Ifẹ̀ (Yoruba: Ifẹ̀, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria, recent in-depth archeologically estimates suggest Ife's founding to be between the 10th century BC and 6th century BC[citation needed] and is widely agreed upon by historians to be the oldest amongst the classical and post-classical Yoruba city-states. The city is located in present-day Osun State.[2] Ifẹ̀ is about 218 kilometers northeast of Lagos[3] with a population of over 500,000 people, which is the highest in Osun State according to population census of 2006.[4]

Ilé-Ifẹ̀
Ifẹ̀ Oòyè
Faculty of Medicine at Obafemi Awolowo University
Faculty of Medicine at Obafemi Awolowo University
Ilé-Ifẹ̀ is located in Nigeria
Ilé-Ifẹ̀
Ilé-Ifẹ̀
Coordinates: 7°28′N 4°34′E / 7.467°N 4.567°E / 7.467; 4.567
Country Nigeria
StateOsun
Government
 • ỌọniOjaja II
 • LGA Chairman, Ife CentralOladosu Olubisi
 • LGA Chairman, Ife NorthLanre Ogunyimika
 • LGA Chairman, Ife SouthJohnson Fayemi
 • LGA Chairman, Ife EastTajudeen Lawal
Area
 • Total1,791 km2 (692 sq mi)
Population
 (2006)[1]
 • Total509,035
 • Density280/km2 (740/sq mi)
National languageYorùbá
Ifẹ̀
Total population
~ 755,260
Regions with significant populations
Osun State - 755,260 (2011)
 · Ife Central: 196,220
 · Ife East: 221,340
 · Ife South: 157,830
 · Ife North: 179,870
A short introductory expose of Ile Ife in the Ufẹ̀ dialect by a native speaker

According to the traditions of the Yoruba religion, Ilé-Ifẹ̀ was founded by the order of the Supreme God Olódùmarè by Obatala. It then fell into the hands of his brother Oduduwa, which created enmity between the two.[5] Oduduwa created a dynasty there, and sons and daughters of this dynasty became rulers of many other kingdoms in Yorubaland.[6] The first Ọọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀ is a descendant of Oduduwa, which was the 401st Orisha. The present ruler since 2015 is Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi Ojaja II, Ọọ̀ni of Ifẹ̀ who is also a Nigerian accountant.[7] Named as the city of 401 deities, Ifẹ̀ is home to many worshippers of these deities and is where they are routinely celebrated through festivals.[8]

Ilé-Ifẹ̀ is famous worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, dating back to between 1200 and 1400 CE.[8]

History edit

Origin of Ife: Creation of the world edit

 
Yoruba Copper mask for King Obalufon, Ife, Nigeria c. 1300 CE

According to Yoruba religion, Olodumare, the Supreme God, ordered Obatala to create the earth, however on his way he got drunk on palm wine. Therefore, a contemporary Orisha to the former, Oduduwa, took the items of creation from him, descended from the abode of the Orisha using a chain and threw the handful of earth on the primordial ocean. The earth rose and became a mound called Oke Ora.[9] He then put a five toed cockerel on this primordial mound so that it would scatter the earth around, thus creating the land on which Ile Ife, the first city would be built.[5] Oduduwa planted a palm nut in a hole in the newly formed land and from there sprang a great tree with sixteen branches, a symbolic representation of the 16 clans of the early Ife pre-urban confederation; Elu Merindinlogun, (Thirteen initial and 3 later ones). The usurpation of creation by Oduduwa, gave rise to an ever-lasting conflict between him and his contemporaneous rival Orisha, Obatala. This symbolic rivalry is still re-enacted in the modern era by the votary groups of the two divinities during the Itapa New Year festival.[10] On account of his creation of the world, Oduduwa became the ancestor of the first divine king of the Yoruba, while Obatala is believed to have created the first Yoruba people out of clay. The meaning of the word "ife" in Yoruba is "expansion"; "Ile-Ife" is therefore in reference to the myth of origin as "The Land of Expansion" (the word, Ile, as pronounced in modern Yoruba language, means house or home, which would make the name of the city mean "The Home of Expansion").

