Philistia

Philistia (Hebrew: פְּלֶשֶׁת‎, Pəlešeṯ, Greek (LXX): Φυλιστιιμ Phulistiim) was a confederation of cities in the Southwest Levant. Its appearance follows the invasion of Egypt by the Sea Peoples, of which the Philistines or Peleset are part, and their alleged relocation to the southern abandoned coast of Canaan by Ramesses III following his victory over them.

Philistia

1175 BC–722 BC
The Philistine cities of Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, and Gath, as described in the Bible
The Philistine cities of Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, and Gath, as described in the Bible
Common languagesPhilistine language, Canaanite language, Hebrew language
Religion
Canaanite religion
Demonym(s)Philistine
GovernmentFederation
Historical eraIron Age
1175 BC
• Assyrian conquest of the Levant
722 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Canaanites
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofEgypt
Israel
Palestine

Philistia northern boundary was the Yarkon River with the Mediterranean Sea on the west, the Kingdom of Judah to the east and the Wadi El-Arish to the south.[1][2] Philistia consisted of the five city-states of the [Philistines, as the Philistine pentapolis, described in the Book of Joshua (Joshua 13:3) and the Books of Samuel (1 Samuel 6:17), comprising Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, in the south-western Levant.

The Five Lords[3] of the Philistines are described in the Hebrew Bible as being in constant struggle and interaction with the neighbouring Israelites, Canaanites and Egyptians, being gradually absorbed into the Canaanite culture.[4]

The Philistines disappear from written records following the conquest of the Levant by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II towards the end of the 6th century, when Ashkelon and many other cities from the region were destroyed.[5]

East of GazaEdit

The area east of Gaza, particularly around Nahal Besor that reaches into the hills as far as Beersheva, had a very substantial Philistine presence. This area is a part of the Negev desert. It also includes Nahal Gerar to the north that joins Nahal Besor before flowing into the Mediterranean Sea.[6]

This was a heavily populated area during the early Iron Age. It includes archaeological sites such as Tell Beit Mirsim, Tel Haror, Tel Sera (Ziklag) along Nahal Gerar, and Tell Jemmeh and Tell el-Farah (South) along Nahal Besor.[7] All these sites and others in the area had Philistine settlements.[8]

When the Neo-Assyrian Empire first invaded this area, the Philistine cities were given considerable autonomy in exchange for tribute. But having responded to various revolts, this policy hardened.[9]

PleshetEdit

Pleshet is the Hebrew name for what might otherwise be called the "land of the Philistines" according to the Hebrew Bible (see Book of Genesis 21:32, Exodus 13:17, 1 Samuel 27:1, Joel 3:4).[10]

The term refers to the coastal region that stretches roughly from Gaza in the south to Ashdod in the north. The five main cities of the Philistines during the time of the Kings of Israel were Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ehrlich, Carl S. (1996). The Philistines in Transition: A History from Ca. 1000-730 B.C.E. BRILL. p. 3. ISBN 9789004104266. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  2. ^ Ben-Shlomo, David (2010). Philistine Iconography: A Wealth of Style and Symbolism (PDF). Saint-Paul. p. 14. ISBN 9783525543603. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  3. ^ Note - the "Lords" is a translation of seren or ceren (סַרְנֵ֣י) in Hebrew, or satrap (σατραπείαις) in the Greek of the Septuagint
  4. ^ Library, National Public. "Philistia | National Public Library - eBooks | Read eBooks online". nationalpubliclibrary.info. Retrieved 2016-11-01.
  5. ^ Jarus, Owen (16 July 2016). "Who Were the Philistines?". Live Science. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  6. ^ David Ben-Shlomo, Tell Jemmeh, Philistia and the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the Late Iron Age. Levant 2014; 46(1), 58-88 doi:10.1179/0075891413Z.00000000031
  7. ^ Gunnar Lehmann, Steven A. Rosen, Angelika Berlejung, Bat-Ami Neumeier and Hermann M. Niemann, Excavations at Qubur al-Walaydah, 2007–2009 academia.edu
  8. ^ "Tell el-Far'ah, South -- Israel Excavation Project Website". Farahsouth.cgu.edu. Retrieved 12 Jan 2016.
  9. ^ David Ben-Shlomo, Tell Jemmeh, Philistia and the Neo-Assyrian Empire during the Late Iron Age. Levant 2014; 46(1), 58-88 doi:10.1179/0075891413Z.00000000031
  10. ^ Vilnai, Ze'ev (1979). "Pleshet". Ariel Encyclopedia (in Hebrew). Volume 7. Tel Aviv, Israel: Am Oved. p. 6108.

External linksEdit