This article concerns the period between 9 BC and 1 BC, the last nine years of the before Christ era. It is one of the two "0-to-9" decade-like timespans (along with 0s AD) that contain 9 years, and are not decades (10 years).
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
This is a list of events occurring in the 0s BC ordered by year.
- Pannonia is incorporated into the Roman Empire as part of Illyria.
- The Ara Pacis ("Altar of Augustan Peace"), voted for by the Senate four years earlier, is dedicated.
- Nero Claudius Drusus begins a campaign against the Marcomanni, but dies soon after, due to a fall from his horse.
- Tiberius Claudius Nero continues the conquest of Germania. He is elevated by Emperor Augustus as his heir by succession.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Livy completes compilation of his Ab Urbe Condita Libri, covering the history of Rome since its foundation in 142 books.
- King Maroboduus becomes ruler of the Marcomanni and fights against the Roman Empire's expansion in Bohemia.
- Arminius, son of a Cheruscan chieftain, is taken as a hostage to Rome, where he receives a military education.
- After 20 years, Emperor Augustus initiates his second census of the Roman Empire.
- Sextilis, the eighth month of the early Julian calendar, is renamed Augustus (August) by a decree of the Roman Senate in honor of Augustus.
- Tiberius Claudius Nero and Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso are Roman Consuls.
- Augustus' second census of the Roman Empire reports a total of 4,233,000 citizens.
- Tiberius Claudius Nero is sent to Armenia, then retires to Rhodes.
- Emperor Augustus sends ferrets (named viverrae by Plinius) to the Balearic Islands to control the rabbit plagues.
- March – Probable nova in the constellation Aquila.
- c. December – Probable supernova in the constellation Capricornus.
- c. March – Upon the death of Herod the Great, there is unrest in his client kingdom of Judea. His son, Herod Archelaus, becomes the new ruler. Herod Antipas becomes tetrarch of Galilee and Perea. The Governor of Syria, Publius Quintilius Varus, assembles three of his four legions, including Legio X Fretensis, and marches down to Jerusalem from Antioch to restore order. He crucifies 2,000 Jewish rebels.
- c. October – The Naikū of Ise Grand Shrine is founded in Japan, according to chapter 6 of Nihon Shoki.
- Namhae becomes king of the Korean kingdom of Silla.
- King Maroboduus of the Marcomanni organises, in the area later known as Bohemia, a confederation of Germanic tribes, with the Hermunduri, Lombards, Semnoni and Vandals.
- Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus commands the Roman army in Germania and crosses the Elbe. He builds the pontes longi (“long bridges”) over the marshes between the Rhine and the Ems.
- Emperor Augustus is proclaimed Pater Patriae, or "father of the country" by the Roman Senate; this bestowed title is the logical consequence and final proof of Augustus' supreme position as princeps, the first in charge over the Roman state.
- Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus, is exiled on charges of treason and adultery to Pandateria; her mother Scribonia accompanies her.
- The Aqua Alsietina (or Aqua Augusta), a Roman aqueduct in Rome, is constructed during the reign of Augustus (approximate date).
- Phraates V becomes king of the Parthian Empire, after he and his mother "the goddess Musa" have murdered his father Phraates IV.
- Emperor Ai of Han dies and is succeeded by his 8-year-old cousin Ping of Han. Wang Mang is appointed regent by Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun, who is also his aunt.
- Former regent Dong Xian, who was previously Emperor Ai of Han's lover, commits suicide with his wife.
- Gaius Caesar marries Livilla, daughter of Antonia Minor and Nero Claudius Drusus, in an effort to gain prestige.
