The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California), is a public land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. It was established in 1868 as the University of California and is the state's first land-grant university and the founding campus of the University of California system. Berkeley has been regarded to be among the top universities in the world and Berkeley alumni have also founded more companies than any other university worldwide.
|University of California (1868–1958)|
|Motto||Fiat lux (Latin)|
Motto in English
|"Let there be light"|
|Type||Public land-grant research university|
|Established||March 23, 1868|
|University of California|
|Endowment||US$6.9 billion (2022)|
|Chancellor||Carol T. Christ|
|Provost||Benjamin E. Hermalin|
|Students||45,307 (Fall 2022)|
|Undergraduates||32,479 (Fall 2022)|
|Postgraduates||12,828 (Fall 2022)|
Core Campus: 178 acres (72 ha)
Total: 8,164 acres (3,304 ha), 1,232 acres (499 ha)
|Newspaper||The Daily Californian|
|Colors|| Berkeley Blue |
|Mascot||Oski the Bear|
A founding member of the Association of American Universities, Berkeley hosts research institutes dedicated to science, engineering, and mathematics. The university founded and maintains relationships with three national laboratories at Berkeley, Livermore and Los Alamos, and played a role in the Manhattan Project and the discovery of 16 chemical elements. Berkeley's athletic teams, which compete as the California Golden Bears primarily in the Pac-12 Conference, have won 107 national championships, and its alumni have won 223 Olympic medals (including 121 gold medals).
Among Berkeley's alumni, faculty, and researchers are 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists, 30 Wolf Prize winners, 34 Pulitzer Prize winners, 190 recipients of the MacArthur "Genius Grant", and 68 recipients of the National Medal of Science. The university has produced seven heads of state or government, six chief justices, and 25 living billionaires. It is also a leading producer of Fulbright Scholars, MacArthur Fellows, and Marshall Scholars.
Made possible by President Lincoln's signing of the Morrill Act in 1862, the University of California was founded in 1868 as the state's first land-grant university, inheriting the land and facilities of the private College of California and the federal-funding eligibility of a public agricultural, mining, and mechanical arts college. The Organic Act states that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions".
Ten faculty members and 40 male students made up the fledgling university when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings, a trustee of the College of California, suggested that a new campus site north of Oakland be named in honor of Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. The university began admitting women the following year. In 1870, Henry Durant, founder of the College of California, became its first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students. The first female student to graduate was Rosa L. Scrivner in 1874, admitted in the first class to include women in 1870.
Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst funded several programs and new buildings and, in 1898, sponsored an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan.
20th century edit
In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the university, which ultimately became the University of California, Los Angeles. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings in Berkeley had grown substantially and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
In 1917, one of the nation's first ROTC programs was established at Berkeley and its School of Military Aeronautics began training pilots, including Gen. Jimmy Doolittle. In 1926, future Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval ROTC unit at Berkeley. Berkeley ROTC alumni include former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Army Chief of Staff Frederick C. Weyand, sixteen other general officers, ten Navy flag officers, and AFROTC alumna Captain Theresa Claiborne.
In the 1930s, Ernest Orlando Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Using the cyclotron, Berkeley professors and Berkeley Lab researchers went on to discover 16 chemical elements—more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. Physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley founded and was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).
In 1952, the University of California reorganized itself into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with each campus given a chancellor, and Clark Kerr became Berkeley's first Chancellor, while Robert Sproul remained in place as the President of the University of California.
Berkeley gained a worldwide reputation for political activism in the 1960s. In 1964, the Free Speech Movement organized student resistance to the university's restrictions on political activities on campus—most conspicuously, student activities related to the Civil Rights Movement. The arrest in Sproul Plaza of Jack Weinberg, a recent Berkeley alumnus and chair of Campus CORE, in 1964, prompted a series of student-led acts of formal remonstrance and civil disobedience that ultimately gave rise to the Free Speech Movement, which movement would prevail and serve as a precedent for student opposition to America's involvement in the Vietnam War.
In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was established on campus with support from the National Science Foundation and at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians — Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore, and Isadore M. Singer. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.
21st century edit
In the current century, compared to the 1960s and 70s, Berkeley has become less politically active, although more liberal. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of nine to one, which is a ratio similar to that of American academia generally. The school has become more focused on STEM disciplines and fundraising. In 2007, the Energy Biosciences Institute was established with funding from BP and Stanley Hall, a research facility and headquarters for the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, opened.
The next few years saw the dedication of the Center for Biomedical and Health Sciences, funded by a lead gift from billionaire Li Ka-shing; the opening of Sutardja Dai Hall, home of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society; and the unveiling of Blum Hall, housing the Blum Center for Developing Economies. Supported by a grant from alumnus James Simons, the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing was established in 2012. In 2014, Berkeley and its sister campus, UCSF, established the Innovative Genomics Institute, and, in 2020, an anonymous donor pledged $252 million to help fund a new center for computing and data science. For the 2020 fiscal year, Berkeley set a fundraising record, receiving over $1 billion in gifts and pledges, and two years later, it broke that record, raising over $1.2 billion.
- Various research ethics, human rights, and animal rights advocates have been in conflict with Berkeley. Native Americans contended with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.[who else?] Student activists have urged the university to cut financial ties with Tyson Foods and PepsiCo. Faculty member Ignacio Chapela prominently criticized the university's financial ties to Novartis. PETA has challenged the university's use of animals for research and argued that it may violate the Animal Welfare Act.
- Cal's Memorial Stadium reopened in September 2012 after renovations. The university incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it financed with the sale of special stadium endowment seats. The roughly $18 million interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal's athletics' budget; principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.
- On May 1, 2014, Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. Investigations continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff.
- On July 25, 2019, Berkeley was removed from the U.S. News Best Colleges Ranking for misreporting statistics. Berkeley had originally reported that its two-year average alumni giving rate for fiscal years 2017 and 2016 was 11.6 percent, U.S. News said. The school later told U.S. News the correct average alumni giving rate for the 2016 fiscal year was just 7.9 percent. The school incorrectly overstated its alumni giving data to U.S. News since at least 2014. The alumni giving rate accounts for five percent of the Best Colleges ranking.
- Berkeley community members have criticized UC Berkeley's increasing enrollment. Berkeley residents filed a lawsuit alleging that the university's expanding enrollment violated California Environmental Quality Act and that the area lacked the infrastructure to support more students. Critics of the lawsuit accused these community members of NIMBYism. In August 2021, a judge from the Superior Court of Alameda County ruled in favor of the residents, and on March 3, 2022, the California Supreme Court also ruled in favor of the residents, saying that the university needed to freeze its admission rates at 2020–2021 levels. On March 11, 2022, state legislators released a proposal to change CEQA to exempt the university from its restrictions. On March 14, Gavin Newsom signed the bill into law. Berkeley has continued to face a housing shortage.
Organization and administration edit
Although the University of California system does not have an official flagship campus, many scholars and experts consider Berkeley to be its unofficial flagship. In some cases, it shares this unofficial status with the University of California, Los Angeles.
