possibly existed.[78] The Kombennio was a democratic organization in Pompeii responsible for electing officials, as well as making laws and enforcing them.[5][79] Senates were located at the capitals of the Samnite tribes, such as Bovianum, the Pentrian capital. It is unclear if these forms of government existed before the Roman conquest.[80] Despite these democratic institutions, Samnite society was still dominated by a small group of aristocratic families such as the Papii, Statii, Egnatii, and Staii.[43][81] Each Samnite tribe functioned independently from the others. However, a union similar to the Latin League would occasionally form between the tribes. Such an alliance would be primarily militaristic, with a commander and chief enforcing all laws enacted by the alliance.[82] In order for the alliance to pass legislation, leading men of each tribe would have to unanimously agree before a bill could become a law.[35][41] Such an alliance was rare, and even if some tribes unified others might refuse to unite with the other tribes. The Frentani was another Italic tribe that might have been included in this alliance, however, their importance to the union might be exaggerated. The relevance of the Samnite tribes in this organization might also be exaggerated; cities could have had more political power.[83]

This system of government maintained itself after the Roman conquest of Samnium albeit with some reductions in power. The touto and pagus began to function as miniature Republics, while the vicus remained unchanged. The only interference from the Romans would be that the Municipum held authority over all previous institutions and could override them, while the prefectures had little authority over the Samnites.[60]



Roman historians believed that Samnite society was highly militaristic. They feared Samnite cavalry and infantry, and nicknamed them Belliger Samnis, which translates to "Warrior Samnites".[5][84] It is unclear if this portrayal is accurate as most Roman historical accounts of the Samnites were written after this civilization had disappeared. Much of this work could also be propaganda.[59][85] In the early periods of Samnite history, the military consisted of trained warriors led by local leaders. Access to the military (and military equipment) was dependent on one's wealth and status, while poorer and lower status individuals were relegated to work such as agriculture.[86] Samnite soldiers would have been trained in the triangular forum in Pompeii from an early age as part of a group known as the Vereiia. The Vereiia evolved into a community service group after the Roman conquest.[5][87] During the Samnite Wars, the army evolved to resemble the armies of Ancient Greek city states. This new system used phalanxes, hoplites, maniples, and cohorts made of 400 men, creating an army flexible enough to fight in mountainous terrain.[88][89][90] Low class soldiers began to be conscripted into the army, increasing its size to several thousand soldiers, although these recruits were less skilled and poorly trained.

Livy mentions a legio linteata ("linen legion");[91] this unit used flamboyant equipment to differentiate itself from other Samnite warriors. According to Livy, this legion took an oath to never flee battle inside a linen structure.[92][93] Scholars believe that this description was designed to highlight the differences between the "civilized" Romans, and the barbaric enemies of Rome.[94] Livy also could have been attempting to try and convey Samnite historical and religious power through a single unit.[95] Due to corroborating archaeological evidence, other scholars state that it would be "rash" to completely dismiss this entire story.[5][58]


Bronze Samnite cuirass. This piece is from 400 to 300 BC in Southern Italy

Samnite soldiers wore a small single disc breastplate. This breastplate, called the kardiophylax consisted of straps that passed around the shoulders, chest, and back, and attached around points. Although the triple-disc cuirass offered more protection, this armor continued to be used as a status symbol.[96] There were three types of triple-disc cuirasses.[97][98] The first used bronze to fill the space between the three identical discs. Small rings were attached to this bronze, and side straps were used to hold the armor together. Shoulder straps were also fastened to these small rings. The second type utilized an edge to outline the discs, while the third used plates to depict the heads of religious figures such as Athena or demons. All three types were constructed by placing a disc below and between two upper discs forming a triangular shape.[99]

Broad belts made of leather, gold, or bronze were common pieces of armor, and significant to Samnite culture. They were likely dedicated to protecting the abdomen. Samnite belts were made by heating up tin alloys at 800 degrees Celsius. Afterward, work would be performed on the belt at a temperature ranging from 600 to 800 degrees Celsius. Hammers and abrasives were used to grind the strips, giving them the appearance of silver. When making the belts, a thermal treatment was used in repeated cycles to increase the durability of the material.[100]

Samnite helmets were based on Greek military equipment—they used cheek guards, crests, and plumes. Crests were usually made by fastening horse tails to a metal piece that hung at the back of the helmet. Rivets could also be used to pin crests to the helmet's peak. Another type of crest was thin and bushy with long free-flowing ends. Feathers and horns were a common feature of Samnite crests and plumes.[101][99] Soldiers would don their greaves by resting their leg on a rock whilst using their hands to test the fit of the equipment. This piece of equipment reached down to the ankle and was likely custom-made to fit the owner. There are few depictions of Samnite soldiers wearing graves, implying that they were rarely used outside of rituals and "mock-fights."[99]


Pottery depicting a Samnite warrior

Projectiles such as spears and javelins were commonly used by the Samnites. Spearheads were made from two bronze or iron parts.[102] The upper part was the spearhead proper, and a lower part, which used a tube to hold up the end of a wooden shaft. To fasten the shaft to the spearhead, nails were driven through a hole in the shaft. Tubes were used to fit the spear into a bronze chape, which would protect the wooden shaft. Projectile weaponry was so essential to Samnite tactics that if a soldier ran out of projectiles, they would throw rocks off the ground.

Alongside spears, soldiers would use swords or even hand-to-hand combat.[103] Depictions on pottery, and figurines such as the Capestrano Warrior showcase Samnite soldiers using a kind of Bronze Age sword called an antenna sword. Another kind of sword associated with the Samnite civilization is the short sword. Short swords were carried using a long strap fastened to either the warrior's body or the sword's hilt.[99] Samnite art depicts soldiers receiving swords in ritual ceremonies, and warriors eager to receive swords, implying that short swords were highly valued in Samnite society. Maces were rarer than spears or javelins, yet still common. They had heavy and undecorated iron heads attached to a handle hoisted with a hole or a socket. Axes were rarely used; they may have primarily been symbols of power.[40]

There is little archaeological record of the Samnite shield, as most of the remaining shields have had much of their components destroyed. Samnite art commonly depicts Samnite soldiers using a round shield called an aspis. To carry the shield, two straps were used. One strap was leather, decorated with patterns, and ran vertically over the middle of the shield. Another strap – used to provide a firm grip – ran vertically near the shield's edge. Alongside aspides, the Samnites possibly used bronze oval shields with pointed ends and incised decorations. It is possible that the Samnites used scuta. It is also possible that the Samnite scutum influenced the Roman shield;[103] however, evidence for this is unclear. Samnite art depicts their soldiers carrying scuta; however, it is either as trophies taken from the enemy or an attempt to mimic ancient Greek art.[104][105] Livy states that the Samnite shield was broad near the shoulder and chest, but thinner closer to the feet.[106][107] Archaeological evidence does not substantiate this idea. Livy possibly mistook the equipment of a Samnite gladiator for that of a Samnite soldier.[99]




Face of Mefitis, a Samnite goddess

Superstition dominated Samnite culture.[5][108][109] They believed magic could influence reality and practiced augury.[11][60][64] Vaguely defined spirits called numina were also prominent in Samnite mythology.[60][110][111] It was essential to establish proper relations with these spirits, which evolved into the Samnite gods and goddesses.[112][113][114] Few of these Samnite deities are known.[115][116][117] It is known that gods such as Vulcan, Diana, and Mefitis were all worshipped, with Mars being the most prominent in the Samnite religion.[60][118] To honor their gods, votive offerings and animals would be sacrificed.[60][119][120] In a practice known as the Ver Sacrum, all things produced in a particular year would be exiled or offered to the gods.[5][121][122] The description of these practices may have been fabricated by Livy for propaganda purposes.[64][90][123]

Samnite gravesites often contained goods. For example, wealthy individuals had graves with statues or steles. These goods indicated the wealth and status of the individual in life.[59] Burials required that certain practices be observed in order to bury the dead adequately.[124][125][126] Burial was likely a sign of social status as it was rare to be buried, despite the Samnite belief in an afterlife.