Origin of the regional states: Dispersal from the holy city edit

Oduduwa had sons, daughters, and grandchildren, who went on to found their own kingdoms and empires, namely; Ila Orangun, Owu, Ketu, Sabe, Egba, Popo and Oyo. Oranmiyan, Oduduwa's last born, was one of his father's principal ministers and overseer of the nascent Edo kingdom after Oduduwa granted the plea of the Edo people for his governance. When Oranmiyan decided to go back to Ile Ife, after a period of service and exile in Benin, he left behind a child named Eweka that he had in the interim with an indigenous princess of Benin, Erinmwinde, daughter of the King (Ogie) of Egor, a neighbouring settlement to nascent Benin. The young boy went on to become the first widely accepted ruler and Oba of the second Edo dynasty that has ruled what is now Benin from that day to this. Oranmiyan later migrated northwestwards into the savanna plains to found the Oyo. Oyo later became an empire that stretched at its height from the western or right bank of the Niger River to the eastern or left banks of the Volta River.[11][12] It would become known as one of the most powerful of Africa's medieval states, prior to its collapse in the mid 19th century.[6]

Traditional setting edit

House of Oduduwa
Yoruba royal dynasty
 
Ife Head, relic of the royal cult of an ancient Ooni of Ile-Ife and heraldic symbol of Ife royalty
Parent house
Current regionYorubaland
Foundedc.11th century
FounderOduduwa (Olofin Adimula)
Current headOjaja II
Titles

Ojoye/Oloye Ife[13]

ÌHÀRẸ - Outer/Town chiefs (Àgbà Ifẹ̀):[14]

  • Ọbalufe (Ọ̀runtọ́) Ife[15]
  • Ọbalọran Ife
  • Ọbajio Ife
  • Ọbalaye Ife
  • Akọgun Ife
  • Waasin ife
  • Jagunọṣin ife
  • Ejesi Ife

MỌDÉWÁ - Inner/Palace chiefs (Ẹmẹsẹ̀):

  • Lọwa (Leader)
  • Jaaran
  • Aguro
  • Arodẹ
  • Erebẹsẹ
  • Isanire
  • Lọwate
  • Laadin

Style(s)Kábíèsí
Majesty
Imperial Highness
Members
Connected familiesOyo royal family
Bini royal family
TraditionsÌṣẹ̀ṣe
Christianity
Islam
MottoIlé Ifẹ̀ orírun ayé, Ibi tí ojúmọ́ ti ń mọ́ wá. (Yoruba: Ife, source origin of the world, the place from which dawn begins)
Cadet branchesIn Ife (4)
  • Oshinkola of Iremo
  • Giesi of Moore
  • Ogboru of Ilare
  • Lafogido of Okerewe

Outside Ife (Several)

The King (Ooni of Ile-Ife) edit

The Oòni (or king) of Ife is a descendant of the godking Oduduwa, and is counted first among the Yoruba kings. He is traditionally considered the 401st spirit (Orisha), the only one that speaks. In fact, the royal dynasty of Ife traces its origin back to the founding of the city more than ten thousand years before the birth of Jesus Christ. The present ruler is Oba Enitan Adeyeye Ogunwusi (Ojaja II). The Ooni ascended his throne in 2015. Following the formation of the Yoruba Orisha Congress in 1986, the Ooni acquired an international status the likes of which the holders of his title hadn't had since the city's colonisation by the British. Nationally he had always been prominent amongst the Federal Republic of Nigeria's company of royal Obas, being regarded as the chief priest and custodian of the holy city of all the Yorubas.[7] In former times, the palace of the Ooni of Ife was a structure built of authentic enameled bricks, decorated with artistic porcelain tiles and all sorts of ornaments.[16] At present, it is a more modern series of buildings. The current Ooni, Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi Ojaja II, Ooni of Ife, (born October 17, 1974) is a Nigerian accountant and the 51st Ooni of Ife. He succeeded the late Oba Okunade Sijuwade(Olubuse II) who was the 50th ooni of Ife, and who had died on July 28, 2015.

