This article concerns the period 139 BC – 130 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- Emperor Wu of Han sends the diplomat Zhang Qian west to form an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu. Wu does this after learning from Xiongnu defectors that the Xiongnu had defeated and killed the king of the Yuezhi, had expelled the Yuezhi from their lands and were using their king's skull as a wine goblet. The Yuezhi had subsequently migrated further west.
- Soon after his departure for the west, Zhang Qian is detained by Junchen Chanyu of the Xiongnu. He would remain in Xiongnu custody for more than ten years and would be given a Xiongnu wife.
- Wei Zifu enters Emperor Wu's palace as a concubine and becomes pregnant. Enraged, Liu Piao, the mother of the childless Empress Chen Jiao (wife of Emperor Wu), kidnaps Zifu's brother Wei Qing, who is rescued by Gongsun Ao. Wu responds by advancing the careers of members of the Wei family.
- The Lusitanian War ends when the rebellion collapses after the assassination of Viriathus by a Roman agent.
- The Achaean League is reestablished.
- Galaestes revolts.
- Grand Empress Dowager Dou, the grandmother of Emperor Wu of Han, purges the high administration of officials to consolidate her power. Among those dismissed are Prime Minister Dou Yong and her own half-brother, the General-in-Chief Tian Fen. Two of the young emperor's closest advisors, Zhao Wan and Wang Zang, are arrested and commit suicide.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Hymn to Apollo is written and inscribed on stone in Delphi; it is the earliest surviving notated music, in a substantial and legible fragment, in the western world.
- Tiberius Gracchus, quaestor in Spain, observes that slave labor has displaced small freeheld farms.
- Numantine War begins, Quintus Pompeius and M. Papilius Laenas are defeated and disgraced by the Numantians in subsequent years.
- Q. Pompeius is brought to trial by Q.Metellus and others, but acquitted.
- The Romans hand Gaius Hostilius Mancinus over to the Numantians in order to repudiate his peace treaty with them.
- The First Servile War starts in Sicily.
- Servius Fulvius Flaccus defeats an uprising of the Ardiaei in Illyria.
- Marcus Cosconius defeats the Scordisci in Thrace.
- Grand Empress Dowager Dou dies, which allows her grandson Emperor Wu to exert greater control over the empire.
- Minyue attacks Nanyue, which are both vassal states of the Han Dynasty. The Han send two armies against Minyue under Wang Hui and Han Anguo, and Minyue's king Zou Ying is killed by his brother Zou Yushan, who then surrenders to the Han.
- Emperor Wu makes Zou Chou the king of Minyue, but Zou Yushan carves out two thirds of Minyue as the state of Dongyue, which Wu then recognizes.
- A Han military campaign against the Dian Kingdom establishes a military commandery in the Yunnan region.
- Scipio Aemilianus, victor of Carthage, takes command in Spain against the Numantians. He recruits 20,000 men and 40,000 allies, including Numidian cavalry under Jugurtha. Scipio, an expert in sieges, builds a ring of seven forts and a ditch palisade before beginning the Siege of Numantia. The perimeter of the circumvallations is twice as long as that of the city. The river Durius (Douro), enables the defenders to be supplied by small boats.
- Caius Fulvius Flaccus, as consul, is sent against the slaves. Uprising of 4,000 slaves crushed at Sinuessa, in Campania. Slave uprisings repressed in Attic silver mines and on the island of Delos.
- John Hyrcanus becomes high priest and prince (ruler) of Judea, until 104 BC, following the murder of his father Simon Maccabaeus by Ptolemy the son of Abubus in 135 BC.
- On the advice of philosopher Dong Zhongshu, Emperor Wu of Han promotes Confucianism as the official doctrine of the Han Dynasty and assigns special merit to the Book of Rites, the Classic of Music, the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Documents, I Ching (the Book of Changes) and the Spring and Autumn Annals.
- Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, as consul, is sent against the slaves in Italy. Gaius Marius serves under Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia.
- Scipio Aemilianus captures Numantia, after a siege of eight months, suffering famine and pestilence. The remnant population of 4,000 citizens, surrender and set their city on fire. Thus ends the Numantine War.
- Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, is elected tribune of the people. He attempts to pass a law to redistribute the public land to benefit small landowners. Opposed by wealthier factions in the Roman Senate, he is killed by a group of Senators and their followers that same year.
- The Kingdom of Pergamum is deeded to Rome, Aristonicus starts a rebellion against this.
- June – A large army of the Han Dynasty, under the overall command of Han Anguo, attempts to ambush the Xiongnu leader Junchen Chanyu in the Battle of Mayi. By pretending to betray the city of Mayi, a Han official had lured Junchen onto Han soil. However, a captured Chinese officer tips off Junchen, and so he avoids the ambush. The episode abrogates the Xiongnu-Han treaty (called heqin 和親 or "harmonious kinship") and marks the beginning of Emperor Wu's Han-Xiongnu War.