Officially the University of California, Berkeley, its name is often shortened to Berkeley in general reference or in an academic context (www.berkeley.edu, Berkeley Law, Berkeley Engineering, Berkeley Haas, Berkeley Public Health) or to California or Cal, particularly when referring to its athletic teams (California Golden Bears). In August 2022, a university task force was formed which recommended renaming the athletic identity to "Cal Berkeley" to further tie the athletic brand to academic prestige, and reduce public confusion.
The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of whom are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms. The board also has seven ex officio members, a student regent, and a non-voting student regent-designate. Prior to 1952, Berkeley was the University of California, so the university president was also Berkeley's chief executive. In 1952, the university reorganized itself into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with each campus having its own chief executive, a chancellor, who would, in turn, report to the president of the university system. Twelve vice chancellors report directly to Berkeley's chancellor, and the deans of the 15 colleges and schools report to the executive vice chancellor and provost, Berkeley's chief academic officer. Twenty-three presidents and chancellors have led Berkeley since its founding.
Berkeley receives funding from a variety of federal, state, and private sources. With the exception of government contracts, public support is apportioned to Berkeley and the other campuses of the University of California system through the UC Office of the President and accounts for some 12 percent of Berkeley's total revenues. Berkeley has long benefited from private philanthropy, with considerable gifts from the Flood, Hearst, Durant, Strauss, Lick, Harmon, and Bacon families in the 19th century and from the Hearst, Doe, Sather, Rockefeller, Cowell, Haviland, Bowles, Boalt, and Stern families, among others, in the first half of the 20th century. More recently, alumni and their foundations have given to the university for operations and capital expenditures.
Berkeley has also benefited from benefactors beyond its alumni ranks, notable among which are Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan; Vitalik Buterin, Patrick Collison, John Collison, the Ron Conway family, Crankstart, Elad Gil and Jennifer Huang Gil, Daniel Gross, Dustin Moskovitz and Cari Tuna, and Hemant and Jessica Taneja, along with Jane Street principals Matt Berger, Craig Falls, Rob Granieri, James McClave, and Adam Winkel; BP; the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, billionaire Sir Li Ka-Shing, Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Thomas and Stacey Siebel, Sanford and Joan Weill, and professor Gordon Rausser ($50 million gift in 2020). Hundreds of millions of dollars have been given anonymously. The 2008–13 "Campaign for Berkeley" raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors, and the "Light the Way" campaign, scheduled to conclude at the end of 2023, has raised over $6.2 billion.
Berkeley is a large, primarily residential Tier One research university with a majority of its enrollment in undergraduate programs but also offering a comprehensive doctoral program. The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949. The university operates on a semester calendar and awarded 8,725 bachelor's, 3,286 master's or professional and 1,272 doctoral degrees in 2018–2019.
The university's academic enterprise is organized into 15 colleges and schools, which, in turn, comprise 180 departments and 80 interdisciplinary units offering over 350 degree programs. Colleges serve both undergraduate and graduate students, while schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors or minors.
- College of Chemistry
- College of Computing, Data Science, and Society
- College of Engineering
- College of Environmental Design
- College of Letters and Science
- Goldman School of Public Policy
- Graduate School of Journalism
- Haas School of Business
- Rausser College of Natural Resources
- School of Information
- School of Education
- School of Law
- School of Public Health
- School of Social Welfare
- Wertheim School of Optometry
- UC Berkeley Extension (currently has two locations, in downtown Berkeley and downtown San Francisco).
Undergraduate programs edit
The four-year, full-time undergraduate program offers 107 bachelor's degrees across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20), College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), Rausser College of Natural Resources (10), and individual majors (2). The most popular majors are electrical engineering and computer sciences, political science, molecular and cell biology, environmental science, and economics.
Requirements for undergraduate degrees are set by four authorities: the University of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department. These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT), completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school.
Graduate and professional programs edit
Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program, with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, and offers interdisciplinary graduate programs with the medical schools at UCSF (various masters and doctoral) and Stanford (MD/MPH). The university offers Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Fine Arts, and PhD degrees in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor, Master of Business Administration, Master of Public Health, and Master of Design. The university awarded 963 doctoral degrees and 3,531 master's degrees in 2017. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teaching assistantships, or research assistantships.
Faculty and research edit
Berkeley is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities—Very high research activity". In fiscal year 2021, Berkeley's funding for research and development exceeded $1 billion. There are 1,789 full-time and 886 part-time faculty members among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research units. The current faculty includes 262 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, three Fields Medalists, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 90 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 144 members of the National Academy of Sciences, ten Nobel Prize winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 8 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker Prize winner.
Library system edit
Berkeley's 32 libraries together contain more than 13 million volumes and cover over 12 acres (4.9 ha) of land, forming the fourth largest collegiate library system in the nation. Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections reside in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, which has over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictures, and maps, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also houses the Mark Twain Papers, the Oral History Center, the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri and the University Archives.
|THE / WSJ||36 (2022)|
|U.S. News & World Report||15 (2024)|
|Washington Monthly||9 (2022)|
|U.S. News & World Report||4 (2023)|
- The 2018–19 Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) rated Berkeley the top public university in the nation and 4th overall based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, and citations.
- In 2014, The Daily Beast's Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country.
- In its 2022 list of America's top colleges, Forbes rated Berkeley the best public school and 2nd overall.
- For 2015 Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state students, and 6th for out-of-state students.
- The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the United States, based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings.
- For 2021, QS "World University Rankings: USA" placed Berkeley 4th among all US universities and 1st among publics.
- The 2013 Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance ranked Berkeley 8th overall, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and education, and 1st in education.
- In the 2023-2024 U.S. News & World Report national university rankings, Berkeley was the top public school and 15th overall.
- Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley the top public school and 9th among all national universities in 2022, with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility.
- For 2020–21, the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 12th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, and research performance.
- In 2017, the Nature Index ranked the university the 9th largest contributor to papers published in 82 leading journals.
Past rankings edit
In his memoirs, Clark Kerr records Berkeley's rise in the rankings (according to the National Academies) during the 20th century. The school's first ranking in 1906 placed it among the top six schools ("Big Six") in the nation. In 1934 it ranked second, tied with Columbia and the University of Chicago, behind only Harvard; in 1957 it was ranked as the only school second to Harvard. In 1964 Berkeley was named the "best balanced distinguished university", meaning the school had not only the most top departments but also the highest percentage of top ranking departments in its school. The school in 1993 was the only remaining member of the original 1906 "Big Six", along with Harvard; in that year Berkeley ranked first.
The American Council on Education, a private non-profit association, ranked Berkeley tenth in 1934. However, by 1942, private funding had helped Berkeley rise to second place, behind only Harvard, based on the number of distinguished departments. Since its inaugural 1990 reputational survey, Times Higher Education has considered Berkeley to be one of the world's "six super brands" along with Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, and Stanford. Berkeley was the No. 1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards.
The 2010 United States National Research Council Rankings identified Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation. Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking included English, German, Political Science, Geography, Agricultural and Resource Economics, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, Epidemiology, Plant Biology, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil and Environmental Engineering.