- Estimated birth of Jesus, in the Christian religion, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his Anno Domini era; according to most scholars, Dionysius used the word "incarnation", but it is not known whether he meant conception or birth. However, at least one scholar thinks Dionysius placed the incarnation of Jesus in the next year, AD 1. Most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, and place the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
- Tigranes IV, King of Armenia, r. 12–1 BC
- Erato, Queen of Armenia, 8–5 BC, 2 BC – AD 2, AD 6–11
- Artavasdes III, King of Armenia, r. 5–2 BC
- Jesus Christ, Jewish preacher and central figure of Christianity, (ca. 4 BC–ca. AD 33)
- Ariobarzan of Atropatene, Client King of Armenia, r. 1 BC – AD 2
- Chend Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 32–7 BC
- Ai Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 7–1 BC
- Ping Di, Emperor of Han Dynasty China, r. 1 BC – AD 5
- Wang Mang, Chinese statesman and future emperor of China
- Dong Xian, Han Dynasty Chinese official under Emperor Ai of Han
- Antiochus III, King of Commagene, r. 12 BC – AD 17
- Arminius, Germanic war chief (18/17 BC – AD 21)
- Arshak II, King of Caucasian Iberia, r. 20 BC – AD 1
- Strato II and Strato III, co-kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, r. 25 BC – AD 10
- Lugaid Riab nDerg, legendary High King of Ireland, r. 33–9 BC
- Conchobar Abradruad, legendary High King of Ireland, r. 9–8 BC
- Crimthann Nia Náir, legendary High King of Ireland, r. (8 BC – AD 9)
- Suinin, legendary Emperor of Japan, r. 29 BC – AD 70
- Amanishakheto, King of Kush, r. 10–1 BC
- Natakamani, King of Kush, r. 1 BC – AD 20
- Ma'nu III, King of Osroene, r. 23–4 BC
- Abgar V, King of Osroene, r. 4 BC-AD 7, AD 13–50
- Phraates IV, king of the Parthian Empire, r. 38–2 BC
- Phraates V, king of the Parthian Empire, r. 2 BC – AD 4
- Musa of Parthia, mother and co-ruler with Phraates V, r. 2 BC – AD 4
- Caesar Augustus, Roman Emperor (27 BC – AD 14)
- Nero Claudius Drusus, Roman Consul, in office 9 BC
- Gaius Caesar, Roman general
- Livy, Roman historian
- Ovid, Roman poet
- Quirinius, Roman nobleman and politician
- Tiberius, Roman general, statesman, and future emperor.
- Herod the Great, client king of Judea
- Hillel the Elder, Jewish scholar and Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in office c. 31 BC – AD 9
- Shammai, Jewish scholar and Av Beit Din of the Sanhedrin, in office 20 BC – AD 20
- Hyeokgeose, King of Silla, r. 57 BC – AD 4
- Claudius Livius Fresius (d. AD 57)
- Ping, Chinese emperor of the Han dynasty (d. AD 6)
- Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Roman historian (d. AD 76)
- Possible birthdate of John the Baptist, according to appearance of a very bright triple conjunction of the royal star, Jupiter and Saturn in the sign of Pisces (land in the West) in May until December of that year since 854 years, with a retrogradation and stationing in November 12, 7 BC. Jesus was born on Saturday April 17, 6 BC / 17.4.748 AUC / 29 Nisan 3755 HC.
- January 15 – Guang Wu, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (d. AD 57)
- Aemilia Lepida, Roman noblewoman and fiancee of Claudius (d. AD 43)
- Lucius Vitellius the Elder, Roman consul and governor of Syria (d. AD 51)
- The birthdates of John the Baptist and Jesus are not generally known, but 5 BC is often assumed to be the date. The spring Passover feast (often around April 21) has been cited as a possible date for the birth of Christ, assuming that this had relevance to being a Messiah claimant, or that his birthday might have been related to Passover. Others theologically tie his birth to Sukkot, the fall Feast of Tabernacles.
- c. Possible months being June or October (due to convergence of Jupiter and Saturn forming the star of Bethlehem at his birth) – Jesus, Son of God who becomes the central figure of messianic Israelites and Christianity (executed circa AD 33).