- Foreign Minister Wang Hui, who, against the opposition of Han Anguo, had advocated for war, fails to attack the retreating supply column of the Xiongnu and is sentenced to death. He commits suicide.
- The First Servile War ends when Publius Rupilius quelled the rebellion.
- The assassination of Tiberius Gracchus, which many historians mark as the beginning of the end of the Roman Republic.
- Aristonicus of Pergamon leads an uprising against Rome, and consul Publius Licinius Crassus Mucianius is killed in the fighting.
- The Roman censor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus attempts to remove the tribune Gaius Atinius Labeo Macerio from the Senate, the angry Atinius drags him to be thrown off the Tarpeian Rock, and Metellus is only saved by the intervention of other senators.
- The tribune Gaius Papirius Carbo passes a measure allowing the use of secret ballots in legislative assemblies.
- For the first time in Roman history, both censors are plebeians (Metellus and Quintus Pompeius).
- First Acta Diurna appears in Rome around this time.
- Consul Marcus Perperna defeats Aristonicus in battle, besieges him at Stratonicea, dies at Pergamon.
- Roman census carried out by Quintus Pompeius and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus.
- Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Roman general and statesman (d. 78 BC)
- Phaedrus the Epicurean, Greek scholar and philosopher
- Mithridates VI, king of Pontus (d. 63 BC)
- Pompeius Strabo, Roman consul and father of Pompeius Magnus (d. 87 BC)
- Posidonius of Apamea, Greek Stoic philosopher and scientist (d. 51 BC)
- Sima Qian, Chinese historian of the Han Dynasty (approximate date)
- Jin Midi, Chinese politician and co-regent (d. 86 BC)
- Posidonius of Apamea, Stoic philosopher and polymath (d. 51 BC)
- Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, Roman statesman (d. 44 BC)
- Viriathus, Lusitanian leader (assassinated)
- Attalus II Philadelphus, king of Pergamon (b. 220 BC)
- Diodotus Tryphon, king of the Seleucid Empire
- Mithridates I, king of Parthia (b. c. 195 BC)
- Menander I, king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom
- Simon Maccabaeus, prince of Judea and High Priest of Judea
- Simon Thassi, High Priest of Judaea (r. 142-134 BC)
- Attalus III, king of Pergamon. In his will, he makes the people of Rome his heirs (b. 170 BC)
- Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus the Roman tribune (assassination) (b. 168 BC)
- Eunus, leader of the Slave Revolt (136–132 BC) in Sicily
- Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio, Roman consul
- Tiberius Gracchus, Roman tribune (assassinated by senators) (b. 168 BC)
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 132. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- "World History 200- 100 BC". Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology. Vol. 2. Boston, Little. p. 155.
- T. Corey Brennan, The praetorship in the Roman Republic (2000) p. 229
- Papazoglu 1978, p. 286
- Livy (2007). Rome's Mediterranean Empire: Books 41-45 and the Periochae. Oxford University Press. pp. 268. ISBN 978-0-19-160539-0.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 124. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 183–185. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Davis, Paul (2001). Besieged: An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 29.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 127–131. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- "132 BC". Farlex. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012.
- Cambridge Ancient History VII p. 380.
- Cambridge Ancient History IX p. 780.
- Cambridge Ancient History IX p. 313.
- Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 135. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- Marvin Perry et al., eds. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society (Cengage Learning, 2008) p135
- Mayor, Adrienne: "The Poison King: The Life and Legend of Mithradates, Rome's Deadliest Enemy" Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-691-12683-8
- Duggan, Alfred: He Died Old: Mithradates Eupator, King of Pontus, 1958
- Ford, Michael Curtis: The Last King: Rome's Greatest Enemy, New York, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004, ISBN 0-312-27539-0
- McGing, B.C.: The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus (Mnemosyne, Supplements: 89), Leiden, Brill Academic Publishers, 1986, ISBN 90-04-07591-7 [paperback]
- Paranavitana, Senarat; Nicholas, Cyril Wace (1961). A Concise History of Ceylon. Colombo: Ceylon University Press. p. 59. OCLC 465385.
- de Silva, C.R.: Sri Lanka - A History. 2nd edition, New Delhi 1997. ISBN 81-259-0461-1. p.29f.
- Catholic Bible resources
- Hansen, Esther V. (1971). The Attalids of Pergamon. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press; London: Cornell University Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8014-0615-3.
- Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed., A Companion to the Hellenistic World. Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 159–174. ISBN 1-4051-3278-7. text
- Simon Hornblower and Tony Spawforth, Who's Who (Classical World), pg. 61.
- Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribes in pre-Roman Times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Amsterdam: Hakkert.