Admissions and enrollment edit
|Race and ethnicity||Total|
|Affluent or middle class[c]||78%|
For Fall 2022, Berkeley's total enrollment was 45,745: 32,831 undergraduate and 12,914 graduate students, with women accounting for 56 percent of undergraduates and 49 percent of graduate and professional students. It had 128,226 freshman applicants and accepted 14,614 or 11.4%. Among enrolled freshman, the average unweighted GPA was 3.90.
Berkeley students are eligible for a variety of public and private financial aid. Generally, financial aid inquiries are processed through the Financial Aid and Scholarships Office, although some schools, such as the Haas School of Business and Berkeley Law, have their own financial aid offices. Berkeley's enrollment of National Merit Scholars was third in the nation until 2002, when participation in the National Merit program was discontinued. For 2019, Berkeley ranked fourth in enrollment of recipients of the National Merit $2,500 Scholarship (132 scholars). Twenty-seven percent of admitted students receive federal Pell grants.
|* Berkeley began test-blind admissions in 2021.|
Discoveries and innovation edit
A number of significant inventions and discoveries have been made by Berkeley faculty members and researchers:
Natural sciences edit
- Atomic bomb – Physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was wartime director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project.
- Carbon 14 and photosynthesis – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben first discovered carbon 14 in 1940, and Nobel laureate Melvin Calvin and his colleagues used carbon 14 as a molecular tracer to reveal the carbon assimilation path in photosynthesis, known as Calvin cycle.
- Carcinogens – Identified chemicals that damage DNA. The Ames test was described in a series of papers in 1973 by Bruce Ames and his group at the university.
- Chemical elements – 16 elements have been discovered at Berkeley (technetium, astatine, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium, rutherfordium, dubnium, and seaborgium).
- Covalent bond – Gilbert N. Lewis in 1916 described the sharing of electron pairs between atoms, and invented the Lewis notation to describe the mechanisms.
- CRISPR gene editing – Nobel laureate Jennifer Doudna discovers a precise and inexpensive way for manipulating DNA in human cells.
- Cyclotron – Ernest O. Lawrence created a particle accelerator in 1934, and was awarded the Nobel Physics Prize in 1939.
- Dark energy – Saul Perlmutter and many others in the Supernova Cosmology Project discover the universe is expanding because of dark energy 1998.
- Flu vaccine – Wendell M. Stanley and colleagues discovered the vaccine in the 1940s.
- Hydrogen bomb – Edward Teller, the father of hydrogen bomb, was a professor at Berkeley and a researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
- Immunotherapy of cancer – James P. Allison discovers and develops monoclonal antibody therapy that uses the immune system to combat cancer 1992–1995.
- Molecular clock – Allan Wilson discovery in 1967.
- Neuroplasticity – Marian Diamond discovers structural, biochemical, and synaptic changes in brain caused by environmental enrichment 1964
- Oncogene – Peter Duesberg discovers first cancer causing gene in a virus 1970s.
- Telomerase – Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak discover enzyme that promotes cell division and growth 1985.
- Vitamin E – Gladys Anderson Emerson isolates Vitamin E in a pure form in 1952.
Computer and applied sciences edit
- Berkeley RISC – David Patterson leads ARPA's VLSI project of microprocessor design 1980–1984.
- Berkeley UNIX/Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) – The Computer Systems Research Group was a research group at Berkeley that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Bill Joy modified the code and released it in 1977 under the open source BSD license, starting an open-source revolution.
- Deep sea diving – Joel Henry Hildebrand used helium with oxygen to mitigate decompression sickness.
- GIMP – In 1995, Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at Berkeley.
- Polygraph – invented by John Augustus Larson and a police officer from the Berkeley Police Department in 1921.
- Project Genie – DARPA funded project. It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940. Concepts from Project Genie influenced the development of the TENEX operating system for the PDP-10, and Unix, which inherited the concept of process forking from it. Unix co-creator Ken Thompson worked on Project Genie while at Berkeley.
- SPICE – Donald O. Pederson develops the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) 1972.
- Tcl programming language – developed by John Ousterhout in 1988.
- Three-dimensional Transistor – Chenming Hu won the 2014 National Medal of Technology for developing the "first 3-dimensional transistors, which radically advanced semiconductor technology".
- Vi text editor – Bill Joy created the first Vi editor in 1976.
- Wetsuit – Hugh Bradner invents first wetsuit 1952.
Companies and entrepreneurship edit
Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded many companies, some of which are shown below. Berkeley has often been cited as one of the universities that have produced most entrepreneurs, and boasts its own startup incubator, Berkeley SkyDeck.
- Activision Blizzard, 1979 (as Activision), co-founder Alan Miller (BS) and Larry Kaplan (BA)
- AIG, 1919, founder Cornelius Vander Starr (Attended)
- Apple, 1976, co-founder Steve Wozniak (BS)
- Chernin Entertainment, 2009, founder Peter Chernin (BA)
- Coursera, 2012, co-founder Andrew Ng (PhD)
- Databricks, 2013 founders Ali Ghodsi (PhD), Matei Zaharia (PhD), Ion Stoica (Professor), Reynold Xin (PhD), Andy Konwinski (PhD), Arsalan Tavakoli-Shiraji (PhD), and Patrick Wendell (PhD)
- eBay, 1995, founder Pierre Omidyar (Attended)
- Gap Inc., 1969, co-founder Donald Fisher (BS)
- HTC Corporation, 1997, co-founder Cher Wang (BA)
- Intel, 1968, co-founders Gordon Moore (BS) and Andy Grove (PhD)
- Marvell Technology Group, 1995, co-founders Sehat Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BA)
- Morgan Stanley, 1924 (as Dean Witter & Co.), co-founder Dean G. Witter (BA)
- Mozilla Corporation, 2005, co-founder Mitchell Baker (BA, JD)
- Myspace, 2003, co-founder Tom Anderson (BA)
- Renaissance Technologies, 1982, founder James Simons (PhD)
- Rotten Tomatoes, 1998, founders Senh Duong (BA), Patrick Y. Lee (BA) and Stephen Wang (BA)
- SanDisk, 1988, co-founder Sanjay Mehrotra (BS, MS)
- Softbank, 1981, founder Masayoshi Son (BA)
- Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founder Bill Joy (MS)
- Tesla, 2003, co-founder Marc Tarpenning (BS)
- VMware, 1998, co-founders Diane Greene (MS) and Mendel Rosenblum (PhD)
Much of the UC Berkeley campus, including the major landmarks, is in the city limits of Berkeley. A portion of the UC Berkeley property extends into Oakland. The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately 1,232 acres (499 ha), though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western 178 acres (72 ha) of this area. Of the remaining acres, approximately 200 acres (81 ha) are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an 800-acre (320 ha) ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon. Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park.
To the west of the central campus is the downtown business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panisse. Immediately to the north is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northside with a large graduate student population; situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley Hills. Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row and beyond that the Clark Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremont. The area south of the university includes student housing and Telegraph Avenue, one of Berkeley's main shopping districts with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists. In addition, the university also owns land to the northwest of the main campus, a 90-acre (36 ha) married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany ("Albany Village" and the "Gill Tract"), and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, California.