Sanctuaries were important to the Samnite religion.[50][60][64] They served a variety of purposes: they siphoned money off transhumance routes, marked borders, served as centers for communication and places of worship, and played a role in government.[60][50] Over time, sanctuaries become much less prominent in Samnite culture, and were all abandoned soon afterwards.[60][127][128]

Gender roles

Graph showcasing the correlation between burial goods and gender at Campo Consolino

There were two major roles for Samnite women: domestic and ceremonial. Women would weave, which likely played an important role in the economy.[59][129][65] They also likely exercised a small amount of political power through the symposium, which was a kind of ancient Greek or Etruscan banquet.[130] Other responsibilities included teaching young girls how to dance, childrearing, and possibly managing the household.[59][62] Relationships between Samnite wives and husbands are unclear. Libation scenes might suggest that a wife was supposed to be dutiful and loyal to her husband.[99] Women may have been expected to be disciplined—in Horace's Odes he complains about women lacking these traits. He possibly based his expectations of women on Samnite customs.[131] Another possibility is that women were capable of acquiring large amounts of wealth. However, they might have only been capable of displaying their partner's wealth. Artwork and pottery depicting Samnite women showcase them involved in rituals or nearby altars with votive offerings.[99] These rituals usually involve women honoring their husbands through offerings of wine, or possibly praying for their husbands before they leave to fight.

The geographer Strabo states that the Samnites would take ten virgin women and ten young men, who were considered to be the best representation of their sex, and marry them.[132] Following this, the second-best women would be given to the second-best males. This would continue until all 20 people had been assigned to one another. It is possible that the "best" men and women were chosen based on athletic capabilities. If any of the individuals involved dishonored themselves, they would be displaced and forcibly separated from their partners.[5][11][62]

Samnite society may have enforced a distinction between men, who were supposed to be warriors, and women, who were supposed to be "bejeweled".[5][133] Ancient historians describe the Samnites as a warlike people; however much of this is possibly propaganda. Campanian pottery often depicts Samnite warriors and cavalrymen fighting, while Apulian pottery tends to depict them in a wider variety of circumstances. Pottery from those same cultures also depicts armed men involved with other activities such as burying the dead or marriage.[85] Differences between male and female graves also support this theory. Men were buried with weapons and armor, while women were buried with domestic goods such as spindles or jewelry. Young adult women were typically buried with coils, pendants, beads, clothing, spindles, and fibulae similar to those worn by boys,[134] possibly meaning that femininity was tied to youth in Samnite culture. Men wore much smaller and less elaborate fibulae, possibly indicating that the male identity was tied to maturity.[59][135] The skeletons of men and women also show differences in trauma. Male skeletons found near Pontecagnano Faiano have a cranial trauma rate of 12.9%, while only 8% of female skeletons showed cranial trauma. Another community at Alfedena has male Samnite skeletons with similar rates of cranial injury. This indicates that Samnite men may have been expected to serve as warriors and fight, while women were not.[136]

Graph depicting the percentage of male or female graves at Campo Consolino buried with a certain good

However, a large number of graves are not buried with their respective gender's items. Samnite men have been buried with goods typically associated with women, and a few Samnite women have been buried with goods associated with men.[137] Only 3% of men in Campo Consolino were buried with their respective gender's goods, while one in five women were buried with weaponry. Men have also been found buried with domestic goods. This could be explained if these goods were not indicative of the person's responsibilities in life, but instead were offerings to the dead. The rarity of certain burial goods could indicate that they were exclusive to high-status individuals. For example, jewelry could be explained as an indication of wealth or femininity. Differences in jewelry between the graves of adolescent and young adult women could be a form of preventative healthcare; it may have been done to protect them in childbirth.[135]

Analysis of skeletons has shown that both genders have fractures, lesions, and injuries, although men have these injuries much more commonly.[136] This difference could be explained by greater amounts of male skeletons than female skeletons.[59] Other skeletons showcase similarities between the lives of men and women. For example, both have healthy teeth, implying that they had healthy diets with low amounts of carbohydrates. The art depicts groups of both men and women honoring both dead men and women, indicating that Samnite men and women could be honored in similar ways after death.[99] Each gender may have had different, but equally important roles. Another possibility is that the Samnites had two categories for gender, one being adult males, and the other, everyone else.[59]

The Samnites possibly practiced ritualized prostitution. Young women of all social standings would engage in sexual activities as a rite of passage. It is possible this practice would transform from a ritual into a profession.[138][139]

Fragment of Samnite art from the Museo Campano

The first art style used by the Samnites in Pompeii developed when Greek painters traveled to Italy to paint for local aristocrats.[140] It borrows elements from Greek, Etruscan, and other Italic art. For example, hierarchy of scale, clothing demonstrating status, captions, episodic narratives, and depictions of history were all borrowed from other cultures.[141]

Samnite art featured polychrome murals and paintings. The murals usually used black or red cement pavements outlined with designs that ran across tesserae. There were two different styles of tesserae: worm-like, or miculatum, and woven-style, or oppus tessellatum,. Miculatum consisted of inserting marble and terracotta trays into a mosaic floor. The oppus tessellatum style used tesserae to create an appearance resembling weaving. Samnite art was usually colorful, and it often depicted myths, warriors, or Greek subjects.[140] Murals found in Pompeii were designed to create an idyllic sense.[142]

Aside from the murals, other works of Samnite art have survived to the modern day. On the walls of a sanctuary at Pietrabbondate there is an unidentifiable relief that is possibly an atlas. Another possible work of Samnite or Roman origin in Isernia depicts two helmeted warriors.[5][140][143] One example of Samnite figurative art may be the Warrior of Capestrano.[144] The statue was, however, found in Vestini territory and depicts a Picentine warrior.[111][145]


Samnite bronze belt with a clasp

Most Samnite clothes were loose, pinned, draped, folded, and not stitched or sewn. Clothing held symbolic and ritual purposes in Samnite society. For example, clothing indicated social status, and chitons were often used in ceremonies. The most valuable kind of clothing was a fastened bronze or leather girdle covered in bronze.[146][147]

Men wore rings, amulets with snake heads, and collars. Collars were usually pierced with holes from which they suspended amulets and pendants and engraved with incised decorations. Collars would be given to the man in boyhood, and never removed. Bearskins were also common clothing.[84][98]

Female clothing was similar to Greek apparel. Women wore long sleeveless peplum, caps, hats similar to a pileus, chitons, decorated belts, and chatelaine. The chatelaine had a central section consisting of mail and metal spirals made from perforated discs of metal.[99][148][149] An essential part of Samnite women's clothing was garments long enough to touch the ground. These were worn alongside colored capes that were fastened beneath the chin and held together with a brooch. Samnite capes covered the whole upper body, the arms, and the legs, although necklaces and amulets remained visible, as the neckline of the cape did not touch the shoulders. Women also wore another kind of cape similar to a jacket. This jacket had sleeves, was fastened at the front, used a low-cut neckline, and fit the body tightly, covering much of it with folding. The frontal part of the jacket hung just below the waist, which is also nearby where it was kept. Samnite skirts were heavily influenced by Greek clothing. They covered with a himation that usually also covered the hips as well as drapery. Women wore headdresses made from a folded piece of cloth. One depiction of this kind of headdress shows it as a long veil that was folded and ran across the head. Another piece of art shows a Samnite woman wearing a hairnet beneath a cylindrical headdress with white and red stripes running across it.[99] Some kinds of clothing were gender neutral. Red, white, or black belts covered in motifs that were usually made by using hooks to fasten cloth or leather into holes were worn by both genders.[99] It was common in ancient Samnium for both men and women to wear no footwear. Despite this, numerous shoe styles still existed. Some shoes were low, some reached to the ankles, and others had a small hole at their tip. Another kind used an accentuated upper edge and reached higher than the ankles. Styles of footwear did not vary greatly between gender, except for styles of boot. Female boots were usually ankle-high, while male boots reached higher. To secure the lacing of the shoe, white buttons and pointed, curved, or short lines that ran across horizontal laces could be used. Samnite sandals had white soles that used a strap to attach the soles to the foot. One kind of sandal left the foot uncovered, while the other covered it up. Socks may have existed in ancient Samnium. If they did not, an alternative could have existed, such as a sort of soft fabric used as a replacement for socks.[99]

Italic pottery and Samnite tomb paintings depict Samnite warriors wearing tunics. These were usually made from one piece of cloth and decorated with black or white motifs that were almost always placed on the sleeves, though rarely on the lower part of the tunic. Common motifs included stripes or dots. Tunics were held together at the midriff by broad leather belts.

