This article concerns the period 129 BC – 120 BC.

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:

EventsEdit

129 BC

By placeEdit

The Roman RepublicEdit
SyriaEdit
ChinaEdit
  • March: Chen Jiao is deposed as Empress after she asks a sorceress to curse Emperor Wu's favourite consort, Wei Zifu, this being regarded an act of heresy and treason. Wei Zifu is made the new Empress and her son Liu Ju the Crown Prince.[1]
  • Spring: The Xiongnu raid Shanggu, killing officials and other inhabitants.[2]
  • Autumn: Emperor Wu launches his first offensive into the northern steppe against the Xiongnu and their allies. The invasion consists of four armies, each of 10,000 cavalrymen. Two of the four armies are defeated, namely those of Li Guang and Gongsun Ao, and only the army of Wei Qing achieves a victory. Although a modest success, Wei Qing's victory is the first Han success against the Xiongnu. Moreover, it is won at Longcheng, a sacred site far to the north, beyond the Gobi Desert, where the Xiongnu offer sacrifices.[3]
  • Winter: The Xiongnu retaliate by crossing the border several times, especially ravaging Yuyang.[4]
  • The Han diplomat Zhang Qian escapes Xiongnu custody and resumes his mission of forming an anti-Xiongnu alliance with the Yuezhi. He reaches the State of Dayuan in the Ferghana Valley, whose trade with the Han had been prevented by the Xiongnu and who supply Zhang with guides. Zhang then travels to the states of Kangju, Greater Yuezhi and Daxia (Bactria). He also learns of the Parthian Empire, Daqin, the Caspian Sea and the source of the Yellow River.[5]

By topicEdit

AstronomyEdit

128 BCEdit

By placeEdit

Roman RepublicEdit
  • Cn. Octavius and T. Annius Rufus are this year's consuls
BactriaEdit
ParthiaEdit
ChinaEdit
  • In response to Han incursions, in 128 or 127 the Xiongnu invade northern China. They kill the governor of Liaoxi, defeat the governor of Yuyang, carry off 2000 of the inhabitants of Liaoxi and Yuyang and defeat the Han general Han Anguo. Han Anguo and his cavalry force are surrounded in their camp, but the arrival of relief forces coming from Yan causes the Xiongnu army to withdraw. The Xiongnu also invade Yanmen and kill or carry off 1000 people.[6][7]
  • The Han general Wei Qing, with an army of 30,000 cavalrymen, defeats a Xiongnu army north of Yanmen. The Han general Li Xi attacks the Xiongnu further to the east, riding out of Dai Prefecture.[8]
  • Having spent a year in Greater Yuezhi, the Han diplomat Zhang Qian begins his return journey to China, having failed to persuade Yuezhi's king to form an alliance against the Xiongnu. Passing by the Pamir, Kunlun, Altun and Qilian Mountains, he and his retinue are then captured by the Xiongnu and taken into custody.[9]

By topicEdit

Arts and sciencesEdit

127 BCEdit

By placeEdit

ParthiaEdit
ChinaEdit
  • January: Emperor Wu of Han begins a policy of pressuring the client kings of the Han Dynasty into dividing their kingdoms. Previously, only the eldest son would inherit a kingdom. However, in an edict, Wu permits the kings of Liang and Chengyang to divide the land of their states and distribute the land to their younger brothers. Wu grants these brothers titles and promises to do the same if other kings grant land to younger brothers and younger sons. This precedent pressures other kings to do likewise, and Wu places the younger brothers and younger sons under the jurisdiction of the imperial prefectures.[10]
  • Wei Qing defeats a Xiongnu army near Gaoque. He then invades the Ordos Plateau, defeats the Xiongnu and their Baiyang and Loufan allies in the battles of Puni and Fuli, and then defeats the main Xiongnu force. The conquered territory becomes Shuofang Commandery. Wu orders the foundation of Shuofang City, and the system of defenses that had been built by the Qin Dynasty general Meng Tian are repaired.[11]
  • The Han rationalize the northern frontier, abandoning the remote region of Zaoyang to the Xiongnu.[12]

126 BCEdit

By placeEdit

SyriaEdit
XiongnuEdit
  • Winter 127/6: The Xiongnu ruler Junchen Chanyu dies, and his younger brother Yizhixie, the Luli King of the Left (East), overthrows Junchen's son Yudan and sets himself up as the new Chanyu. Yudan flees to the Han and dies a few months later.[13]
ChinaEdit
  • Summer: In retaliation for the Han conquest of the Ordos Plateau in the previous year, the Xiongnu invade the province of Dai, kill its governor, Gong You, and carry off over 1000 of its inhabitants.
  • Autumn: The Xiongnu cross into Yanmen and kill or carry off over 1000 of the inhabitants.[14][15]
  • Having used the Xiongnu civil war to escape his imprisonment, the diplomat Zhang Qian returns to China and reports on the lands to the west.[16]
  • To avoid the Xiongnu and Qiang of the north-west and west respectively, Emperor Wu begins a policy of exploring a possible route of contact with Daxia (Bactria) via India, sending envoys to establish diplomatic relations with and movement through the Dian Kingdom. Wu wishes to receive the submission of Daxia and other states in western Eurasia.[17]