- Approximate date – Seneca the Younger, Córdoban-born Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman and dramatist (forced suicide AD 65)
- December 24 – Servius Sulpicius Galba, Roman emperor (d. AD 69)
- Seneca the Younger, Roman statesman and philosopher (d. AD 65)
- Jesus, basis of Christianity (born in the month of Ethanim (Tishrei) (September–October) (approximate date, according to Eusebius of Caesarea and Jehovah's Witnesses)
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, father of emperor Nero
- November 27 – Horace, Roman lyric poet and writer (b. 65 BC)
- Gaius Maecenas, Roman politician and advisor (b. 70 BC)
- Polemon I, Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom
- Xu, Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty
- April 17 – Cheng, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. 51 BC)
- Aristobulus IV, Jewish prince of Judea (b. 31 BC)
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Greek historian (approximate date)
- Geumwa of Dongbuyeo, Korean king
- Zhao Hede, Chinese consort of the Han Dynasty
- Lady Ban (or Ban Jieyu), Chinese concubine and poet (b. 48 BC)
- Cleopatra Selene II, Ptolemaic princess of Egypt (approximate date)
- Feng Yuan, Chinese consort of the Han Dynasty
- Liu Xiang, Chinese scholar, editor of Shan Hai Jing and compiler of Lienü zhuan, father of Liu Xin (b. 77 BC)
- Soseono, Korean queen (b. 67 BC)
- Acme (enslaved woman), Jewish slave and personal maid in the service of the Empress Livia Drusilla, wife of Augustus
- Curia, Roman noblewoman and wife of Quintus Lucretius Vespillo
- March or April – Herod the Great, king of Judea (b. 73 BC)
- Antipater, Jewish heir and son of Herod the Great
- Malthace, Jewish woman and wife of Herod the Great
- Marcus Porcius Latro, Roman rhetorician
- Marcus Tullius Tiro, Roman writer, freedman of Cicero
- Iullus Antonius, Roman consul and son of Mark Antony (executed for treason) (b. 43 BC)
- Phraates IV, king of Parthia (murdered)
- August 15 – Ai of Han, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. 27 BC)
- Dong Xian, Chinese politician and commander-in-chief (b. 23 BC)
- Xiaoai, Chinese empress and wife of Ai of Han
- Zhao Feiyan, Chinese empress and wife of Cheng of Han (b. 45 BC)
- "LacusCurtius • Res Gestae Divi Augusti (II)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- "LacusCurtius • Res Gestae Divi Augusti (II)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
- Matthews, Roberts (2011). Why Don't Spiders Stick to Their Webs. Oxford: Oneworld. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-85168-900-2.
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
- Hinsch, Bret. (1990) Passions of the Cut Sleeve. University of California Press.
- Georges Declercq, Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2000), pp.143–147.
- G. Declercq, "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era", Sacris Erudiri 41 (2002) 165–246, pp.242–246. Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini.
- James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans Publishing (2003), page 324.
- "Adherents.com – Number of Christians in the world". Archived from the original on 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Powell, Robert A. (1996). Chronicle of the living Christ : the life and ministry of Jesus Christ : foundations of cosmic Christianity. Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780880104074.
- "Michael R. Molnar: Astronomer, Author, Violin Maker". Retrieved October 17, 2020.
- Spears, Tom (2005-12-04). "Star of Wonder". Ottawa Citizen. p. A7. "Michael Molnar announced 10 years ago his conclusion that the Star of Bethlehem was in fact a double eclipse of Jupiter in a rare astrological conjunction that occurred in Aries on March 20, 6 BC, and again on April 17, 6 BC. ... Mr. Molnar believes that Roman astrologers would have interpreted the double-eclipse as signifying the birth of a divine king in Judea." However, astronomical software such as Stellarium shows that on March 20, the occultation of Jupiter by the Moon could not be seen from Rome, as the Moon passed by the planet without obscuring it. Furthermore, the event on April 17 began when Jupiter was 38 degrees above the horizon, at 2pm, i.e. in daylight, so it is extremely unlikely that this event would have been seen either.
- "When was Jesus Born?". Archived from the original on April 28, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2006.
- Claridge, Amanda (1998). Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press. pp. 33. ISBN 9780192880031.
- "Herod | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Fairbank, John (1986). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 1, The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC-AD 220. Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 9780521243278.
- Loewe, Michael (2018) . Crisis and Conflict in Han China. Routledge. ISBN 9780429849107.