Alexander (grandson of Herod the Great)

Alexander, also known by his Roman name Gaius Julius Alexander (Greek: Γαίος Ιούλιος Αλέξανδρος, 15 BC-probably between 26-28 AD) was a Herodian Prince.

Alexander
prince of Judea
Born15 BC
Died26-28 AD
IssueTigranes VI of Armenia
Full name
Gaius Julius Alexander
DynastyHerodian dynasty
FatherAlexander, son of Herod
MotherGlaphyra

FamilyEdit

Alexander was the second born son of Alexander and Glaphyra.[1] His oldest brother was called Tigranes [2] and had a younger unnamed sister.[3] His father Alexander was a Judean Prince, of Jewish, Nabataean and Edomite descent and was a son of the King of Judea, Herod the Great and his wife Mariamne. His mother Glaphyra was a Cappadocian Princess, who was of Greek, Armenian and Persian descent. She was the daughter of the King Archelaus of Cappadocia [4] and her mother was an unnamed Princess from Armenia,[5] possibly a relation of the Artaxiad Dynasty. Alexander's name reflected his Hasmonean and Hellenic lineage.

LifeEdit

Alexander was born and raised in Herod's court in Jerusalem. After the death and burial of Alexander's father in 7 BC, Herod forced Alexander's mother to return to Cappadocia, forcing her to leave her children under the sole custody of Herod in Jerusalem. Alexander and his brother remained under Herod's guardianship so he could control their fates.[6] Another son of Herod's Antipater, was concerned for Alexander and his brother as he expected them to attain higher station than their own late fathers, because of the assistance Antipater considered likely from their maternal grandfather Archelaus.[7] In the time Alexander lived in Herod's court, he was betrothed to the daughter of Pheroras.[8] Pheroras was Alexander's paternal great-uncle and was Herod's brother.[9] Antipater persuaded Herod to call off Alexander's betrothal to Pheroras’ daughter because Antipater convinced his father that closer ties between Pheroras and Archelaus of Cappadocia were liable to develop into a plot against Herod.[10]

After the death of Herod in 4 BC[11] in Jericho, Alexander and his brother decided to leave Jerusalem and to live with their mother and her family in Cappadocia. After Alexander and his brother arrived in Cappadocia, they disavowed their Jewish descent, deserted their Jewish religion and embraced their Greek descent, including the religion.[12] However the family connections to the Herodian Dynasty weren't wholly broken. After Alexander and his brother disavowed their Jewish descent, they were considered among fellow Jews as gentiles.[13] There is a possibility that his maternal grandfather sent Alexander to be educated in Rome.

Little is known of the adult life of Alexander. He appeared to be an administrator for the extensive land estates in Egypt that were owned by the Imperial family of Rome. He was a wealthy landowner in his own right, owing two estates in the Egyptian town of Euhemeria.[14] Alexander married an unnamed noblewoman who bore him a son called Tigranes.[15] Alexander named his son in honour of his brother. Tigranes later served as a Roman Client King of Armenia under the reign of Roman Emperor Nero (reigned 54-68).[16] Roman Empress Livia Drusilla and her daughter-in-law Antonia Minor were mentioned in Alexander's will.

Family tree of the Herodian dynastyEdit

Antipater the Idumaean
procurator of Judea
1.Doris
2.Mariamne I
3.Mariamne II
4.Malthace
Herod I the Great
king of Judea
5.Cleopatra of Jerusalem
6.Pallas
7.Phaidra
8.Elpis
Phasael
governor of Jerusalem
(1) Antipater
heir of Judaea
(2) Alexander I
prince of Judea
(2) Aristobulus IV
prince of Judea
(3) Herod II Philip
prince of Judea
(4) Herod Archelaus
ethnarch of Judea, Idumea
(4) Herod Antipas
tetrarch of Galilea & Perea
(5) Philip the Tetrarch
of Iturea & Trachonitis
Tigranes V of ArmeniaAlexander II
prince of Judea
Herod Agrippa I
king of Judea
Herod V
ruler of Chalcis
Aristobulus Minor
prince of Judea
Tigranes VI of ArmeniaHerod Agrippa II
king of Judea
Aristobulus
ruler of Chalcis
Gaius Julius Alexander
ruler of Cilicia
Gaius Julius Agrippa
quaestor of Asia
Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus
proconsul of Asia
Lucius Julius Gainius Fabius Agrippa
gymnasiarch

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.p.353-4
  2. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.p.353-4
  3. ^ Charles Pope, "Eisenman's 'New Testament Code', Chapter 4'
  4. ^ Dueck, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, p.208
  5. ^ Syme, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, p.150
  6. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.349
  7. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.315
  8. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.355
  9. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.315
  10. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.355
  11. ^ Millar, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), p.327
  12. ^ Kasher, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, p.298
  13. ^ Moen, Marriage and Divorce in the Herodian Family: A Case Study of Diversity in Late Second Temple Judaism, p.233
  14. ^ Jerzy, Polityczne dziedzictwo Heroda Wielkiego. Palestyna w epoce rzymsko-herodiańskiej, p.p.116-118
  15. ^ Temporini, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, p.794
  16. ^ Redgate, The Armenians, p.79

SourcesEdit

  • Millar, Fergus, Schürer, Emil, Vermes & Geza, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), Continuum International Publishing Group, 1973
  • H. Temporini & W. Haase, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, Walter de Gruyter, 1977
  • H. Temporini & W. Haase, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Walter de Gruyter, 1980
  • R. Syme & A.R. Birley, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, Oxford University Press, 1995
  • A.E. Redgate, The Armenians, Wiley-Blackwell, 2000
  • Ciecieląg Jerzy, Polityczne dziedzictwo Heroda Wielkiego. Palestyna w epoce rzymsko-herodiańskiej, Kraków 2002, s. 116-118.
  • D. Dueck, H. Lindsay & S. Pothecary, Strabo's cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  • A. Kasher & E. Witztum, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, Walter de Gruyter, 2007
  • Eisenman's "New Testament Code", Chapter 4
  • Marriage and Divorce in the Herodian Family: A Case Study of Diversity in Late Second Temple Judaism by Ingrid Johanne Moen Department of Religion in the Graduate School of Duke University