Livy describes Samnite soldiers wearing two kinds of clothing. One was referred to as versicolor, meaning the clothing used contrasting colors. These clothes might have been designed to give a chameleon-like appearance Livy may have intended to invoke ideas of Aeneas, who once allied with a warrior named Astyr, who had multi-colored weapons and armor. It also may have been designed to showcase the worthiness of the Samnites as opponents of Rome. These are not the only possibilities—Livy may have wanted to reference Plato's Republic, which compares Republics to a multi-colored garment. Also, multi-colored clothing may have symbolized wealth. The other group of Samnites wore silver clothing and carried weapons.[150][151]


Etruscan bucchero. These kinds of cups would have been used by the Samnites

Drinking and eating were very important to the life of the Samnites. It served as a way to entertain, and to establish social networks, and to negotiate politics or labor.[59] Whilst eating, the host would distribute food and drink to the guests. It was rare for wine to be given to adult men, although it was consumed by other demographics.[5] Banquets used large containers or mixing vessels, serving vessels, and small pieces for individuals' consumption. Large containers were often amphorae or kraters. Serving vessels were usually dippers, or jugs. The smaller vessels were usually cups, beakers, kylikes, and kantharoi. It was common to import these goods, for example, bucchero was commonly imported from Etruria.[11][59]

Gladiatorial games may have originated in Samnium. Roman and Greek authors such as Livy, Strabo, Horace, Athenaeus, and Silius Italicus mention that the Campanian aristocrats would host gladiator games during their banquets.[152][153] It is possible that the Samnite gladiator originated from these Oscan and Samnite games. However, evidence for this is inconclusive. Other scholars believe that gladiatorial games originated from Etruria, the Celts, or the city of Mantineia. The word lanista may imply a connection between gladiatorial games and the Etruscans. Although the earliest gladiators were called Samnites, the word lanista may have no connection to the Etruscans. Art from Campania depicts Samnites in gladiatorial games. One piece of art depicts a dead gladiator with a spear stuck in the head. This indicates that the Samnites likely were not averse to brutality. Art also showcases large gladiatorial games alongside chariot racing and banquets, implying that Samnite gladiatorial games were grandiose and for entertainment. Alternatively, these games may have been conducted at funerals. Games are usually depicted taking place near funerals, and pomegranates are depicted in the background, which was symbols of the afterlife.[103] The warriors in these funerary games are depicted wearing colorful armor.[154]

Chariot racing and hunting with projectile weaponry were recreational activates practiced by Samnite men.[5][65][99] In Pompeii, ancient baths were built during the time the Samnites ruled the city.[155]

Cities and engineering

Amphitheater in Saepinum

From the Bronze to the Iron Age, the number of Samnite settlements drastically increased. Most of these settlements were small, with most people living in hamlets and working for a living.[29][156] These small settlements organized around larger settlements, such as Saepinum and Caiatia.[56] Samnite cities were generally not as large as those in the rest of Italy.[11] They were largely disorganized, and generally lacked urban centers. Roads called tratturi were used to connect the summer pastures to those of winter.[157][158] Alongside these roads, Samnite cities had buildings such as temples, dining complexes, houses, and sanctuaries.[159] Their cities had no buildings similar to a forum or an Agora, except for the city of Pompeii, which had a small forum with irregular architecture and tabernae.[160]

Samnite cities began to develop walls and other defensive fortifications during the Samnite Wars. Walls were usually rough and crude, and located by the crest of a hill with no other defenses nearby. This indicated that they were built to allow the defending army to retreat and regroup, rather than protect the city. City gates were heavily fortified on the left side, but not on the right. This was done to force soldiers to attack the city on the side they were not holding their shield on.[5][29]

Hillforts built with polygonal walling may have been either a common defensive fortification or a form of settlement that represented a transitional phase between a more rural society and a more urban one. It is unclear if these hillforts were permanent defenses as they may have only been inhabited temporarily. Scholars have proposed other possible purposes for the Samnite hillforts. They may have played a role in government.[60] Forts may have also been used to pass along signals by fire.[161]

Samnite house in Herculaneum

Samnite architecture in Pompeii or Herculaneum often resembled that of Greek architecture.[60] For example, palaestras, colonnades, stoai, and columns were all borrowed from the Greeks.[140][162] Other techniques were borrowed from the Etruscans. Such as breaking up orthostates with narrow blocks. The Samnite palaestra in Pompeii is made from a rectangular courtyard surrounded by porticos and Doric columns made of tufa. A peristyle courtyard lies to the west of the palaestra. This building was similar to Greek palaestra, and was likely either a gymnasium, religious site, or a campus.[163] Houses were built on foundations topped with smaller blocks laid in courses. In order to elevate the foundation, dados and orthostats were inserted into the fauces. Blocks of stone also needed to be put alongside the base of the wall. Walls were usually made of rubble. The rubble could have been carved to make it resemble carved blocks of stone, rather than rubble. Alongside this practice, layers of plaster were spread over it. Plaster was also used to make frescoes. This was done by applying pigment to the plaster whilst it was damp. Another construction material called stucco was often painted, creating the appearance of a house covered in marble.[164] Atriums were a common feature of Samnite houses. They used impulviums, loggia, and cellae.[60][165] Façades made of tuff, tabernae, peristyles, dentil cornices supported by cubic capitals, which are the upper part of a column, used figurines and were all located outside of the houses.[166][167] Roofs with downspouts made of stone and tiles.[57][168]

Small, personal, and makeshift farms or houses were common buildings.[169] One farmhouse found near Campobasso consists of a square module, which was likely a stable house, and a series of rooms with hearths centered around a courthouse. The house has a small mortar line basin, a dolia, and other container vessels. Indicating that these materials were used for the process and storage of produce.[165] Another farmstead was built in 200 BC using limestone blocks held together by yellow mortar.[170] An archaeological site known as "ACQ 11000" had a terrace covered in thick clay, a walled space with a paved floor, and a stone wall.[171]

Notable Samnites

Coin from 90 BC depicting Gaius Papius Mutilus

Leaders of the Samnites

  • Gaius Pontius ca. 320s BC.[172]
  • Gellius Egnatius ca. 296 BC.[173]
  • Herenius Pontius, a Samnite philosopher.[174]
  • Brutulus Papius, a Samnite aristocrat mentioned by Livy.[81][175]
  • N. Papius Mr. f, Meddix Tuticus in 190 BC.[81]
  • Statius Gellius, general during the Samnite Wars.[81][176]
  • Staius Minatius, general during the Samnite Wars.[81][177]
  • N. Papius Maras Metellus, Meddix Tuticus in 100 BC.[81]
  • Numerius Statius, Meddix Tuticus in 130 BC.[81]
  • Gaius Statius Clarus, Meddix Tuticus around 90 BC.[81]
  • Olus Egnatius, Meddix Tuticus in the 2nd century BC.[81]
  • Titus Staius, Meddix Tuticus in the 2nd century BC.[81]
  • Gnaeus Staius Marahis Stafidinus, Meddix Tuticus in the 2nd century BC.[81]
  • Ovius Staius, Samnite in the 2nd century BC. May have built a statue to Hercules in the sanctuary by Campochiaro.[81]
  • Gaius Statius Clarus, Samnite who constructed the podium in the temple of Pietrabbondante.[81]
  • Stenis Staius Metellus, Meddix Tuticus 130 BC. Possibly built the sanctuary in Campochiaro.[81]
  • Maras Staius Bacius, builder of the Pietrabbondante sanctuary.[81]
  • Pacius Staius Lucius, builder of the Pietrabbondante sanctuary.[81]
  • Papius N. f, Meddix Tuticus in 160 BC.[81]
  • C. Papius Met. f, Meddix Tuticus in 130 BC.[81]
  • N. Papius Mr.f. Mt. n, Meddix Tuticus in 100 BC.[81]
  • L. Staius Ov. f. Met. n, Meddix Tuticus in Bovianum in 130 BC.[81]
  • Minatius Staius Stati f, Meddix Tuticus of Bovianum and Pietrabbondante in 120 BC.[81]
  • L. Staius Mr. f, Meddix Tuticus in 120 BC.[81]
  • Staius Sn. f, Meddix Tuticus in 100 BC.[81]
    Bust of Gaius Cassius Longinus
    Gaius Papius, builder of the temple in the Schiavi d'Abruzzo sanctuary.[81]