Cults of Divinities edit

Ife is well known as the city of 401 deities (also known as irumole or orishas). It is said that every day of the year the traditional worshippers celebrate a festival of one of these deities. Often the festivals extend over more than one day and they involve both priestly activities in the palace and theatrical dramatisations in the rest of the kingdom. Historically the King only appeared in public during the annual Olojo festival (celebration of the new dawn); other important festivals here include the Itapa festival for Obatala and Obameri, the Edi festival for Moremi Ajasoro and the Ugbo with their Igare (Oluyare) masqueraders.[17]

Kings and gods were often depicted with large heads because the artists believed that the Ase was held in the head, the Ase being the inner power and energy of a person. Both historic figures of Ife and the offices associated with them are represented. One of the best documented among this is the early king Obalufon II who is said to have invented bronze casting and is honored in the form of a naturalistic copper life-size mask.[8]

The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 12th and 14th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ilé-Ifè is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 CE In the period around 1300 CE the artists at Ife developed a refined and naturalistic sculptural tradition in terracotta, stone and copper alloy—copper, brass, and bronze—many of which appear to have been created under the patronage of King Obalufon II, the man who today is identified as the Yoruba patron deity of brass casting, weaving and regalia.[18] After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire.

Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization are significant examples of naturalism in pre-colonial African art and are distinguished by their variations in regalia, facial marking patterns, and body proportions. Ancient Ife also was famous for its glass beads which have been found at sites as far away as Mali, Mauritania, and Ghana.[18]

Shrines, altars, and temples edit

Igbo Olokun: Igbo Olokun used to be a forested, sacred grove (igbo) that housed shrines at which the goddess Olokun was worshipped. Igbo Olokun in the city of Ile-Ife, in south-western Nigeria, was said to have a history of glass makers with unique manufacturing techniques in West Africa. The recovery of glass beads and associated production materials were found there during excavation. Analysis of the composition of the artefacts and preliminary dating of the site, which puts the main timing of glass-working between the 11th and 15th centuries AD. The results of these studies suggest that glass bead manufacture at this site was largely independent of glass-making traditions documented farther afield, and that Igbo Olokun may represent one of the earliest known glass-production workshops in West Africa. The location is not divulged except on request and permission of the keepers of the shrine because it is a sacred grove.[19]

Oduduwa Shrine and Grove: The shrine of the progenitor of the Yoruba race. Worshippers and initiates flood the place seeking blessings and pay obeisance to the originator of their civilization.[20]

Agbonniregun Temple: The grove of Ọrunmila an Orisha. He is the Orisha of wisdom, knowledge, and divination. This source of knowledge is believed to have a keen understanding of the human form and of purity, and is therefore praised as often being more effective than other remedies.[21]

Archaeology edit

 
Solomon's knot, Ìbọ̀, a quasi-heraldic symbol of Yoruba royalty.

Burnt pipes (or tuyere), stone tools, broken calabash, decorated potsherds, and pottery (e.g., rimsherd, plane-sherd body, broken, and washed pottery) were excavated at Iyekere.[citation needed] Iron smelting, charcoal utilized in the process of smelting, and iron slags involved in pitting were also discovered.[citation needed]

Iron smelting occurred in the Ife region.[22] The yield and efficiency were quite high as the iron smelting process yielded ore grade near 80 percent iron oxide, lean slag possessed less than 60 percent iron oxide, and no greater than the required amount of iron oxide in the slag was left for slag formation.[22] While more excavation is needed to produce a more accurate estimate for the age of the smelting site, it can be approximated to likely being precolonial, during the Late Iron Age.[22]