125 BCEdit

By placeEdit

SyriaEdit
Roman RepublicEdit
ChinaEdit
  • In retaliation for the Han conquest of the Ordos Plateau two years prior, three Xiongnu forces raid the Prefectures of Dai, Dingxiang and Shang.
  • The Xiongnu Tuqi (Worthy Prince) of the Right (West), especially angry at the loss of the Ordos Plateau, invades the region and kills or carries off a large number of officials and other inhabitants.[19]

124 BCEdit

By placeEdit

Roman RepublicEdit
ParthiaEdit
EgyptEdit
ChinaEdit
  • Spring: The Han general Wei Qing, with an army of 30,000 cavalry, proceeds from Gaoque into Xiongnu territory, and in a night attack surrounds the Tuqi (Worthy Prince) of the Right (West) in his camp. The Tuqi escapes, but numerous petty chiefs are captured in this and a second engagement.
  • Further to the east, Li Xi and Zhang Ci Gong march out from Youbeiping Prefecture into Xiongnu territory.
  • Emperor Wu of Han rewards Wei Qing by making him General-in-Chief.[20]
  • Autumn: The Xiongnu retaliate by invading the Prefecture of Dai, where they kill its chief commandant, Zhu Ying.[21]

123 BCEdit

By placeEdit

Roman RepublicEdit

122 BCEdit

By placeEdit

Roman RepublicEdit

121 BCEdit

By placeEdit

Roman RepublicEdit
  • The Roman Senate passes the motion senatus consultum ultimum, which the consul Lucius Opimius interprets as giving him unlimited power to preserve the Republic. He gathers an armed force of Senators and their supporters to confront Gaius Gracchus. A pitched battle is fought inside Rome, resulting in the death of Gracchus and many of his followers.
  • A tribunal is established in Rome that executes 3,000 followers of Gracchus.
  • Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, allied with the Aedui, defeats the Arverni and Allobroges in Transalpine Gaul, thus establishing the province for Rome.
  • The finest vintage of Falernian wine, known as the Opimian vintage, is bottled from vines grown on Mt Falernus between Latium and Campania.
ChinaEdit
  • Spring - The Han general Huo Qubing attacks the Supu, vassals of the Xiongnu, and kills their king. He then invades the Hexi Corridor, where he fights a six-day running battle against a son of Yizhixie Chanyu. The Xiongnu are defeated, and the ruler of Lan and king Lu, both vassals of the Xiongnu, are killed in the fighting. Huo Qubing then attacks and defeats the Hunye, capturing the son of the Hunye king and his ministers and chief commandants.
  • Summer - Huo Qubing again invades the Hexi Corridor. In an engagement in the Qilian Mountains, he captures the king of the Qiutu. In a second engagement, he then captures five vassal kings of the Xiongnu and a consort of the Chanyu, killing or capturing more than 30,000 Xiongnu soldiers.
  • Generals Li Guang and Zhang Qian ride north from Youbeiping, but Zhang Qian, with the larger army, is slow to rendezvous with Li Guang. As a result, Li Guang loses more than half his army in battle against the Tuqi (Worthy Prince) of the Left (East).
  • Autumn - Yizhixie Chanyu plans on executing the Hunye and Xiutu kings for their failures against Huo Qubing, but learning of this, the vassal kings inform the Han of their intention to surrender. Emperor Wu of Han sends Huo Qubing across the Yellow River with an army to oversee their surrender. Some of the enemy troops and leaders then refuse to surrender, but Huo Qubing massacres 8000 of them as they attempt to flee. Huo Qubing receives the surrender of thirty-two Xiongnu vassals, and the Hunye king and other vassals are enfeoffed as marquises in China.
  • The rapid conquest of the Hexi Corridor provides the traditional western provinces of China with greater security. As a result, Emperor Wu halves the number of soldiers garrisoning the provinces of Longxi, Beidi and Shang.[22][23]

120 BCEdit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
ChinaEdit
  • Retaliating against the Han conquest of the Hexi Corridor in the previous year, the Xiongnu invade the provinces of Youbeiping and Dingxiang, killing or capturing over 1000 inhabitants.[24]

BirthsEdit

128 BC

125 BC

121 BC

120 BC

DeathsEdit

129 BC

128 BC

127 BC

126 BC

125 BC

124 BC

  • Artabanus II of Parthia

123 BC

122 BC

  • Liu An, Chinese prince, geographer, and cartographer (b. 179 BC)

121 BC

120 BC

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 135. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  2. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 133. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  3. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  4. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 139. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  5. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 145–150. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  6. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  7. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Xiongnu, Section: Wei Qing & Huo Qubing.
  8. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 140. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  9. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 146. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  10. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  11. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  12. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 140. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  13. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Xiongnu.
  14. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 141. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  15. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Xiongnu, Section: Wei Qing & Huo Qubing.
  16. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 146. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  17. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 150–151. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  18. ^ Salisbury, Joyce (2001). Encyclopedia of Women in the Ancient World. ABC-CLIO. p. 56.
  19. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  20. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  21. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Wei Qing & Huo Qubing.
  22. ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 159–163. ISBN 978-1628944167.
  23. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Xiongnu, Section: Wei Qing & Huo Qubing.
  24. ^ Qian, Sima. Records of the Grand Historian, Section: Xiongnu, Section: Wei Qing & Huo Qubing.