Social War leaders


Romans of Samnite origin


Catholic Popes


See also



  1. ^ Strabo, Geography, book 4, 7 BCE, p. 465, Alexandria,
  2. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "Book II.49". Roman Antiquities. But Zenodotus of Troezen, a...historian, relates that the Umbrians, a native race, first dwelt in the Reatine territory, as it is called, and that, being driven from there by the Pelasgians, they came into the country which they now inhabit and changing their name with their place of habitation, from Umbrians were called Sabines. But Porcius Cato says that the Sabine race received its name from Sabus, the son of Sancus, a divinity of that country, and that this Sancus was by some called Jupiter Fidius.
  3. ^ Dyer, Thomas Henry (1868). The History of the Kings of Rome. Bell and Daldy. ISBN 978-0-8046-1199-2.
  4. ^ Ancillotti, Augusto; Cerri, Romolo (1996). Le tavole di Gubbio e la civiltà degli Umbri: lo "scavo nelle parole" del testo iguvino mostra tutta la specificità della cultura umbra e fa emergere le tracce di una grande civiltà del passato, degna di stare alla pari di quella etrusca e di quella romana (in Italian). Jama.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Edward Togo Salmon (1967). Samnium and the Samnites. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-06185-8.
  6. ^ Bakkum, Gabriël C. L. M. (2009). The Latin Dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 Years of Scholarship. Amsterdam University Press. p 66 ISBN 978-90-5629-562-2.
  7. ^ Stuart-Smith, Jane (2004-06-17). Phonetics and Philology: Sound Change in Italic. OUP Oxford. pp 28,139 ISBN 978-0-19-925773-7.
  8. ^ Salmon 1967, p. 29.
  9. ^ Salmon 1967, p. 30.
  10. ^ a b Evans, Jane DeRose (2013-03-29). A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-55716-7.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Scopacasa, Rafael (2015-06-25). Ancient Samnium: Settlement, Culture, and Identity between History and Archaeology. OUP Oxford. pp 18–295 ISBN 978-0-19-102285-2.
  12. ^ a b Scopacasa, Rafael (2014). "Building Communities in Ancient Samnium: Cult, Ethnicity, and Nested Communities". Oxford Journal of Archaeology. John Wiley and Sons: 70–72. doi:10.1111/ojoa.12027.
  13. ^ Sonnenschein, E. A. "Sabellus: Sabine or Samnite?" The Classical Review, vol. 11, no. 7, Cambridge University Press, 1897, pp. 339–40, JSTOR 691532.
  14. ^ Heitland, William Everton (2014-01-30). The Roman Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-107-65347-4.
  15. ^ a b Farney, Gary D.; Bradley, Guy (2017-11-20). The Peoples of Ancient Italy. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p 70-71, 420 ISBN 978-1-5015-0014-5.
  16. ^ Salmon 1967, pp. 29–30.
  17. ^ Pokorny 1959, pp. 882–884.
  18. ^ Tikkannen, Karin W. (2017). "On the Building of a Narrative". Mnemosyne. 70 (6): 964. doi:10.1163/1568525X-12342173. JSTOR 26572882. There are statements of origin, such as that the Sabini are the oldest and most original people on the peninsula, from whom the Samnites originate (Str. 5.3.1), but Strabo also offers a long narrative concerning precisely how this 'originating' took place: the Sabines had been long at war with the Umbrians, and in order to end the hostilities made a vow—καθάπερ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τινές, 'common with some of the Grecian nations'—that they would consecrate to the gods the produce, τὰ γενόμενα, meaning everything born or otherwise come into existence (animal or agricultural produce) of the year.13 They were victorious, and accordingly of the produce the one kind were sacrificed, the other consecrated.
  19. ^ Liddell, Henry George (1890). A history of Rome, from the earliest times to the establishment of the empire. New York: American Book Company. pp. 177–178. OL 7070377M.
  20. ^ a b Strabo, Geography, book 4, 7 BCE, p. 465
  21. ^ Rüpke, Jörg (2011-04-18). A Companion to Roman Religion. John Wiley & Sons. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4443-3924-6. OCLC 709666554.
  22. ^ Tikkannen, Karin W. (2015). On the Building of A Narrative: The Ver Sacrum Ritual. University of Gothenburg: Brill. p. 967. The practice is stated to have originated among the Sabines, who gave birth to the Samnites (Var. L. 29), as well as the Picentes (Str. 5.4.2; Plin. Nat. 3.110). The Samnites in turn sent out youths to populate the lands in the south, who, having become the Lucani, in their turn brought forth the Bruttii (Str. 5.3.1).20 In Strabo's tale of the Samnites the selected children were led by a bull, bos, and founded the city of Bovianum (Str. 5.4.12); there are other references stating that the Hirpini and the Lucani were guided by a hirpos and a lucos, in their respective tongues the word for 'wolf' (Str. 5.4.12; Fest. 93L), and that the future Picentes were guided by a picus, a woodpecker.
  23. ^ Salmon, E. T. (1958). "Samnite and Roman Cumae". The Vergilian Digest (4): 10–15. JSTOR 41616993.
  24. ^ McInerney, Jeremy (2014). McInerney, Jeremy (ed.). A Companion to Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 448–450, 487, 514–522. doi:10.1002/9781118834312. ISBN 978-1-118-83431-2.
  25. ^ Van Dusen, Rachel (2012). "Sabines and Samnites". The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 1–2. doi:10.1002/9781444338386.wbeah20121. ISBN 978-1-4443-3838-6. It is more likely that the Sabines and Samnites arose out of existing cultures than that they entered by immigration. Archaeological evidence from Samnium and the interior of Sabinium reflects a cultural facies influenced by pre-existing cultures.
  26. ^ Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (2013-11-05). Southern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-1-134-25965-6.
  27. ^ Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina, The Town Planning of Pompeii and Herculaneum Having Streets Aligned Along Sunrise on Summer Solstice (June 30, 2016). p 3.
  28. ^ Ward, Allen M.; Heichelheim, Fritz M.; Yeo, Cedric A. (2016-05-23). History of the Roman People. Routledge. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-1-315-51120-7.
  29. ^ a b c d Rotter, Timothy W. (1990). Roman Italy. University of California Press. pp 34–38, 42–47, 50, 53, 68, 74, 76–77 ISBN 978-0-520-06975-6.
  30. ^ Schultz, Celia E.; Ward, Allen M.; Heichelheim, F. M.; Yeo, C. A. (2019-04-03). A History of the Roman People. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-75470-5.
  31. ^ Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii & Herculaneum. Anonymous Prod. Sheppard Phil. Phil Sheppard Productions, 2008. "The Etruscans and Greeks dominated until the Samnites took possession of most of this area, uniting Campania. Pompeii became more Italic in character, relinquishing the last traces of Hellenistic influence. In 80 BC, after a war against Rome, the Samnites surrendered Pompeii, and from then on its history was linked to Rome."
  32. ^ Darwin, N.T (April 25, 2017). "Pompeii". The Northern Territory News. p. 1. ProQuest 1891389663. FROM SAMNITE CONQUEST TO ROMAN TOWN At the end of the 5th century the Samnites, an ancient people who lived in south central Italy, conquered Pompeii.
  33. ^ Master, Daniel M (2013). "Pompeii and Herculaneum". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-984653-5. In the later fourth century b.c.e. Oscan-speaking Samnites, originally a nonurban culture, advanced from inland and gradually took over Greek and Etruscan centers throughout Campania. They took over Etruscan Capua in 424 b.c.e. and Greek Cumae in 421 b.c.e. and seem to have established a modest settlement in Pompeii by ca. 350 b.c.e. Only Greek Naples seems to have resisted successfully.
  34. ^ "Pompeii exhibition: a timeline of Pompeii and Herculaneum; A brief history of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, which feature in a major new British Museum exhibition in London." Telegraph Online, 3 Mar. 2013. Gale In Context: Biography, "Samnites – a people from south-central Italy who spoke Oscan – invade the area."
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Roselaar, Saskia T. (2012-05-07). Processes of Integration and Identity Formation in the Roman Republic. BRILL. pp 17, 189–196, 221–223, 242–244, 252 ISBN 978-90-04-22911-2.