Igbo Olokun, also known as Olokun Grove,[23] may be one of the earliest workshops for producing glass in West Africa.[24] Glass production may have begun during, if not before, the 11th century.[23] The 11th - 15th century were the peak of glass production.[23] High lime, high alumina (HLHA) and low lime, high alumina (LLHA) glass are distinct compositions that were developed using locally sourced recipes, raw materials, and pyrotechnology.[25] The presence of HLHA glass beads discovered throughout West Africa[25] (e.g., Igbo-Ukwu in southern Nigeria, Gao and Essouk in Mali, and Kissi in Burkina Faso), after the ninth century CE,[26] reveals the broader importance of this glass industry in the region and shows its participation in regional trade networks[25] (e.g., trans-Saharan trade, trans-Atlantic trade).[23] Glass beads served as “the currency for negotiating political power, economic relations, and cultural/spiritual values” for “Yoruba, West Africans, and the African diaspora.”[23]

In Osun Grove, the distinct glassmaking technology produced by the Yoruba persisted into the seventeenth century.[27]

 
Glass beads of different colors and shapes from Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Government edit

The main city of Ife is divided into two local government areas: Ife East, headquartered at Oke-ogbo and Ife central at Ajebandele area of the city. Both local governments are composed of a total of 21 political wards. The city has an estimated population of 355,813 people.[28]

Geography edit

Latitudes 7°28′N and 7°45′N and longitudes 4°30′E and 4°34′E. Ile-Ife is a rural area with settlements where agriculture is occupied by most. Ife has an undulating terrain underlain by metamorphic rocks and characterized by two types of soils, deep clay soils on the upper slopes and sandy soils on the lower parts. Within the tropical savanna climate zone of West Africa. It has average rainfall of 1,000–1,250 mm (39–49 in) usually from March to October and a mean relative humidity of 75% to 100%. Ife is east of the city of Ibadan and connected to it through the Ife-Ibadan highway; Ife is also 40 km (25 mi) from Osogbo and has road networks to other cities such as Ede, Ondo and Ilesha. There is the Opa river and reservoir, that serves as a water treatment facility for OAU college.[citation needed]

Climate edit

In Ifé, the dry season is muggy and partially cloudy, and the temperature is high all year round. The wet season is oppressive and overcast. The average annual temperature ranges from 66 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit, rarely falling below 60 or rising over 98.[29][30][31]

Temperature edit

From January 22 to April 4, the hot season, with an average daily high temperature exceeding 91 °F, lasts for 2.4 months. In Ifé, March is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 92 °F and low of 73 °F.[32][33][29][34][35][36][37] From June 14 to October 6, the cool season, which has an average daily high temperature below 84 °F, lasts for 3.8 months.[34][36][30][29][31][33][32]

August is the coldest month of the year in Ifé, with an average low temperature of 71 °F and high temperature of 82 °F.[35][30][29][31][32][33][34]

Cloud cover edit

The average proportion of sky covered by clouds at Ife varies significantly seasonally throughout the year.[38][39][30][29][33][32][31]

Ile-Ife experiences 2.9 months of clearer weather, which starts about November 17 and ends around February 13.[40][37][31][30][29][33][32] December is the clearest month of the year, with a 50% average percentage of clear, mostly clear, or partly overcast skies.[41][40][38][30][29][31][32] Around February 13 of each year, the cloudier period starts, lasts for 9.1 months, and ends around November 17.[30][29][33][32][31][34][35] April is the month with the most cloud cover; on average, 86% of the town has overcast or mainly cloudy skies during this month.[42]

Precipitation edit

A day is considered to be wet if there has been at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. In Ifé, the likelihood of rainy days varies a great deal from season to season.[43][30][29][32][31][33][35][34]

The 6.6-month wetter season, which runs from April 7 to October 27, has a more than 45% chance of precipitation on any one day. In Ifé, September has an average of 25.4 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation, making it the month with the most rainy days.[29][33][31][35][37][39]

From late October to early April, a period of about 5.4 months, is the dry season. December has an average of 1.4 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation, making it the month with the fewest wet days in Ifé.[31][29][30][36][35][34][37] With an average of 25.4 days, September is the month in Ifé with the most rainy days. According to this classification, rain alone has the highest probability of all types of precipitation, peaking at 86% on September 22.[32][29][31][34][38][33]

Economy edit

Ife contains attractions like the Natural History Museum of Nigeria. Ife is home to a regional agricultural center with an area that produces vegetables, grain cocoa, tobacco, and cotton. Ife has a few open markets, such as Oja Titun or Odo-gbe market with about 1,500 shops.[44]

In terms of development, the Ife central area of Ilé Ifè is more developed. The areas include Parakin, Eleyele, Modomo, Damico, and Crown Estate Area. These areas are characterized by modern houses, good road network, constant electricity and security.