The campus is home to several museums including the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science. The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex. The campus also offers resources for innovation and entrepreneurship, such as the Big Ideas Competition (Blum Center for Developing Economies), SkyDeck, the Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology, and the Berkeley Haas Innovation Lab. The campus is also home to the University of California Botanical Garden, one of the most diverse plant collections in the United States, famous for its large number of rare and endangered species, with more than 12,000 individual species. Outside of the Bay Area, the university owns various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra Nevada.
What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California", funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899. The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, who refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The structures forming the "classical core" of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Library, California Hall, Wheeler Hall, (Old) Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gate, and the 307-foot (94 m) Sather Tower (nicknamed "the Campanile" after its architectural inspiration, St Mark's Campanile in Venice), the tallest university clock tower in the United States. Buildings he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly "serious" were designed in shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hall, designed by David Farquharson, is the oldest university building in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are two of the only surviving examples of the nineteenth-century campus. Other notable architects and firms whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard Maybeck (Faculty Club); Julia Morgan (Hearst Women's Gymnasium and Julia Morgan Hall); William Wurster (Stern Hall); Moore Ruble Yudell (Haas School of Business); Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects (C.V. Starr East Asian Library), and Diller Scofidio + Renfro (Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive).
Natural features edit
Flowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum.
Trees in the area date from the founding of the university. The campus features numerous wooded areas, including: Founders' Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in North America. The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadium.
Student life and traditions edit
The official university mascot is Oski the Bear, who debuted in 1941. Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial Stadium until it was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative. Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.
The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.
The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the six Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession. The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds the title "Custodian of the Axe" while it is in the committee's care.
Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit. The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called "Rush", which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build "the Big C". Owing to its prominent position, the Big "C" is often the target of pranks by rival Stanford University students who paint the Big "C" red and also fraternities and sororities who paint it their organization's colors. One of the Rally Committee's functions is to repaint the Big "C" to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow.
Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts. Then known as Bleacher Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background. The tradition is continued today by the Rally Committee in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.
The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hill in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.
The Cal Mic Men, a standard at home football games, has recently expanded to involve basketball and volleyball. The traditional role comes from students holding megaphones and yelling, but now includes microphones, a dedicated platform during games, and the direction of the entire student section. Both men and women are allowed to fulfill the role, despite the name.
Student housing edit
Berkeley students are offered a variety of housing options, including university-owned or affiliated residences, private residences, fraternities and sororities, and cooperative housing (co-ops). Berkeley students, and those of other local schools, have the option of living in one of the twenty cooperative houses participating in the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC), a nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 residences and 1250 member-owners.
Fraternities and sororities edit
About three percent of undergraduate men and nine percent of undergraduate women—or 3,400 of total undergraduates—are active in Berkeley's Greek system. University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses affiliated with four Greek councils.
Student-run organizations edit
Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC) edit
The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC) is the official student association that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events. The two main political parties are "Student Action" and "CalSERVE". The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating budget of $1.7 million (excluding the budget of the Graduate Assembly of the ASUC), in addition to various investment assets. Its alumni include multiple State Senators, Assemblymembers, and White House Administration officials.
Media and publications edit
Berkeley's student-run online television station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online. It is run by students with a variety of backgrounds and majors. Since the mid-2010s, it has been a program of the ASUC. Berkeley's independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian. Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors for encouraging readers to take back People's Park. The Daily Californian has both a print and online edition. Print circulation is about 10,000. The newspaper is an important source of information for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding City of Berkeley. Berkeley's FM Student radio station, KALX, broadcasts on 90.7 MHz. It is run largely by volunteers, including both students and community members.
Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run publications:
- California Law Review, law journal published by Berkeley Law, est. 1912.
- Berkeley Fiction Review, American literary magazine, est. 1981.
- Berkeley Poetry Review, national poetry journal, est. 1974.
- Berkeley Political Review, nonpartisan political magazine, est. 2001.
- Berkeley Economic Review, economics journal, est. 2016.
- Business Berkeley, Haas undergraduate journal.
- Caliber Magazine, an "everything magazine", featuring articles and blogs on a wide range of topics, est. 2008.
- Heuristic Squelch, satirical newspaper, est. 1991.
- B-Side, music magazine, est. 2013.
- California Patriot, conservative political magazine, est. 2000.
- Smart Ass, liberal magazine, est. 2015.
Student groups edit
There are ninety-four political student groups on campus, including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley ACLU, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team (STEAM), the Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans. The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-led umbrella organization that oversees event planning, legislation, sponsorships and other activities for over 7,2000 on-campus undergraduate residents.
Berkeley students also run a number of consulting groups, including the Berkeley Group, founded in 2003 and affiliated with the Haas School. Students from various concentrations are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with actual nonprofit clients. Berkeley Consulting, founded in 1996, has served over 140 companies across the high-tech, retail, banking, and non-profit sectors.
ImagiCal has been the college chapter of the American Advertising Federation at Berkeley since the late 1980s. The team competes annually in the National Student Advertising Competition, with students from disparate majors working together on a marketing case underwritten by a corporate sponsor. The Berkeley Forum is a nonpartisan student organization that hosts panels, debates, and speeches across a variety of fields. Past speakers include Senator Rand Paul, entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel, and Khan Academy founder Salman Khan.
Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes. DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially established in 1981. The program offers around 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that appeal to the student community, including classes on the Rubik's Cube, blockchain, web design, metamodernism, cooking, Jewish art, 3D animation, and bioprinting.
The campus is home to several a cappella groups, including Drawn to Scale, Artists in Resonance, Berkeley Dil Se, the UC Men's Octet, the California Golden Overtones, DeCadence, and Noteworthy. The University of California Men's Octet was founded in 1948 and features a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern alternative, and fight songs. Hewing to tradition, the groups perform weekly under Sather Gate on alternating days. Berkeley hosts a myriad other performing arts groups in comedy, dance, acting and instrumental music, and include jericho!, Improv & Sketch Comedy, The Movement, Taiko drumming, BareStage student musical theater, the Remedy Music Project, Main Stacks, AFX Dance, and TruElement.
Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles. Under the direction of David W. Tucker, who was hired by the Cal Band as a composer, arranger, and associate director, but was later asked to direct the jazz ensembles as it grew in popularity and membership, the group grew rapidly from one big band to multiple big bands, numerous combos, and numerous instrumental classes with multiple instructors. For several decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians. PCCJF brought jazz artists including Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy to the Berkeley campus as performers, clinicians, and adjudicators. The festival later included high school musicians.
Engineering Student Teams edit
Given UC Berkeley's STEM education and its proximity to Silicon Valley, there are a variety of student-run engineering teams that focus on winning design and engineering competitions. Berkeley has two prominent amateur rocketry teams: Space Enterprise at Berkeley (SEB) and Space Technologies and Rocketry (STAR). Both have launched solid-fuel sounding rockets and are currently developing liquid propellant rockets. The university also has two Formula SAE teams: Berkeley Formula Racing and Formula Electric Berkeley. Both of these teams participate in Formula SAE–run competitions, with the former focusing on internal combustion engines and the latter on electric motors. Berkeley has a number of other vehicle teams, including CalSol, CalSMV, and Human Powered Vehicle.
