This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (January 2021)
This article concerns the period 119 BC – 110 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- The second Dalmatian war begins.
- January–June – the Han Chinese army under the commanders Wei Qing (d. 106 BC) and Huo Qubing (140 BC–117 BC) is victorious over the Xiongnu in the Battle of Mobei. The battle takes place in the Orkhon Valley of the Gobi Desert, modern Mongolia.
- Government monopolies are established in iron, salt and liquor in Ancient China.
- The Roman colony of Narbo Martius is founded in Gallia Transalpina.
- The Second Dalmatian War ends with victory for Rome. Lucius Caecilius Metellus assumes the surname Delmaticus.
- Micipsa dies and Numidia, following the king's wish, is divided into three parts, a third each ruled by Micipsa's own sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal I, and the king's adopted son, Jugurtha.
- June 26 – At the death of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, Cleopatra III has chosen her younger son Ptolemy X Alexander as co-regent, but the Alexandrians forced her to bring Ptolemy IX from Cyprus, of which he is governor.
- Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II Lathyros becomes king of Egypt and claims the throne.
- Gaius Marius is praetor in Rome: he defeats Celtic tribes in modern-day Spain.
- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus defeats the Carni Celtic tribes of Northern Italy, leading to their submission to Roman rule.
- The Cimbri and Teutones cross the Danube and enter the lands of the Celtic tribe, the Taurisci. The latter appeal to Rome for assistance and the Senate sends an army under Gnaeus Papirius Carbo to drive the Germans back. The Romans attack the retreating columns as they pass the town of Noreia, but the Roman army is ultimately defeated.
- Germanic tribes attack Gaul and northern Iberia.
- Celtiberians lead a war against the Romans.
- An incense burner, later found in the tomb of Liu Sheng, Prince of Zhongshan in Mancheng, Hebei, is made during the Han Dynasty. It is now kept at Hebei Provincial Museum, Shijiazhuang.
- Asian Silk Road opens.
- Soldiers are dispatched from Han Dynasty China to Nanyue for the Han–Nanyue War during the dynasty's southward expansion.
- The city of Rome is devastated by fire.
- Jugurtha, king of Numidia, bribes the commander Lucius Calpurnius Bestia and Roman friends to secure easy terms. He is given a safe conduct to Rome in order to account for his actions in the Roman Senate. Jugurtha contemptuously bribes his way through all difficulties.
- The Han Empire annexes the Kingdom of Nanyue, and thereby extends its territory to modern-day North Vietnam.
- The remaining territory of Minyue, known as Dongyue, is annexed by the Han Dynasty during its expansion southward.
- During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, Guilin is named Shi An Prefecture.
- Jiuquan in China is founded as a military outpost on the Silk Road to Central Asia.
- Lucius Orbilius Pupillus, Roman grammarian and writer
- Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, Roman consul (d. 63 BC)
- Quintus Hortensius, Roman consul and orator (d. 50 BC)
- Huo Qubing, Chinese general of the Han Dynasty (b. 140 BC)
- Sima Xiangru, Chinese statesman, poet, and musician (b. 179 BC)
- June 26 – Ptolemy VIII Physcon, king (pharaoh) of Egypt (b. c. 182 BC)
- Cleopatra II, queen of Egypt (b. c. 185 BC)
- Zhang Tang, Chinese official and politician
- Publius Mucius Scaevola, Roman consul and jurist
- Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, Roman consul (b. c. 210 BC)
- Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus, Roman consul and general (b. 180 BC)
- Liu Sheng, Chinese prince of the Han Dynasty
- Zhang Qian, Chinese explorer, official and diplomat (b. 164 BC)
- Sima Tan, Chinese astrologist and historian
- Wolf, Thomas (2019). The Nightingale's Sonata: The Musical Odyssey of Lea Luboshutz. Pegasus Books. p. 440. ISBN 978-1-64313-162-7.