Education edit

Ife has several universities that are well-known both in Nigeria and internationally; such as the Obafemi Awolowo University (formerly University of Ife), and Oduduwa University.

It is also home to the Seventh Day Adventist Grammar School, Ile-Ife

Notable people edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ "FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA : 2006 Population Census" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  2. ^ "The Descendants of Ife". dakingsman.com. 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  3. ^ "World: Africa Arrests after Nigerian cult killings". BBC News. Monday July 12, 1999, Retrieved on October 31, 2011.
  4. ^ Nigeria, Guardian (2019-04-27). "Ile-Ife, the city of culture". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Retrieved 2023-06-28.
  5. ^ a b Bascom, Yoruba, p. 10; Stride, Ifeka: "Peoples and Empires", p. 290.
  6. ^ a b Akinjogbin, I. A. (Hg.): The Cradle of a Race: Ife from the Beginning to 1980, Lagos 1992 (The book also has chapters on the present religious situation in the town).
  7. ^ a b Olupona, 201 Gods, 94.
  8. ^ a b c Blier, Suzanne Preston (2012). "Art in Ancient Ife Birthplace of the Yoruba" (PDF). African Arts. 45 (4): 70–85. doi:10.1162/AFAR_a_00029. S2CID 18837520. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
  9. ^ Bazylinska, Karolina; University, Cleveland State. "Afewonro Park - The Heart of Creation". Bright Continent. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  10. ^ Olupona, 201 Gods, 144-173; Lange, Ancient Kingdoms, 347–366; idem., "Preservation", 130-1.
  11. ^ Schorkowitz, Dittmar; Chávez, John R.; Schröder, Ingo W. (28 September 2019). Shifting Forms of Continental Colonialism: Unfinished Struggles and Tensions. Springer Nature. p. 240. ISBN 978-981-13-9817-9. Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  12. ^ "Oyo empire | History, Definition, Map, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  13. ^ Lange, Dierk (2004). Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa: African-centred and Canaanite-Israelite Perspectives ; a Collection of Published and Unpublished Studies in English and French. J.H.Röll Verlag. p. 368. ISBN 978-3-89754-115-3. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  14. ^ Okelola, Olubayo (2001). Political History of Ile-Ife (cradle of Yoruba Race) 1900-1980. Lichfield. p. 4. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  15. ^ Probst, Peter; Spittler, Gerd (2004). Between Resistance and Expansion: Explorations of Local Vitality in Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 135. ISBN 978-3-8258-6980-9. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  16. ^ Cheikh Anta Diop's Precolonial Black Africa, pg. 203
  17. ^ Walsh, "Edi festival", 231-8; Bascom, "Olojo", 64-72; Lange, Ancient Kingdoms, 358-366; Olupona, 201 Gods.
  18. ^ a b Blier, Suzanne Preston (2015). Art and Risk in Ancient Yoruba: Ife History, Politics, and Identity c. 1300. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107021662.
  19. ^ Babalola, Abidemi Babatunde; McIntosh, Susan Keech; Dussubieux, Laure; Rehren, Thilo (2017). "Ile-Ife and Igbo Olokun in the history of glass in West Africa". Antiquity Cambridge Core. 91 (357): 732–750. doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.80.
  20. ^ "A brief walk into the life and final resting place of Oòdua". Pulse.
  21. ^ Utor, Florence (25 September 2016). "Olojo festival unveils logo". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  22. ^ a b c Ige, Akin; Rehren, Thilo (January 2003). "Black sand and iron stone:iron smelting in Modakeke, Ife, south western Nigeria". Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies.
  23. ^ a b c d e Babalola, Abidemi (2017). "Ancient History of Technology in West Africa: The Indigenous Glass/Glass Bead Industry and the Society in Early Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria". Journal of Black Studies. 48 (5): 501–527. doi:10.1177/0021934717701915. S2CID 151455909.
  24. ^ Babalola, Abidemi; McIntosh, Susan; Dussubieux, Laure; Rehren, Thilo (2017). "Ile-Ife and Igbo Olokun in the history of glass in West Africa". Antiquity. 91 (357): 732–750. doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.80.
  25. ^ a b c Babalola, Abidemi; Dussubieux, Laure; McIntosh, Susan; Rehren, Thilo (2018). "Chemical analysis of glass beads from Igbo Olokun, Ile-Ife (SW Nigeria): New light on raw materials, production, and interregional interactions" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 90: 92–105. Bibcode:2018JArSc..90...92B. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.005.
