This article concerns the period 149 BC – 140 BC.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- The Third Punic War begins. The Romans land an army in Africa to begin the Battle of Carthage.
- Servius Sulpicius Galba is prosecuted for corruption while serving in Spain, but is acquitted after he parades his weeping family members before the tribunal.
- Lucius Calpurnius Piso passes the lex Calpurnia de repetundis which establishes the first permanent criminal court in Rome.
- The turmoil in Spain escalates again with the renewal of the Lusitanian War, under the leadership of Viriathus, and the Celtiberian War.
- With the defeat of Andriscus in the Battle of Pydna by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, Macedon is reorganized as a Roman province by 146 BC.
- Construction of the Via Postumia, linking Aquileia and Genua.
- Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus divides Numidia among the three sons of the recently deceased Masinissa.
- Corlea Trackway completed.
- Scipio Aemilianus takes command in the Battle of Carthage. He builds a mole across the gulf into the harbour. The Carthaginians dig a canal from their inner harbour basin to the coast and put to sea with a full fleet, but they are defeated in a naval engagement.
- Carthage recalls from exile an able general, named Hasdrubal, who organizes their solid defences. Against the 45-foot (13.7 m) city walls, the Romans make slow progress.
- In Lusitania, Hispania, the Celtic king Viriathus, rallies Lusitanian resistance to Rome.
- With Carthage and Greece conquered, Rome becomes the sole superpower in the Mediterranean world, a distinction it will continue to hold for approximately the next 600 years.
- Spring – Carthage falls to Roman forces under Scipio Aemilianus. The walls are finally breached and the city is completely destroyed by order of the Roman Senate, despite Scipio's protests. End of the Third Punic War.
- Battle of Scarpheia: The Romans led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus defeat an Achaean League force under Critolaus (who is killed in battle). The League is reduced to freeing and arming 12,000 slaves.
- Battle of Corinth: The Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League near Corinth. Corinth is destroyed, and the Achaean League dissolved. Southern Greece becomes a Roman province and after last year's occupation of Macedonia the whole of Greece is now under Roman power. The Romans strip Corinth of its art treasures and ship them back to Rome.
- In the Battle of Antioch, Ptolemy VI Philometor defeats the Seleucid usurper Alexander Balas, but dies in the battle.
- Ptolemy VII becomes king of Egypt briefly, then is assassinated by Ptolemy VIII the following year.
- The first stone bridge over the Tiber river is completed.
Syria and JudeaEdit
- The Seleucid garrison negotiates the surrender of Jerusalem. Simon Maccabaeus assumes control of the city. He becomes prince (ruler) of Judea until 135 BC.
- Demetrius II of Syria made prisoner of Mithridates, king of the Parthians. Antiochus VII Sidetes becomes king of the Seleucid Empire in his absence.
- Scipio Aemilianus leads a group of Roman ambassadors to Alexandria, where they meet with King Ptolemy VIII.
- Liu Rong, Chinese crown prince of the Han Dynasty
- Masinissa, king of Numidia (b. c. 238 BC)
- Yuan Ang, Chinese statesman of the Han Dynasty
- Jing of Han, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. 188 BC)
- Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum, Roman statesman
- Hooker, Richard (6 June 1999). "Rome: The Punic Wars". Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Fourth Macedonian War". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator | king of Egypt". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Sima Qian - China culture". Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Cranston, Edwin (1998). A Waka Anthology: The Gem-Glistening Cup. Stanford University Press. p. 243.
- "Cato the Elder". Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2010.