The university's athletic teams are known as the California Golden Bears (often shortened to "Cal Bears" or just "Cal") and are primarily members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12). Cal is also a member of the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America East Conference in women's field hockey. Cal is set to join the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) in 2024. The first school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, were blue (specifically Yale Blue) and gold. Yale Blue was originally chosen because many of the university's inaugural faculty were Yale graduates, including Henry Durant, its first president. Blue and gold were specified and made the official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955. In 2014, the athletic department specified a darker blue.
The California Golden Bears have won national titles in football, men's basketball, baseball, softball, men's and women's crew, men's gymnastics, men's tennis, men's and women's swimming, men's water polo, men's Judo, men's track, and men's rugby. In addition, Cal athletes have won individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis. On January 31, 2009, the university's Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanford in the first collegiate hurling match ever played on American soil. Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball (2), men's basketball (2), men's crew (15), women's crew (3), football (5), men's golf (1), men's gymnastics (4), men's lacrosse (1), men's rugby (26), softball (1), men's swimming & diving (4), women's swimming & diving (3), men's tennis (1), men's track & field (1), and men's water polo (13).
Cal students and alumni have also won 207 Olympic medals. California finished in first place in the 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings (Now the NACDA Directors' Cup), a competition measuring the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points. Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors' Cup with 1219.50 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State. This is California's highest ever finish in the Director's Cup.
The Golden Bears' traditional arch-rival is the Stanford Cardinal, and the most anticipated sporting event between the two universities is the annual football match dubbed the Big Game, celebrated with spirit events on both campuses. Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the Stanford Axe. Other sporting games between these rivals have related names such as the Big Splash (water polo) or the Big Kick (soccer).
Notable alumni, faculty, and staff edit
Berkeley alumni, faculty and staff have distinguished themselves in a wide range of endeavors and include 114 Nobel laureates (35 alumni), 25 Turing Award winners (11 alumni), 14 Fields Medalists, 30 Wolf Prize winners, 108 MacArthur Fellows (65 alumni) , 30 Pulitzer Prize recipients, 19 Academy Award winners, five foreign heads of state, chief justices of the United States and California, 22 cabinet members, ten state governors, numerous members of Congress, 36 general and flag officers of the United States Armed Forces, 40 billionaires, and the founders or co-founders of many world-renowned companies.
Christina Romer, Professor of Economics, 25th Chairperson of the President's Council of Economic Advisers
Natalie Coughlin, BA 2005, multiple gold medal-winning Olympic swimmer
Faculty and staff edit
- Shiing-Shen Chern, a leading geometer of the 20th century, co-founded the renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and served as its founding Director until 1984.
- Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was scientific director of the Manhattan Project and was the founder of the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics.
- Faculty member Edward Teller was (together with Stanislaw Ulam) the "father of the hydrogen bomb", who laid important foundations for the establishment of Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley.
- Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel laureate in physics who invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, and founded the Radiation Laboratory on campus, which later became the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
- Gilbert N. Lewis, former Dean of the College of Chemistry, was nominated 41 times for Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He mentored and influenced numerous Berkeley Nobel laureates, including Harold Urey (1934 Nobel Prize), William F. Giauque (1949 Nobel Prize), Glenn T. Seaborg (1951 Nobel Prize), Willard Libby (1960 Nobel Prize), and Melvin Calvin (1961 Nobel Prize).
- Glenn T. Seaborg, a Nobel laureate in chemistry who discovered or co-discovered 10 chemical elements at Berkeley and served as Chancellor from 1958 to 1961.
- Hans Albert Einstein, the first son of Albert Einstein and a world's leading scholar in hydraulic engineering, was a long-time faculty member at Berkeley.
- Steven Chu (PhD 1976), the 12th United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate in physics, was Director of Berkeley Lab from 2004 to 2009.
- Janet Yellen, 78th United States Secretary of Treasury and the 15th Chair of the Federal Reserve, is a professor emeritus at Berkeley Haas School of Business and the Department of Economics.
Berkeley alumni have served in a range of prominent government offices, both domestic and foreign, including Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (Earl Warren, BA, JD); United States Attorney General (Edwin Meese III, JD); United States Secretary of State (Dean Rusk, LLB); United States Secretary of the Treasury (W. Michael Blumenthal, BA, and G. William Miller, JD); United States Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara, BS); United States Secretary of the Interior (Franklin Knight Lane, 1887); United States Secretary of Transportation and United States Secretary of Commerce (Norman Mineta, BS); United States Secretary of Agriculture (Ann Veneman, MPP); National Security Advisor (Robert C. O'Brien, JD); scores of federal judges and members of the United States Congress (10 currently serving) and United States Foreign Service; governors of California (George C. Pardee; Hiram W. Johnson; Earl Warren, BA and LLB; Jerry Brown, BA; and Pete Wilson, JD), Michigan (Jennifer Granholm, BA), and the United States Virgin Islands (Walter A. Gordon, BA); Chief of Staff of the United States Army (Frederick C. Weyand, Class of 1938); Lieutenant General of the United States Army (Jimmy Doolittle); Vice Admiral of the United States Navy (Murry L. Royar, Class of 1916); Major General of the United States Marine Corps (Oliver Prince Smith); Brigadier General of the United States Marine Corps (Bertram A. Bone); Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (John A. McCone, BS); chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers (Michael Boskin, BA, PhD.; Sandra Black, BA; Jesse Rothstein, PhD; Robert Seamans, PhD; Jay Shambaugh, PhD; James Stock, MA, PhD); Governor of the Federal Reserve System (H. Robert Heller, PhD) and President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (William C. Dudley, PhD); Commissioners of the SEC (Troy A. Paredes, BA) and the FCC (Rachelle Chong, BA); and United States Surgeon General (Kenneth P. Moritsugu, MPH).
Foreign alumni include the President of Colombia 1922–1926, (Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez, BA, Mining Engineering); the President of Mexico (Francisco I. Madero, attended 1892–93); the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan; the Premier of the Republic of China (Sun Fo, BA); the President of Costa Rica (Miguel Angel Rodriguez, MA, PhD); and members of parliament of the United Kingdom (House of Lords, Lydia Dunn, Baroness Dunn, BS), India (Rajya Sabha, the upper house, Prithviraj Chavan, MS); Iran (Mohammad Javad Larijani, PhD); Nigerian Minister of Science and Technology and first Executive Governor of Abia State (Ogbonnaya Onu, PhD Chemical Engineering); Barbados' Ambassador to Brazil (Tonika Sealy-Thompson). Alumni have also served in many supranational posts, notable among which are President of the World Bank (Robert McNamara, BS); Deputy Prime Minister of Spain and managing director of the International Monetary Fund (Rodrigo Rato, MBA); executive director of UNICEF (Ann Veneman, MPP); member of the European Parliament (Bruno Megret, MS); and judge of the World Court (Joan Donoghue, JD).