  26. ^ Babalola, Abidemi (2015-12-15). "Archaeological Investigations of Early Glass Production at Igbo-Olokun, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)". Afrique Archéologie Arts (11): 61–64. doi:10.4000/aaa.545.
  27. ^ Ogundiran, Akinwumi; Ige, O. (2015). "Our Ancestors Were Material Scientists". Journal of Black Studies. 46 (8): 751–772. doi:10.1177/0021934715600964. S2CID 142207743.
  28. ^ YOADE, Adewale Olufunlola. "PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CORE AREA OF ILE-IFE, NIGERIA." Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Geography Series / Analele Universitatii Din Oradea, Seria Geografie 25, no. 2 (December 2015): 137-147. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 32, 2016)
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Ile-Ife Climate, Weather By Month, Average Temperature (Nigeria) - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Ife climate: Temperature Ife & Weather By Month - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Climate Change and Increased Outbreak of Diseases - THISDAYLIVE". www.thisdaylive.com. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Ile-Ife weather and climate ☀️ Best time to visit 🌡️ Temperature". www.besttravelmonths.com. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Ile-Ife, Nigeria weather in August: average temperature & climate". Wanderlog. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g "Weather in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria | Tomorrow.io". Tomorrow.io Weather. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  35. ^ a b c d e f "Ife, Nigeria - Yearly & Monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  36. ^ a b c https://www.accuweather.com/en/ng/ife/255020/weather-forecast/255020
  37. ^ a b c d "Ife Central weather forecast for today". justweather.org. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  38. ^ a b c Matthew, Olaniran J. (March 2020). "Investigating climate suitability conditions for malaria transmission and impacts of climate variability on mosquito survival in the humid tropical region: a case study of Obafemi Awolowo University Campus, Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria". International Journal of Biometeorology. 64 (3): 355–365. Bibcode:2020IJBm...64..355M. doi:10.1007/s00484-019-01814-x. ISSN 1432-1254. PMID 31655868. S2CID 204907590.
  39. ^ a b Sanni, David Olabanjo (2020), Leal Filho, Walter (ed.), "Local Knowledge of Climate Change Among Arable Farmers in Selected Locations in Southwestern Nigeria", Handbook of Climate Change Resilience, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 2531–2548, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-93336-8_147, ISBN 978-3-319-93336-8, retrieved 2023-07-19
  40. ^ a b "Weather in Ife today". GISMETEO.COM. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  41. ^ BusinessDay (2023-02-12). "Why continuous deforestation, maiming of farmers, forest guards by illicit lumber/timber traders in ile-ife?". Businessday NG. Retrieved 2023-07-19. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  42. ^ www.premiumtimesng.com https://www.premiumtimesng.com/agriculture/agric-data-and-infographics/467703-infographics-how-women-farmers-are-responding-to-climate-change-in-a-nigerian-state.html?tztc=1. Retrieved 2023-07-19. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  43. ^ Babarinsa, Olusola (2023-06-27). "OAU Ife Ecology Institute@40: Solving Nigeria's environmental challenges". Punch Newspapers. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  44. ^ I.A. Akinjogbin, The Cradle of a Race: Ife from the Beginning to 1980 (Port Harcourt [Nigeria]:Sunray Publishers, 1992); William Bascom, The Yoruba of South-western Nigeria (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969); Frank Willett, Ife in the History of West African Sculpture (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967); http://www.oauife.edu.ng/; http://www.historywiz.org/ife.htm; BBC: Ife and Benin; http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter7.shtml.
  45. ^ "ODUNLADE, Tunde". Biographical Legacy and Research Foundation. 2017-04-06. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
  46. ^ Layonu, Taslim Abiola (2015). Born to be king : a book to commemorate the installation and inauguration of his imperial majesty Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogunwusi, Ojaja II, Ooni of Ile-Ife. Media Report Projects. ISBN 978-978-2170-46-0. OCLC 959259140.
  47. ^ Obey, Ebenezer (1983), Current affairs : the Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuade, Obey, OCLC 12987528, retrieved 2021-10-05

