This article concerns the period 19 BC – 10 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- The Aeneid by the Roman poet Virgil is published. The Aeneid is an epic poem in 12 books that tells the story of the foundation of Rome from the ashes of Troy.
- In Rome, Lucius Cornelius Balbus receives the honor of a triumph on the Forum Romanum, for his victories over the Garamantes in Africa.
- Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa completes the Aqua Virgo; the aqueduct is 21 km (13 mi) in length and supplies the city of Rome with about 100,000,000 liters of water every day.
- The Cantabrians, living on the northernmost coast of Spain, are brought under Roman control. The region is completely subdued until 16 BC.
- Caesar Augustus introduces the Lex Julia (Julian Laws):
- Emperor Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius Caesar.
- Emperor Augustus celebrates the secular games in Rome, for which Horace's hymn the "Carmen Saeculare" is commissioned.
- The Noricans having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, are defeated by Publius Silius Nerva, proconsul of Illyricum.
- Braga, Portugal is founded.
- Noricum is incorporated into the Roman Empire.
- Caesar Augustus reorganizes the German provinces, making Trier their capital.
- Clades Lolliana: Roman consul Marcus Lollius is defeated by a Germanic horde.
- Construction of the Roman temple of Maison Carrée at Nîmes in Gallia Narbonensis (approximate date).
- The Raeti tribes of the Alps are subjugated by Tiberius and Nero Claudius Drusus and the new Roman province of Raetia is established with Chur (in modern-day Switzerland) as its capital. During the campaign, Roman triremes destroy the fleet of the Vindelici in the Battle of Lake Constance. Augsburg is founded as Augusta Vindelicorum; and Legio XXI Rapax is stationed at Regensburg in the new province.
- Drusus decides to improve the passage through the Alps for military control of Noricum and Raetia and builds the Via Claudia Augusta through Italy.
- Marcus Livius Drusus Libo and Lucius Calpurnius Piso are Roman Consuls.
- The Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus fortifies Augusta Vangionum, the modern city of Worms, Germany.
- Caesar Augustus makes Beeroth (modern Beirut) a colonia, named Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.
- Winter – The Roman Legio X Fretensis is stationed in Syria, and the legionaries are settled at the ancient city of Beirut.
- Tiberius Claudius Nero and Publius Quinctilius Varus are Roman Consuls.
- The Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus builds the stronghold of castrum Moguntiacum in the location of the modern-day city of Mainz, Germany.
- Drusus is granted governor of Gaul and mobilises a Roman army to beat the Germans back across the Rhine. He travels to the North Sea and pays tribute to the Frisii.
- The Ara Pacis Augustae ("Altar of Augustan Peace") is commissioned by the Roman Senate to honor the triumphal return of Emperor Augustus from Hispania and Gaul.
- Revolt in Thrace against Roman rule led by Vologases.
- Marcus Valerius Messalla Appianus and Publius Sulpicius Quirinius are Roman consuls.
- Tiberius Claudius Nero summoned to Pannonia due to severe revolt by the Delmataeians.
- Roman armies based at Xanten, Cologne and Mainz campaign beyond the Rhine.
- First official mention of Argentoratum, the city known in modern times as Strasbourg.
- Emperor Augustus is given the title Pontifex Maximus.
- Approximate date – Pyramid of Cestius erected in Rome.
- King Azes II dies. The rule of the Indo-Scythians crumbles as the Kushans, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who live in Bactria expand into India to create a Kushan Empire.
- Comet Halley makes an appearance.
- Quintus Aelius Tubero and Paullus Fabius Maximus are Roman Consuls.
- Battle of the Lupia River: Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Nero Claudius Drusus win a victory in Germania.
- Battle of Arbalo: Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Nero Claudius Drusus beat off a Germanian ambush.
- May – Drusus secures the Rhine frontier and builds Roman fortresses near Bonn, Dorsten, Haltern, and Oberaden.
- The Obelisk of Montecitorio is brought from Egypt to Rome by Emperor Augustus to be erected as a sundial gnomon of the Solarium Augusti. It is now in the Piazza Montecitorio.
- The Romans build a bridge across the Rhine near Bonn (approximate date).
- A Roman military camp is established at Speyer (Germany).
- December 11 – Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and Antonia Major (d. AD 40)
- Arminius, German chieftain who defeated the Romans at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (d. AD 21)
- Lucius Caesar, son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder (d. AD 2)
- May 24 – Germanicus, Roman general (d. AD 19)
- Alexander, Herodian prince of Judea
- Phaedrus, Roman fabulist and writer
- Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder (d. AD 33)
- Claudia Pulchra, daughter of Paullus Aemilius Lepidus and Claudia Marcella Minor (d. AD 26)
- Drusus Julius Caesar, son of the Emperor Tiberius and step-grandson of the Emperor Augustus (d. AD 23)
- Ma Yuan, Chinese general of the Han dynasty (d. AD 49)
- Artaxias III, Roman client king of Armenia (d. AD 34)
- Livilla, daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor (d. AD 31)
- September 21 – Virgil, Roman poet (b. 70 BC)
- Albius Tibullus, Roman poet (b. 54 BC)
- Dongmyeong, Korean king of Goguryeo
- Aemilius Macer, Roman didactic poet and writer
- Scribonius, Roman client king of the Bosporan Kingdom
- Wang, Chinese empress of the Western Han Dynasty
- Lucius Munatius Plancus, Roman consul (b. c. 87 BC)
- Vedius Pollio, Roman equestrian (friend of Augustus)
- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Roman consul (b. c. 90 BC)
- Paullus Aemilius Lepidus, Roman consul (b. c. 77 BC)
- Rhescuporis II, king of the Odrysian Kingdom
- Gaius Caninius Rebilus, Roman senator and suffect consul
- Marcus Valerius Messalla Appianus, Roman consul (b. c. 45 BC)
- Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Roman statesman (b. c. 63 BC)
- Mithridates III, king of Commagene (Armenia)
- Sextius Propertius, Roman Latin poet and writer (b. c. 50–45 BC)
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- Hurley, Donna (28 November 2004). "Roman Emperors - DIR Germanicus". Archived from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Burns, Jasper (2007). Great women of Imperial Rome: mothers and wives of the Caesars. Taylor & Francis. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-415-40897-4.
- Wadley, Stephen (2006). Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Manchu Studies. Portland, Oregon: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 133. ISBN 978-3-447-05226-9.
- Vagi, David (2016). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-135-97125-0.
- "BBC - History - Claudius". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- John Scheid, "Scribonia Caesaris et les Cornelii Lentuli", Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, 100 (1976), pp. 485-491