Alumni have made important contributions to science. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules. Nobel laureate William F. Giauque (BS 1920, PhD 1922) investigated chemical thermodynamics, Nobel laureate Willard Libby (BS 1931, PhD 1933) pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel laureate Willis Lamb (BS 1934, PhD 1938) examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton O. Smith (BA 1952) applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin (BA math 1972) explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew Fire (BA math 1978) helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) collaborated with Albert Ghiorso (BS 1913) to discover 12 chemical elements, such as americium, berkelium, and californium. David Bohm (PhD 1943) discovered Bohm diffusion. Nobel laureate Yuan T. Lee (PhD 1965) developed the crossed molecular beam technique for studying chemical reactions. Carol Greider (PhD 1987), professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer. Harvey Itano (BS 1942) conducted breakthrough work on sickle cell anemia that marked the first time a disease was linked to a molecular origin. While he was valedictorian of Berkeley's class of 1942, he was unable to attend commencement exercises due to internment.
Narendra Karmarkar (PhD 1983) is known for the interior point method, a polynomial algorithm for linear programming known as Karmarkar's algorithm. National Medal of Science laureate Chien-Shiung Wu (PhD 1940), often known as the "Chinese Madame Curie", disproved the Law of Conservation of Parity for which she was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize in Physics. Kary Mullis (PhD 1973) was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in developing the polymerase chain reaction, a method for amplifying DNA sequences. Daniel Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theory. Richard O. Buckius, engineer, Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering '72, Masters '73, PhD '75, currently Chief Operating Officer of the National Science Foundation. Edward P. Tryon (PhD 1967) is the physicist who first said our universe originated from a quantum fluctuation of the vacuum. John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space Telescope, resulting in a National Medal of Science. Peter Smith (BS 1969) was the principal investigator and project leader for the NASA robotic explorer Phoenix, which physically confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time. Astronauts James van Hoften (BS 1966), Margaret Rhea Seddon (BA 1970), Leroy Chiao (BS 1983), and Rex Walheim (BS 1984) have orbited the Earth in NASA's fleet of Space Shuttles.
Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as Apple Computer, Intel, LSI Logic The Gap, MySpace, PowerBar, Berkeley Systems, Bolt, Beranek and Newman (which created a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet), Chez Panisse, GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice), HTC Corporation, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group, MoveOn.org, Opsware, RedOctane, Rimon Law P.C., SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, VMware and Zilog, while graduate school alumni have cofounded companies such as DHL, KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth), Sun Microsystems, and The Learning Company. Berkeley alumni have also led various technology companies such as Electronic Arts, Google, Adobe Systems,[failed verification] Softbank (Masayoshi Son) and Qualcomm.
Berkeley alumni have developed a number of key technologies associated with the personal computer and the Internet. Unix was created by alumnus Ken Thompson (BS 1965, MS 1966) along with colleague Dennis Ritchie. Alumni such as L. Peter Deutsch (PhD 1973), Butler Lampson (PhD 1967), and Charles P. Thacker (BS 1967) worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department of Defense-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), which was scattered throughout the Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors. After BCC failed, Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARC, where they developed a number of pioneering computer technologies, culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh. In particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart (BEng 1952, PhD 1955). Thompson, Lampson, Engelbart, and Thacker all later received a Turing Award. Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V. Schmidt (BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971), who became known as "the man who brought Ethernet to the masses". Another Xerox PARC researcher, Charles Simonyi (BS 1972), pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft Word. Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the Earth.
In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982) assembled the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix. Joy, who went on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console editor vi, while Ken Arnold (BA 1985) created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like systems that enables the construction of text user interface (TUI) applications. Working alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz (BS 1997) and his future wife Lynne Jolitz (BA 1989), who together created 386BSD, a version of BSD Unix that runs on Intel CPUs and evolved into the BSD family of free operating systems and the Darwin operating system underlying Apple Mac OS X. Eric Allman (BS 1977, MS 1980) created SendMail, a Unix mail transfer agent that delivers about 12 percent of the email in the world.
The XCF, an undergraduate research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software projects, including GTK+ (created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997), The GIMP (Spencer Kimball, BS 1996), and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm. In 1992, Pei-Yuan Wei, an undergraduate at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW was the first browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. In the spirit of Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets( Kim Polese (BS 1984) was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems.) ViolaWWW also inspired researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser, a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Pulitzer Prize winners edit
Alumni collectively have won at least twenty-five Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins (BA 1941) was a pioneering female war correspondent who covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Novelist Robert Penn Warren (MA 1927) won three Pulitzer Prizes, including one for his novel All the King's Men, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning movie. Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg (BS 1904) invented the comically complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines. Journalist Alexandra Berzon (MA 2006) won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009, and journalist Matt Richtel (BA 1989), who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of "Theron Heir", won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. Pulitzer Prize–winning historian Leon Litwack (BA 1951, PhD 1958) taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years; three other UC Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize. Alumna and professor Susan Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991. USC Professor and Berkeley alumnus Viet Thanh Nguyen's (PhD 1997) first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Fiction and screen writers edit
Alumni have also written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent, including The Call of the Wild author Jack London. Irving Stone (BA 1923) wrote the novel Lust for Life, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning film of the same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Stone also wrote The Agony and the Ecstasy, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charlton Heston as Michelangelo. Mona Simpson (BA 1979) wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer (BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award-winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain.
Academy Award winners edit
Collectively, alumni have won at least 20 Academy Awards. Gregory Peck (BA 1939), nominated for four Oscars during his career, won an Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird. Chris Innis (BA 1991) won the 2010 Oscar for film editing for her work on best picture winner, The Hurt Locker. Walter Plunkett (BA 1923) won an Oscar for costume design (for An American in Paris). Freida Lee Mock (BA 1961) and Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) have each won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking. Mark Berger (BA 1964) has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley. Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design. Joe Letteri (BA 1981) has won four Oscars for Best Visual Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King.
Emmy Award winners edit
Alumni have collectively won at least 25 Emmy Awards: Jon Else (BA 1968) for cinematography; Andrew Schneider (BA 1973) for screenwriting; Linda Schacht (BA 1966, MA 1981), two for broadcast journalism; Christine Chen (dual BA's 1990), two for broadcast journalism; Kristen Sze (BA), two for broadcast journalism; Kathy Baker (BA 1977), three for acting; Ken Milnes (BS 1977), four for broadcasting technology; and Leroy Sievers (BA), twelve for production. Elisabeth Leamy is the recipient of 13 Emmy awards.
Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today. Karen Grassle (BA 1965) played the mother Caroline Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, Jerry Mathers (BA 1974) starred in Leave it to Beaver, and Roxann Dawson (BA 1980) portrayed B'Elanna Torres on Star Trek: Voyager.
Music and entertainment edit
Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, the Police drummer Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine founder Jann Wenner, the Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs (BA 1980), Counting Crows lead singer Adam Duritz, electronic music producer Giraffage, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak (BA 1997), AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget (BA 1996), and solo artist Marié Digby ("Say It Again"). People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine's list of 50 Most Beautiful People.
Kendall Ross Bean became a master piano rebuilder and concert pianist, Bean first performed on a piano he rebuilt in one of the first classical music videos to be broadcast across the United States on the A&E Network which in 1985 had 18 million cable viewers. This broadcast coincided with MTV emerging as a medium for record production companies to use music videos to promote the albums of Rock and Pop stars. The novelty of a classical music video featuring a solo pianist and the inside view of piano hammers hitting strings, contrasted to the high production rock music videos caught media attention from coast to coast. The video was titled: Kendall Ross Bean: Chopin Polonaise in A Flat.