  36. ^ Robson, D. O. (1934). "The Samnites in the Po Valley". The Classical Journal. 29 (8): 599–608. JSTOR 3290441.
  37. ^ a b c Oakley, SP (1998), A Commentary on Livy Books VI–X, Volume II: Books VII–VIII, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 24–646 ISBN 978-0-19-815226-2
  38. ^ Terrenato, Nicola (2019-05-02). The Early Roman Expansion into Italy: Elite Negotiation and Family Agendas. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127, 134, 139, 150, 190. ISBN 978-1-108-42267-3.
  39. ^ Tuck, Steven (2012). The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4443-3838-6. Capua allied with Rome during the Samnitewars (343–290). The alliance allowed Capuato overthrow Samnite dominance while givingRome the chance to confront the Samnites with a two-front war.
  40. ^ a b c Esposito, Gabriele (2021-01-30). Armies of Ancient Italy 753–218 BC: From the Foundation of Rome to the Start of the Second Punic War. Pen and Sword Military. pp 23, 59–69, 74–81, 117, 128, 133–147, 151–153, 165 ISBN 978-1-5267-5188-1.
  41. ^ a b c d e Forsythe, Gary (2006-08-07). A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press. pp 287–365 ISBN 978-0-520-24991-2.
  42. ^ Rood, Tim (2018). "Cato the Elder, Livy, and Xenophon's Anabasis". Mnemosyne. 71 (5): 842. doi:10.1163/1568525X-12342352. S2CID 165356329 – via The Wikipedia Library. Like the Thermopylae comparison, the use of Xenophon operates teleologically to present the Romans as the heirs of Greece in the defense against barbarism.
  43. ^ a b c d Cornell, Tim (2012). The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000–264 BC). Routledge. 345–390, 458, 465, 507 ISBN 978-1-136-75495-1.
  44. ^ a b c Polybius, The Histories. Vol. 1. pp. 4–5.
  45. ^ a b c Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History Vol. 2. VIII-XIV
  46. ^ Spawforth, Anthony; Eidinow, Esther (2014). Rome (history) (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870677-9. in which the Romans, after a major setback at the Caudine Forks. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  47. ^ Harris, William Vernon (1985). War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 B.C. Clarendon Press. pp 177–182 ISBN 978-0-19-814866-1.
  48. ^ Antonelli, Fabrizio; Taelman, Devi (2022). "Provenance of the white and polychrome marbles used for the architecture and sculpture of roman Sentinum (Sassoferrato, Marche, Italy)". Archaeometry. 64: 3. doi:10.1111/arcm.12690. S2CID 236563924 – via Wiley Online Library. The site is best known from the final battle of the Third Samnite War (295BCE) in which the Romans defeated a coalition of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Senones, and which paved the way for Roman control over Central Italy.
  49. ^ "Sabini". Retrieved 2022-05-03.
  50. ^ a b c Sagarna, Iñaki. "Cult Places and the Samnite Identity". Σαυνῖται: The identity of Samnite through their cult places. Case Studies of Pietrabbondante and San Giovani di Galdo. pp. 1–14 – via
  51. ^, Equipa. "Samnitas – Knoow". Retrieved 2022-05-03.
  52. ^ Crawford, Michael Hewson (1993). The Roman Republic. Harvard University Press. pp 16–17, 21, 33–35, 43, 53, 75, 149–150, 189, 211, 221, 238 ISBN 978-0-674-77927-3.
  53. ^ Dart, Dr Christopher J. (2014-12-28). The Social War, 91 to 88 BCE: A History of the Italian Insurgency against the Roman Republic. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p 206 ISBN 978-1-4724-1678-0.
  54. ^ "Appian, Samnite History, Fragments". Retrieved 2021-12-30. p 9
  55. ^ Roller, Matthew B.. "Exemplarity in Roman Culture: The Cases of Horatius Cocles and Cloelia." Classical Philology 99 (2004): 1–57.
  56. ^ a b "Lacus Curtius, Vellius Paterculus, Book II, Chapters 1–28". Retrieved 2021-12-30.
  57. ^ a b c Barker, Graeme (1995-11-01). Mediterranean Valley. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-567-31285-3.
  58. ^ a b Dench, Emma (1995-11-02). From Barbarians to New Men : Greek, Roman, and Modern Perceptions of Peoples from the Central Apennines: Greek, Roman, and Modern Perceptions of Peoples from the Central Apennines. Clarendon Press. pp 1–22, 100 ISBN 978-0-19-159070-2.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Scopacasa, Rafael (2014). "Gender and Ritual in Ancient Italy: A Quantitative Approach to Grave Goods and Skeletal Data in Pre-Roman Samnium". American Journal of Archaeology. 118 (2). Archaeological Institute of America: 241–266. doi:10.3764/aja.118.2.0241. JSTOR 10.3764/aja.118.2.0241. S2CID 194721221.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Stek, Tesse D. (2009). Cult Places and Cultural Change in Republican Italy: A Contextual Approach to Religious Aspects of Rural Society after the Roman Conquest. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 8–222. JSTOR j.ctt46mtf2.12.
  61. ^ "Самниты – это... Что такое Самниты?". Словари и энциклопедии на Академике (in Russian). Retrieved 2022-05-03.
  62. ^ a b c Everitt, Anthony (2012). The Rise of Rome: The Making of the World's Greatest Empire. Random House. pp 151–180 ISBN 978-1-4000-6663-6
  63. ^ Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen; Gadd, Cyril John; Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière; Boardman, John; Lewis, David Malcolm; Walbank, Frank William; Astin, A. E.; Crook, John Anthony; Lintott, Andrew William (1970). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. p 353 ISBN 978-0-521-23446-7.
  64. ^ a b c d Marco, Michele Antonio Di (2020-03-01). Mundunur: A Mountain Village Under the Spell of South Italy. Via Media Publishing. pp 41–47 ISBN 978-1-893765-58-0.
  65. ^ a b c Sparacello, V.S (2011). "Changes in Skeletal Robusticity in an Iron Age Agropastoral Group: The Samnites From the Alfedena Necropolis (Abruzzo, Central Italy)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 144 (1): 119–130. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21377. PMID 20718040 – via Wiley Online Library.
  66. ^ Robinson, Elizabeth (March 7, 2016). "Larinum". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics. Oxford Classical Dictionary. p. 4. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.013.3592. ISBN 978-0-19-938113-5. The city interacted heavily with its surrounding territory, as shown by evidence of trade and monetary exchange with the Frentani, Samnites, and Daunians.
  67. ^ Peralta, Dan-el Padilla (2020-10-13). Divine Institutions: Religions and Community in the Middle Roman Republic. Princeton University Press. p 280 ISBN 978-0-691-16867-8
  68. ^ Robinson, Elizabeth C. (2021). Urban Transformation in Ancient Molise: The Integration of Larinum Into the Roman State. Oxford University Press. p 50 ISBN 978-0-19-064143-6.
  69. ^ Lomas, H. Kathryn (2015). "Venafrum". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.013.6720. ISBN 978-0-19-938113-5. It continued to flourish and was famous for its agriculture, particularly olives.
  70. ^ Rome's Glorious Cities. Anonymous Prod. Fuller Linda, and Paola Di Florio. A&E Television Networks, 1997. "The Etruscans lived side by side with the Latins, the Samnites and the Sabines. These tribes intermixed in trade and lifestyle"
  71. ^ "Tomb discovered in Pompeii is window into world scientists know little about." Christian Science Monitor, 25 Sept. 2015. Gale OneFile: News. "Scientists think that the pottery buried near the newly discovered Samnite woman comes from other regions of Italy, suggesting that there was trade between the Samnites and the other cultures of Italy at that time."
  72. ^ Termeer, Marleen K (2016). "Roman colonial coinages beyond the city-state: a view from the Samnite world". Journal of Ancient History. 4 (2): 158–190. doi:10.1515/jah-2016-0012. S2CID 164635061 – via De Gruyter.
  73. ^ Sofroniew, Alexandra. "Women's Work: The Dedication of Loom Weights in the Sanctuaries of Southern Italy." Pallas, no. 86, Presses Universitaires du Midi, 2011, pp. 191–209, JSTOR 43606691.
  74. ^ "The Many Faces of Varnish". Popular Woodworking. 2007-05-04. Retrieved 2022-03-27. it provides excellent protection for wood surfaces and resistance to scratches, heat, solvents and chemicals.