References edit

  • Akinjogbin, I. A. (Hg.): The Cradle of a Race: Ife from the Beginning to 1980, Lagos 1992. The book also has chapters on the present religious situation in the town.
  • Bascom, William: The Yoruba of south-western Nigeria, New York 1969. The book mainly deals with Ife.
  • Bascom, William "The Olojo festival at Ife, 1937", in: A. Falassi (ed.), Time out of Time: Essays on the Festival, Albuquerque, 1987, 62–73.
  • Blier, Suzanne Preston. Art and Risk in Ancient Yoruba: Ife History, Power, and Identity c.1300, Cambridge University Press 2015. ISBN 978-1107021662.
  • Blier, Suzanne Preston. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/blier/files/blier.pdf "Art in Ancient Ife Birthplace of the Yoruba"]. African Arts 2012
  • Frobenius, Leo, The Voice of Africa, London 1913 (Frobenius stayed for nearly two months in Ife, in 1910–11).
  • Johnson, Samuel: History of the Yorubas, London 1921.
  • Lange, Dierk: "The dying and the rising God in the New Year Festival of Ife", in: Lange, Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa, Dettelbach 2004, pp. 343–376.
  • Lange, Dierk: "Preservation of Canaanite creation culture in Ife", in: H.-P. Hahn and G. Spittler (eds.), Between Resistance and Expansion, Münster 2004, 125–158.
  • Lange, Dierk: "Origin of the Yoruba and 'Lost Tribes of Israel'", Anthropos, 106, 2011, 579–595.
  • Olubunmi, A. O. The Rise and Fall of the Yoruba Race 10,000 BC–1960 AD, The 199 Publishing Palace ISBN 978-2457-38-8
  • Olubunmi, A. O. On Ijesa Racial Purity, The 199 Publishing Palace ISBN 978-2458-17-1
  • Ogunyemi, Yemi D. (Yemi D. Prince), The Oral Traditions in Ile-Ife, ISBN 978-1-933146-65-2, Academica Press, 2009, Palo Alto, USA.
  • Ogunyemi, Yemi D. (Yemi D. Prince): The Aura of Yoruba Philosophy, Religion and Literature, ISBN 0-9652860-4-5, Diaspora Press of America, 2003, Boston, USA.
  • Ogunyemi, Yemi D. (Yemi D. Prince): Introduction to Yoruba Philosophy, Religion and Literature, ISBN 1-890157-14-7, Athelia Henrietta Press, 1998, New York, USA.
  • Ogunyemi, Yemi D. (Yemi D. Prince): The Covenant of the Earth--Yoruba Religious & Philosophical Narratives, ISBN 1-890157-15-5, Athelia Henrietta Press, 1998, New York, USA.
  • Olupona, Jacob K.: City of 201 Gods: Ile-Ife in Time, Space and Imagination, Berkeley 2011.
  • Stride, G. T. and C. Ifeka: "Peoples and Empires of West Africa: West Africa in History 1000–1800", New York 1971.
  • Walsh, M. J., "The Edi festival at Ile Ife", African Affairs, 47 (1948), 231–8.
  • Willett, Frank: Ife in the History of West African Sculpture, London, 1967. The book also deals with some oral traditions of Ile-Ife.
  • Wyndham, John: "The creation", Man, 19 (1919), 107–8.

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