Karen Earle Lile, niece of Tony Terran became the Art Director/Executive Producer for the USPS Building Bridges Special Postal Cancellation Series and a Talk Show host for Sail Sport Talk on Sports Byline USA, a record producer  at Fantasy Studios and the historian who discovered the provenance of the Lost Lennon piano, afterwards known as the Lennon-Ono-Green-Warhol piano.
Alumni have also participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody (BA 1925) won 31 Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledon. Tarik Glenn (BA 1999) is a Super Bowl XLI champion, and Mitchell Schwartz (2011) is an All-Pro NFL offensive tackle. Michele Tafoya (BA 1988) is a sports television reporter for ABC Sports and ESPN. Sports agent Leigh Steinberg ( BA 1970, JD 1973) has represented professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar De La Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspiration for the title character in the Oscar-winning film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics. At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics.
Berkeley alumni—often generous benefactors—have long been among the billionaire ranks, their largess giving rise to many of the campus' eponymous schools, pavilions, centers, institutes, and halls, and with some of the more prominent being J. Paul Getty, Ann Getty, Sanford Diller and Helen Diller, Donald Fisher, Flora Lamson Hewlett, David Schwartz (Bio-Rad) and members of the Haas (Walter A. Haas, Rhoda Haas Goldman, Walter A. Haas Jr., Peter E. Haas, Bob Haas), Hearst, and Bechtel families. There are at least 30 living alumni billionaires: Gordon Moore (Intel founder), James Harris Simons (Renaissance Technologies), Masayoshi Son (SoftBank), Jon Stryker (Stryker Medical Equipment), Eric Schmidt (former Google Chairman) and Wendy Schmidt, Michael Milken, Bassam Alghanim, Kutayba Alghanim, Charles Simonyi (Microsoft), Cher Wang (HTC), Robert Haas (Levi Strauss & Co.), Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor (Interbank, Peru), Fayez Sarofim, Daniel S. Loeb, Paul Merage, David Hindawi, Orion Hindawi, Bill Joy (Sun Microsystems founder), Victor Koo, Tony Xu (DoorDash), Lowell Milken, Nathaniel Simons and Laura Baxter-Simons, Elizabeth Simons and Mark Heising, Oleg Tinkov, Liong Tek Kwee (BS 1968), Liong Seen Kwee (BS 1974) and Alice Schwartz.
See also edit
- "A brief history of the University of California". Academic Personnel and Programs. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
- As of June 30, 2022; includes assets managed by the UC Regents in the General Endowment Pool for the exclusive benefit of Berkeley. "Annual Endowment Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022" (PDF). University of California.
- "University of California 21/22 Annual Financial Report" (PDF). University of California. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
- "Home | Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost". evcp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved July 7, 2022.
- "About Berkeley: What We Do". Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
- "UC Berkeley Quick Facts". UC Berkeley Office of Planning and Analysis. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
- "University of California - Berkeley". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. June 14, 2000. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
- "College Navigator – University of California-Berkeley". nces.ed.gov.
- "UC Berkeley Zero Waste Plan" (PDF). University of California-Berkeley. September 2019. p. 5. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- "Primary Palettes". Berkeley Brand Guidelines. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
- "Trademark Use Guidelines and Requirements" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
- Office of Communications and Public Affairs (June 2019). "Our Name". The Berkeley Brand Manual (PDF). Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Examples include:
- Selingo, Jeffrey. "Our dangerous obsession with Harvard, Stanford and other elite universities". The Washington Post. "…the Ivy League, along with Stanford, the University of Chicago, Duke, and a few elite public universities such as the University of Michigan, UC-Berkeley, and UNC-Chapel Hill are the pride of the American higher-education system around the world."
- Thoenig, Jean-Claude (August 31, 2023). "Organizational Governance and the Production of Academic Quality: Lessons from Two Top U.S. Research Universities". Minerva. Springer. 52 (4): 381–417. JSTOR 43548922. "MIT and UCB were selected as two consistently top ranked universities internationally speaking, not only in terms of prestige in the eyes of international public opinion but also in terms of actual outputs as measured by metrics of excellence. They enjoy a very long tenure in the first decile whatever the classification used, and despite the fact that ranking agencies do not allocate the same weight to excellence and prestige indicators. Once they reach the top, they seem to remain there forever, despite increasingly tough competition from research universities who all vie to join the academic heavens"
- The University of California, Britannica Encyclopedia, retrieved August 5, 2023. "The Berkeley campus, which replaced the Oakland campus in 1873, remains a leader in scientific fields as well as in many other academic areas. In the 1930s researchers there produced the first cyclotron, isolated the human polio virus, and discovered several new chemical elements."
- "The University Entrepreneurship Report – Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals". CB Insights Research. October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- "The list of top schools for producing tech entrepreneurs shows how clubby Silicon Valley really is". Quartz. September 1, 2017.
- "Innovation and Entrepreneurship | Research UC Berkeley". vcresearch.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- "Pitchbook Universities 2019". pitchbook.com.
- "Pitchbook Universities 2020". pitchbook.com.
- "Pitchbook Universities 2022". pitchbook.com.
- *Space Sciences Laboratory (www
.ssl .berkeley .edu)
- "UC National Laboratories | UCOP". www.ucop.edu. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- "California Golden Bears Olympic Medals". University of California Golden Bears Athletics. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- "Cal National Champions". University of California Golden Bears Athletics. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
- Count as of September 9, 2019. "University of California – Campuses & majors: UC Berkeley", universityofcalifornia.edu, archived from the original on September 8, 2021
- "Nobel Laureates and research affiliations". Nobel Foundation. April 1, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
- "Berkeley Law Distinguished Alumni". sfgate.com. February 26, 2012.
- Kathleen Elkins (May 18, 2018). "More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined". CNBC. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
- * "Top Producers". us.fulbrightonline.org. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
- Stadtman, Verne A. (1970). The University of California, 1868–1968. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 34.
- "History of UC Berkeley". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010.
Founded in the wake of the gold rush by leaders of the newly established 31st state, the University of California's flagship campus at Berkeley has become one of the preeminent universities in the world.
- Berdahl, Robert (October 8, 1998). "The Future of Flagship Universities". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.
The issue I want to talk about tonight is the future of "flagship" universities, institutions like the University of Texas at Austin, or Texas A&M at College Station, or the University of California, Berkeley. This is not an easy topic to talk about for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that those of us in "systems" of higher education are frequently actively discouraged from using the term "flagship" to refer to our campuses because it is seen as hurtful to the self-esteem of colleagues at other institutions in our systems.
- "A brief history of the University of California". University of California Office of the President. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- Wollenberg, Charles (2002). "Chapter 2: Tale of Two Towns". Berkeley, A City in History. Berkeley Public Library. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
- "A History of Women at Cal | Campus Climate, Community Engagement & Transformation". Campus Climate at Berkeley. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- "The Centennial of The University of California, 1868–1968". Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "University of California History Digital Archives". Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Smith, Mackenzie (2018). "Celebrating Women at Rausser College, Past & Present". College of Natural Resources, University of California Berkeley. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
- "About UC Berkeley – History". UC Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- Douglass, John; Thomas, Sally. "University of California History Digital Archives: Los Angeles General History". www.lib.berkeley.edu. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- "John Galen Howard and the design of the City of Learning, the UC Berkeley campus". UC Berkeley. Retrieved December 24, 2010.