  75. ^ "The Dominance of Athens." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras, edited by Edward I. Bleiberg, et al., vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome 1200 B.C.E.-476 C.E. Gale, 2005, pp. 397–402. Gale eBooks,
  76. ^ Hutchinson, Harry (2005). "Reverse engineering a lost culture". Mechanical Engineering-CIME. 127. American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 62 – via Gale Academic Onefile.
  77. ^ Vargas, Enrique García; Almeida, Rui Roberto de; Cesteros, Horacio González; Romero, Antonio Sáez (2019-09-30). The Ovoid Amphorae in the Central and Western Mediterranean: Between the last two centuries of the Republic and the early days of the Roman Empire. Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. pp 259–261 ISBN 978-1-78969-297-6.
  78. ^ Frank, Tenney (1919). "Representative Government in the Ancient Polities". The Classical Journal. 14 (9): 548. JSTOR 3287871. However, we know that tribal sentiment was very strong among the Samnites, the Marsi, and the other tribes. They had long had local self-government, had had assemblies, senates, and magistrates of their own.
  79. ^ Enrico Campanile, Cesare Letta, "Studi sulle magistrature indigene e municipali in area italica", Giardini, 1979, pp. 24–25
  80. ^ McDonald, Katherine (2021-10-14). Italy Before Rome: A Sourcebook. Routledge. p 111 ISBN 978-0-429-62970-9.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Van Dusen, Rachel (June 1, 2009). "Saving Face: Pentrian Samnite Elites in the Aftermath of the Samnite Wars (343-290 B.C.)". Etruscan Studies. 12: 153–168 – via De Gruyter.
  82. ^ "Samnite (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. "Four cantons formed a Samnite confederation: Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri. The league probably had no federal assembly, but a war leader could be chosen to lead a campaign."
  83. ^ Nikoletta Farkas, Leadership among the Samnites and related Oscan-speaking peoples between the fifth and first centuries BC (PhD diss., Kings College of London, September 2006)
  84. ^ a b Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p. 686. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1.
  85. ^ a b Schneider-Herrmann, Georg (1996). Herring, Edward (ed.). The Samnites of the Fourth Century BC: as depicted on Campanian Vases and in other sources (PDF). Oxford University Press. pp. 1–151.
  86. ^ Sparacello, Vitale Stefano (2014). "A Bioarcheological Approach to the Reconstruction of Changes in Military Organization Among Iron Age Samnites (Vestini) From Abruzzo, Central Italy". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 156 (3). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 305–316. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22650. PMID 25360793 – via Wiley Online Library.
  87. ^ Trümper, Monika (2019). "A Reassessment of the Urban Context of the Republican Baths (VIII 5, 36)". In Ulrich Mania; Monika Trümper (eds.). Development of Gymnasia and Graeco-Roman Cityscapes. Berlin: Edition Topoi. pp. 87–94. doi:10.17171/3-58. ISBN 978-3-9819685-0-7 – via CORE.
  88. ^ Brand, S. (2009). Mighty men and the public thing: The virtue of citizen armies in the ancient world (Order No. 3368817). Available from ProQuest Central. (304830108). p 334 " The Samnites were particularly skilled at mountainous warfare and fought in small, well-armed maniples that specialized in the use of the pilum."
  89. ^ Ineditum Vaticanum, H. Von Arnim (1892), Hermes 27: 118. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, XXIII, 2.
  90. ^ a b Magnani, Stefano (2015). The Encyclopedia of the Roman Army. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 1–2. doi:10.1002/9781118318140.wbra1320. ISBN 978-1-118-31814-0.
  91. ^ Dillon, Matthew; Garland, Lynda (2013). Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook. Taylor & Francis. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-1-136-76136-2.
  92. ^ Aldrete, Gregory; Aldrete, Alicia; Bartell, Scott (2013). Reconstructing Ancient Linen Body Armor: Unraveling the Linothorax Mystery. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4214-0820-0.
  93. ^ Livius, Titus; Hoyos, Dexter (2013). Rome's Italian Wars. Translated by Yardley, J.C. OUP Oxford. pp. 276, 365. ISBN 978-0-19-956485-9.
  94. ^ Gilliver, Kate (January 2007). "Display in Roman Warfare: The Appearance of Armies and Individuals on the Battlefield". War in History. 14 (1): 8. doi:10.1177/0968344507071038. JSTOR 26061904. S2CID 159517905.
  95. ^ Feldherr, Andrew (1998). Spectacle and Society in Livy's History. University of California Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 978-0-520-91969-3.
  96. ^ Naso, Alessandro (2017-09-25). Etruscology. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 978-1-934078-49-5.
  97. ^ Burns, Michael T. (2003). "The Homogenisation of Military Equipment Under the Roman Republic". Digressus. Supplementum 1: 60–85
  98. ^ a b Llewellyn-Jones, Lloyd; Davies, Glenys (2007). Greek and Roman Dress from A to Z. pp 19, 24, 29, 68, 84, 102, 160, 181 Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-58916-6.
  99. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Supplement 61: The Samnites of the Fourth Century BC". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 40 (S61). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 3–123. 2011 – via JSTOR.
  100. ^ Faraldi, Federica; De Caro, Tilde; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Pierigè, Maria Isabella; Parisi, Erica Isabella; Faustoferri, Amalia; Ingo, Gabreilla Maria; Riuccucci, Cristina (2013). "Micro-chemical and metallurgical study of Samnite bronze belts from ancient Abruzzo (central Italy, VIII–IV BC)". Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing. 113 (4). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: 959–970. Bibcode:2013ApPhA.113..959R. doi:10.1007/s00339-013-7723-2. S2CID 98129001 – via The Wikipedia Library.
  101. ^ Hart, Mary Louise; Walton, J. Michael (2010). The Art of Ancient Greek Theater. Getty Publications. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-60606-037-7.
  102. ^ Sage, Michael (2016-03-30). The Army of the Roman Republic: From the Regal Period to the Army of Julius Caesar. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4738-8095-5.
  103. ^ a b c Doberstein, William (2014). The Samnite legacy: An examination of the Samnitic influences upon the Roman state. Canada. pp. 20, 23–33, 62–82. ProQuest 1626727166 – via ProQuest.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  104. ^ Taylor, M. J. (2020). PANOPLY AND IDENTITY DURING THE ROMAN REPUBLIC. Papers of the British School at Rome, 88, 31–65. "One origin story for the scutum is surely false, namely that it was adopted from the Samnites. Fourth-century BC Oscan warriors carried round shields, including the infantryman on a well-preserved wall painting from Paestum. The first scuta turn up in Oscan painting not as weapons but rather as loot triumphantly carried home in 'return of the warrior' scenes (perhaps captured from the Romans!)
  105. ^ Taylor, Michael J. "Fear the phalanx: the Macedonian formation terrified opponents—and at times overwhelmed the vaunted Roman legion." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, vol. 23, no. 2, winter 2011, pp. 10+. Gale General OneFile "They likely adopted javelins (pila) and oblong, concave shields from the Samnites, a central Italian people."
  106. ^ Sage, Michael M. (2013-01-11). The Republican Roman Army: A Sourcebook. Routledge. pp. 17–18, 43, 54, 67–68, 90. ISBN 978-1-134-68288-1.
  107. ^ McCartney, Eugene (1912). "The Genesis of Rome's Military Equipment". The Classical Weekly. 6 (10): 74–79. doi:10.2307/4386664. JSTOR 4386664.
  108. ^ Carpenter, T. H.; Lynch, K. M.; Robinson, E. G. D. (2014-08-28). The Italic People of Ancient Apulia: New Evidence from Pottery for Workshops, Markets, and Customs. Cambridge University Press. pp 32–33, 140–141, 181, 350–351 ISBN 978-1-139-99270-1.
  109. ^ Levene, David (2018-07-17). Religion in Livy. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-32923-2.
  110. ^ Carlà-Uhink, Filippo (2017-09-25). The "Birth" of Italy: The Institutionalization of Italy as a Region, 3rd–1st Century  BCE. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 978-3-11-054478-7.
