This article concerns the period 129 BC – 120 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
The Republic of RomeEdit
- The Kingdom of Pergamon becomes the Roman Province of Asia upon the defeat of Aristonicus, pretender to the Attalid throne, by M. Perperna.
- C. Sempronius Tuditanus celebrates his triumph over the Iapydes of Illyria.
- Scipio Aemilianus, victor of Carthage is possibly assassinated by his enemies in Rome.
- Battle of Ecbatana: The Seleucid King Antiochus VII Sidetes is defeated and killed by the Parthians under Phraates II, ending Seleucid control over Media or Mesopotamia.
- Having been freed by the Parthians, Demetrius II of Syria recovers the throne of the Seleucid Empire.
- Hipparchus publishes his catalog of stars.
- Total solar eclipse, used by Hipparchus to estimate distance to the moon.
- Cn. Octavius and T. Annius Rufus are this year's consuls
- The Greco-Bactrian kingdom is overrun by the Tokhari.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Tyre successfully revolts from the Seleucid Empire.
- Seleucus V Philometor succeeds his father Demetrius II as king of the Seleucid Empire. Due to his youth, his stepmother Cleopatra Thea acts as regent.
- Cleopatra Thea succeeds to the rule of the Seleucid Empire on the death of Seleucus V. She appoints Antiochus VIII Grypus as co-ruler.
- In Rome, Marcus Fulvius Flaccus proposes the extension of Roman citizenship to the northern Italians, but the Senate reacts by sending him off to deal with disturbances around Massilia. And in so doing, commences the conquest of Transalpine Gaul.
- Fregellae's revolt against Rome begins in Latium. Later the city is captured and destroyed by the Romans.
- Gaius Gracchus elected Roman tribune for the first time. He waits until after his re-election the following year before pushing forward the various civil and agrarian reforms that his brother championed in 133 BC.
- Aix-en-Provence founded under the name of Aquae Sextiae by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus.
- Marcus Fulvius Flaccus and Gaius Gracchus become tribunes and propose a number of radical reforms in Rome.
- Gracchus passes a law requiring the state to provide weapons and equipment for the soldiers in the Roman army.
- The Roman Senate passes the motion senatus consultum ultimum, which the consul Lucius Opimius interprets as giving him unlimited power to preserve the Republic. He gathers an armed force of Senators and their supporters to confront Gaius Gracchus. A pitched battle is fought inside Rome, resulting in the death of Gracchus and many of his followers.
- A tribunal is established in Rome that executes 3,000 followers of Gracchus.
- Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, allied with the Aedui, defeats the Arverni and Allobroges in Transalpine Gaul, thus establishing the province for Rome.
- The finest vintage of Falernian wine, known as the Opimian vintage, is bottled from vines grown on Mt Falernus between Latium and Campania.
- Led by General Huo Qubing, the Chinese defeat the Xiongnu, killing more than 40000 Xiongnu soldiers, including seven xiongnu princes.
- Jieyou, princess of the Han Dynasty (d. 49 BC)
- Publius Sulpicius Rufus, Roman statesman (d. 88 BC)
- Quintus Sertorius, Roman general (d. 72 BC)
- Antiochus VII Sidetes (killed in battle)
- Carneades, philosopher, and founder of Third Academy (b. c. 214 BC)
- P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus (Africanus the Younger) (b. 185 BC)
- Liu Fei, Chinese prince of the Han Dynasty (b. 169 BC)
- Phraates II, king of Parthia (approximate date)
- Nicomedes II (Epiphanes), king of Bithynia
- Zhufu Yan, Chinese politician and official of the Han Dynasty (or 126 BC)
- Artabanus II of Parthia
- Cleopatra Thea, Seleucid queen
- Gaius Gracchus, Roman politician (b. 154 BC)
- Gongsun Hong, Chinese statesman (b. 200 BC)
- Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, Roman consul