  111. ^ a b Cowan, Ross (2009-07-16). Roman Conquests: Italy. Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84468-276-8.
  112. ^ Fishwick, Duncan (1991). Imperial cult in the latin west ii-1. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09144-3.
  113. ^ Adams, J. N. (2007-12-13). The Regional Diversification of Latin 200 BC – AD 600. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-46881-7.
  114. ^ Sir John Edwin Sandys (1921). A Companion to Latin Studies. Third Edition. CUP Archive. Cambridge University Press. pp 32–34, 115–118, 150, 422, 459, 468
  115. ^ Mehta-Jones, Shilpa (2005). Life in Ancient Rome. Crabtree Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7787-2034-8.
  116. ^ "SANNITI E SANNIO – IL POPOLO E LE COMUNITA'". Retrieved 2022-01-16.
  117. ^ " : Boianos, Matese Samnites". 2008-09-07. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2022-01-16.
  118. ^ Lisio, Antonio Di; Russo, Filippo. "Geocartographic history of a natural monument of Southern Apennines: the Geosite of Mephite in Ansanto Valley".
  119. ^ "Aufidenate Civic Museum – Castel di Sangro (AQ) | Regione Abruzzo – Dipartimento Turismo, Cultura e Paesaggio". Retrieved 2022-01-16.
  120. ^ "Patrimonio culturale della regione Abruzzo". AbruzzoCultura (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-01-16.
  121. ^ Zoch, Paul A. (2020-05-18). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. pp ISBN 978-0-8061-6665-0.
  122. ^ Ridgeway, William (2014-10-09). The Early Age of Greece. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-43458-5.
  123. ^ Christensen, Lisbeth Bredholt; Hammer, Olav; Warburton, David (2014-09-11). The Handbook of Religions in Ancient Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-54453-1.
  124. ^ Perego, Elisa; Scopacasa, Rafael (2016-11-30). Burial and Social Change in First Millennium BC Italy: Approaching Social Agents. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-78570-185-6.
  125. ^ Dolfini, Andrea; Crellin, Rachel J.; Horn, Christian; Uckelmann, Marion (2018-07-20). Prehistoric Warfare and Violence: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Springer. pp 61–66 ISBN 978-3-319-78828-9.
  126. ^ Welch, Katherine E. (2007-09-10). The Roman Amphitheatre: From Its Origins to the Colosseum. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80944-3.
  127. ^ Watts, James W. (2021-04-27). Understanding the Bible as a Scripture in History, Culture, and Religion. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-73038-5.
  128. ^ Mansfield, Harvey C. (2001-04-15). Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders: A Study of the Discourses on Livy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50370-7.
  129. ^ Goodman, Martin (1998). "Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine: an Inquiry into Image and Status". The Journal of Roman Studies. 88. London: Cambridge University Press: 189–190. doi:10.2307/300824. eISSN 1753-528X. ISSN 0075-4358. JSTOR 300824. S2CID 161473089. ProQuest 2212106652 – via ProQuest. For example, the observation that scenes of women working with wool represent no more and no less than that this was 'obviously an important activity for Samnite women'
  130. ^ Peter Garnsey, Food and Society in Classical Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 136; Sara Elise Phang, Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 263–264.
  131. ^ "Horace (65 BC–8 BC) – The Odes: Book III". Retrieved 2022-04-02.
  132. ^ Geographica, Strabo, Book 5, page 467. "And they say that among the Samnitae there is a law which is indeed honourable and conducive to noble qualities; for they are not permitted to give their daughters in marriage to whom they wish, but every year ten virgins and ten young men, the noblest of each sex, are selected, and, of these, the first choice of the virgins is given to the first choice of the young men, and the second to the second, and so on to the end; but if the young man who wins the meed of honour changes and turns out bad, they disgrace him and take away from him the woman given him."
  133. ^ Pastorelli, A. A (2014). "Exposure to Cadmium and Lead in an Agropastoral Iron Age Population". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 26 (1): 132–140. doi:10.1002/oa.2403 – via Wiley Online Library. The strongly gendered ideology of Samnites suggests a strict sexual division of labor, with women primarily performing sedentary tasks.
  134. ^ Riccio, Anthony V. (2014-05-08). Farms, Factories, and Families: Italian American Women of Connecticut. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-5232-6.
  135. ^ a b Scopacasa, Rafael (2010). "Beyond the Warlike Samnites: Rethinking Grave Goods, Gender Relations and Social Practice in Ancient Samnium (Italy)". Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference (2009): 120–131. doi:10.16995/TRAC2009_120_131.
  136. ^ a b Paine, R. R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A (2006). "Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: Implications for biocultural and economic stress". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (1). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 48–57. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20461. PMID 16883566 – via Wiley Online Library.
  137. ^ Jones, Howard (2004). Samnium: Settlement and Cultural Change : the Proceedings of the Third E. Togo Salmon Conference on Roman Studies. Center for Old World Archaeology and Art. ISBN 978-0-9755249-0-9.
  138. ^ Williams, Daniel (2004). "What Lies Beneath in Pompeii; Going Deep Yields New Perspective on Ancient Roman City". The Washington Post. Washington D.C. p. 3. ProQuest 409671837. The bath and amulets indicate the Samnite practice of ritual prostitution, in which young women, rich and poor alike, submitted to sex as a rite of passage, said Curti, the archaeologist. 'To our post-Victorian minds, the practice seems strange. But we can't look at this society through our eyes,' he observed. Probably, the practice became professional at some point. This was, after all, a port city.'
  139. ^ Williams, D. (2004, Aug 05). A whole new subculture emerges in old pompeii ; archeologists dig below the roman ruins and discover an even more ancient civilization that ultimately gave in to imperial conquerors: [chicago final edition]. Chicago Tribune "The bath and amulets indicate the Samnite practice of ritual prostitution, in which young women submitted to sex as a rite of passage, said Curti, the archeologist."
  140. ^ a b c d Kleiner, Fred S. (2016-10-12). A History of Roman Art. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-337-51577-1.
  141. ^ Tuck, Steven L. (2021-03-31). A History of Roman Art. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-65330-1.
  142. ^ Return splendor in Pompeii to fresh Samnite from the 2nd century BC. United States: ContentEngine LLC. February 21, 2021. p. 1. ProQuest 2493829781. The paintings, according to a pap statement, were intended to expand the dimensions of these spaces and evoke in them an idyllic atmosphere.
  143. ^ Towne, Henry Robinson (1904). Locks and Builders Hardware: A Hand Book for Architects. J. Wiley & sons.
  144. ^ Dolfini, Andrea; Crellin, Rachel J.; Horn, Christian; Uckelmann, Marion (2018-07-20). Prehistoric Warfare and Violence: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-78828-9.
  145. ^ Connolly, Peter (2012-06-19). Greece and Rome at War. Grub Street Publishers. ISBN 978-1-78346-971-0.
  146. ^ Friedlaender, Ludwig Henrich (2018-03-29). Revival: Roman Life and Manners Under the Early Empire (1913). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-34529-3.
  147. ^ Mommsen (2008-03-01). Mommsen's History of Rome. Wildside Press LLC. ISBN 978-1-4344-6232-9.
  148. ^ Delfino, Davide; Nizzo, Valentino (2021-09-09). Understanding and Accessibility of Pre-and Proto-Historical Research Issues: Sites, Museums and Communication Strategies: Proceedings of the XVIII UISPP World Congress (4–9 June 2018, Paris, France) Volume 17, Session XXXV-1. Archaeopress Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-80327-079-1.
  149. ^ Horsnaes, Helle W.; Helle, W. Horsnaes (2002). The Cultural Development in North Western Lucania C. 600–273 BC. L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER. ISBN 978-88-8265-194-7.
  150. ^ Goldman, Rachael B (2015). "The Multicolored World of the Romans". Glotta; Zeitschrift für Griechische und Lateinische Sprache. 91. Gottingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht: 100–102. eISSN 2196-9043. ISSN 0017-1298. ProQuest 1806002968 – via ProQuest.
  151. ^ Livius, Titus. The History of Rome – via The tunics of the gilded warriors were parti —coloured; those of the silvern ones were linen of a dazzling white.
  152. ^ Mommsen, Theodor (2006). CHAPTER V: Subjugation of the Latins and Campanians by Rome. Translated by Dickinson, William. Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–252. ISBN 978-0-511-70750-6. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  153. ^ Larmour, David (2010). "Tracing Furrows in the Satiric Dust Echoes of Horace's Epistles in Juvenal 1". Illinois Classical Studies. 35–36. University of Illinois Press: 165. doi:10.5406/illiclasstud.35-36.0155. JSTOR 10.5406/illiclasstud.35-36.0155.
  154. ^ Evans, James (2001). "Rome's Gladiatorial Games". The Virginia Quarterly Review. 77 (4): 734. JSTOR 26440972.
  155. ^ Telford, Thomas (1980). Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Vol. 68. ICE Virtual Library. p. 230. doi:10.1680/iicep.1980.2401.
  156. ^ Gargain, Michael (2010). Samnites. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517072-6. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  157. ^ Boardman, John; Griffin, Jasper; Murray, Oswyn (2001-01-18). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World. OUP Oxford. pp 10–14, 21–26, 426–427 ISBN 978-0-19-285436-0
  158. ^ Bell, Tyler; Wilson, Andrew; Wickham, Andrew (2002). "Tracking the Samnites: Landscape and Communications Routes in the Sangro Valley, Italy". American Journal of Archaeology. 106 (2). University of Chicago Press: 169–186. doi:10.2307/4126242. JSTOR 4126242. S2CID 193073621.
  159. ^ Berry, Dr Joanne; Berry, Joanne; Laurence, Ray (2002-09-11). Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire. Routledge. pp 65, 75, 100–103 ISBN 978-1-134-77851-5.
  160. ^ Ball, Larry F; Dobbins, John J (2013). "Pompeii Forum Project: Current Thinking on the Pompeii Forum". American Journal of Archaeology. 117 (3). Archaeological Institute of America.: 469–478. doi:10.3764/aja.117.3.0461. JSTOR 10.3764/aja.117.3.0461. S2CID 194675531.
  161. ^ BISPHAM, E.H., et al. "Towards a phenomenology of Samnite fortified centres." Antiquity, vol. 74, no. 283, Mar. 2000, p. 23. Gale Academic OneFile " Samnite `hill-forts' for the purposes of passing fire signals between the Sangro and Volturno valleys."
  162. ^ Barrett, Caitlín Eilís (2019-03-29). Domesticating Empire: Egyptian Landscapes in Pompeian Gardens. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-064137-5.
  163. ^ Henzel, Rebecca; Trümper, Monika (2019). "Crowded or Empty Spaces? The Statuary Decoration of the 'Palaestrae' in Pompeii and Herculaneum". In Ulrich Mania; Monika Trümper (eds.). Development of Gymnasia and Graeco-Roman Cityscapes. Berlin: Edition Topoi. pp. 116–118. doi:10.17171/3-58. ISBN 978-3-9819685-0-7 – via CORE.
  164. ^ "Roman Painting." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras, edited by Edward I. Bleiberg, et al., vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome 1200 B.C.E.-476 C.E. Gale, 2005, p 435. Gale eBooks,
  165. ^ a b Yegül, Fikret; Favro, Diane (2019-09-05). Roman Architecture and Urbanism: From the Origins to Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–61. ISBN 978-0-521-47071-1.
  166. ^ Mayer, Emanuel (2012-06-15). The Ancient Middle Classes. Harvard University Press. pp. 36–37, 45, 48. ISBN 978-0-674-06534-5.
  167. ^ De Marre, Martine (1987). Aedificia Domestica. South Africa: University of Stellenbosch. p. 25. Capitals with figures sculpted on them display a similarity to Etruscan art, but otherwise are clearly of Samnite origin.
  168. ^ "Roman Painting." Arts and Humanities Through the Eras, edited by Edward I. Bleiberg, et al., vol. 2: Ancient Greece and Rome 1200 B.C.E.-476 C.E. Gale, 2005, pp. 435–439. Gale eBooks,
  169. ^ Barker, Graeme. "THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ITALIAN SHEPHERD." Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, no. 35 (215), 1989, pp. 1–19.
  170. ^ Kay, Stephen; Roberts, Paul; Dominic, Rathbone (2019). "The Samnite and Roman Settlement at Santa Maria Della Strada (Commune di Matrice, Provincia di Campobasso, Regione Molise)". Papers of the British School at Rome. 87. London: 341–344. doi:10.1017/S0068246219000175. S2CID 214177276. ProQuest 2307423605 – via ProQuest.
  171. ^ Smith, Christopher J, et al. "ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELDWORK REPORTS." Papers of the British School at Rome, vol. 83, 2015, pp. 310–311.
  172. ^ Buckley, F. J. "Pontius Pilate." New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale, 2003. Gale In Context: Biography, "Roman procurator of Judea who condemned Jesus to be crucified. He was a Roman equestrian of the Samnite clan of the Pontii."
  173. ^ "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 10, chapter 21". Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  174. ^ Horky, Phillip Sidney. "Herennius Pontius: The Construction of a Samnite Philosopher." Classical Antiquity, vol. 30, no. 1, 2011, pp. 119–47, Accessed 10 Apr. 2022.
  175. ^ "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 8, chapter 39". Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  176. ^ "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 9, chapter 44". Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  177. ^ "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 10, chapter 20". Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  178. ^ Gleba, Margarita; Horsnæs, Helle W. (2011). An offprint from Communicating Identity in Italic Iron Age Communities. Oxbow Books. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-84217-991-8. the Samnite Q. Papius Mutilus.
  179. ^ Smith, William, and Making of America Books. New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology and Geography, Partly Based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851.
  180. ^ Robson, D.O. (1938). "The Nationality of the Poet Caecilius Statius". The American Journal of Philology. 59 (3): 301–308. doi:10.2307/291581 JSTOR 291581.
  181. ^ Șteflea, Corina-Ruxandra (2015). Urbanism and Elites – Rome and the Cities of Italy (2nd Century BC – 1st Century AD): an Overview. Centrul de Istorie Comparată a Societăților Antice. p. 63. Statius is the first senator known of samnite origin to get in the Senate.
  182. ^ Kirsch, Johaan (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. England: The Encyclopedia Press. through the powerful influence of this ruler, the cardinal-priest, Felix of Samnium, son of Castorius, was brought forward in Rome as John's successor, the clergy and laity yielded to the wish of the Gothic king and chose Felix pope


  • Forsythe, Gary (2005). A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Howard, Jones (2004). Samnium: Settlement and Cultural Change: the Proceedings of the Third E. Togo Salmon Conference On Roman Studies. Providence: RI: Center for Old World Archaeology and Art.
  • Paget, R. F. (1973). Central Italy: An Archaeological Guide; the Prehistoric, Villanovan, Etruscan, Samnite, Italic, and Roman Remains, and the Ancient Road Systems. 1st U.S. ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  • Pokorny, Julius (2005) [1959]. Indogermanisches etymologisches Woerterbuch. Leiden: Leiden University Indo-European Etymological Dictiopnary (IEED) Project. Archived from the original on 2006-09-27.
  • Salmon, ET (1967). Samnium and the Samnites. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Salvucci, Claudio (1999). A Vocabulary of Oscan: Including the Oscan and Samnite Glosses. Southampton: Pa.: Evolution Pub.
  • Stek, Tesse (2010). Cult Places and Cultural Change In Republican Italy: A Contextual Approach to Religious Aspects of Rural Society After the Roman Conquest. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.