- "History of Army ROTC". UC Berkeley Army ROTC. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "U.S. Naval Activities World War II by State". Patrick Clancey. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
- "Alumni". army.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on May 3, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Chemical Elements Discovered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory". Lbl.gov. June 7, 1999. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Branding the Elements: Berkeley Stakes its Claims on the Periodic Table". Cal Alumni Association. March 20, 2014. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Manhattan Project Chronology". atomicarchive.com. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Atomic History – Early Government Support". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "UC Presidents". University of California History Digital Archives. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Days of Cal – Berkeley in the 60s". Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "10 Fun Facts about UC Berkeley | AdmitSee". Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Cohen, Robert (December 2015). "Teaching about the Berkeley Free Speech Movement" (PDF). National Council for the Social Studies—Social Education. 75 (5): 301–308. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "Berkeley FSM | Free Speech Movement 50th Anniversary". fsm.berkeley.edu. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- "Unforgettable Change: 1960s: Free Speech Movement & The New American Left | Picture This". picturethis.museumca.org. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- MSRI. "MSRI". www.msri.org. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- MSRI. "Mathematical Sciences Research Institute". www.msri.org. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "MSRI" (PDF). AMS. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Powell, Bonnie Azab (January 24, 2005). "Berkeley freshmen are more liberal and less religious than their national counterparts – but survey finds their views are closer than labels suggest". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- Doty, Meriah (February 5, 2004). "Examining Berkeley's liberal legacy". CNN. Retrieved February 20, 2008.
- Tierney, John (November 18, 2004). "Republicans Outnumbered in Academia, Studies Find". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
- "Berkeley celebrates record-breaking year in fundraising". vca.berkeley.edu. July 22, 2022.
- Giving to Colleges Rises, Inside Higher Ed, February 6, 2018
- 20 Elite Universities Received 28% of College Donations Last Year, MarketWatch, February 20, 2019
- Major Gifts to Higher Education, The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 3, 2020
- Annual Report on University Private Support: 2019–20 (Report). Oakland, CA: University of California, Office of the President. p. 18.
- Annual Report on University Private Support: 2021–22 (Report). Oakland, CA: University of California, Office of the President. p. 18.
- Paddock, Richard (January 12, 2008). "Native Americans Say Berkeley Is No Place for Their Ancestors". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2020. Alternate URL.
- "Activists hold graphic protest against university's Tyson Foods contract". SFBay. August 25, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Sairam, Amudha; Finman, Kate (October 30, 2020). "ASUC Senate promotes student advocacy initiatives". The Daily Californian. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- "Corporate University: How Pour Out Pepsi is Democratizing UC Berkeley". The Leaflet. April 28, 2021. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Burress, Charles (May 21, 2005). "BERKELEY / Embattled UC teacher is granted tenure / Critic of campus' ties with biotech lost initial bid". SFGATE. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
- Anna Armstrong (May 17, 2022). "'Unchecked pain and misery': PETA files complaint against campus labs". The Daily Californian. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
- "Dehydrated monkeys with "sunken eyes" found suffering at UC Berkeley lab". Newsweek. June 21, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
- Schwab, Frank (June 17, 2013). "Cal's new stadium renovation leaves school with huge debt to pay off". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- Asimov, Nanette (June 17, 2013). "Cal scrambling to cover stadium bill". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- "U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations" (Press release). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved July 14, 2014.
- Sam Levin (April 6, 2016). "Disturbing details of sexual harassment scandal at UC Berkeley revealed in files". The Guardian.
- O'Kane, Caitlin (July 29, 2019). "UC Berkeley and four other schools removed from Best Colleges list for misreporting statistics". CBS News. Retrieved July 30, 2019.
- Chotiner, Isaac (April 28, 2022). "A Clash Over Housing Pits U.C. Berkeley Against Its Neighbors". The New Yorker. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Lowrey, Annie (February 26, 2022). "NIMBYism Reaches Its Apotheosis". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Gohlke, Josh (February 17, 2022). "UC Berkeley enrollment freeze shows CA NIMBYism run amok". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Demsas, Jerusalem (May 24, 2022). "The People Who Hate People". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Levenson, Michael (March 3, 2022). "U.C. Berkeley Must Freeze Enrollment, California Supreme Court Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Hubler, Shawn (March 11, 2022). "Legislators Find Way to Let U.C. Berkeley Increase Its Enrollment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- Wilson, Reid (March 15, 2022). "California Gov. Newsom raises UC Berkeley enrollment cap". The Hill. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
- "UC Berkeley housing shortage leaves students scrambling". East Bay Times. June 21, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
- "The top 50 US colleges that pay off the most in 2020". CNBC. July 28, 2020.
- Medina, Jennifer (July 19, 2018). "You've Heard of Berkeley. Is Merced the Future of the University of California?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
The disparity between the state's population and its university enrollment is most stark at the state's flagship campuses: at University of California, Los Angeles, Latinos make up about 21 percent of all students; at Berkeley, they account for less than 13 percent.
- "Gov. Brown says 'normal' Californians can't get into Berkeley, a problem some Californians blame on Brown". www.insidehighered.com. January 23, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "Engines of Inequality: Diminishing Equity in the Nation's Premier Public Universities" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
- "Editorial Style Guide". Light the Way: The Campaign for Berkeley. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- "Do you call it Cal or Berkeley? UC school may rebrand to Cal Berkeley for sports". Los Angeles Times. September 21, 2023. Retrieved October 9, 2023.
- "About UC – Shared Governance". The University of California. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Organizational Chart – Senior Administration" (PDF). UC Berkeley. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Past Chancellors". berkeley.edu.
- Berryhill, Alex (February 20, 2013). "UC Berkeley looks to philanthropy in place of state funding". The Daily Californian. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Marjorie Valbrun (March 2, 2020). "Berkeley launches ambitious $6-billion fundraising campaign". Inside Higher Ed.
- Ron Leuty (December 15, 2021). "New Institute will fund Stanford, Berkeley, UCSF scientists targeting complex human diseases". San Francisco Business Times.
- "UC Berkeley sets fundraising record at $569M in donations during 2017–18 fiscal year". Daily Californian. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
- "Berkeley launches 'Light the Way' fundraising campaign, aims for $6 Billion". Daily Californian. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- Kathleen Chaykowski (September 21, 2016). "Chan Zuckerberg Iinitiative invests $3 billion to cure disease". Forbes.
- Rick DelVecchio, San Francisco Chronicle staff writer (February 2, 2007). "Berkeley/Cal sees BP deal as landmark/Research could lead more quickly to making alternative fuel a reality". SFGATE.com.
- "Committed grants". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Retrieved September 3, 2022.
- "University of California Annual Report on University Private Support" (PDF). University of California Office of the President. November 13, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
- Cromwell Schubarth (July 20, 2015). "Facebook Twitter nvestor bankrolls $100M Berkeley search for life in space". Silicon Valley Business Journal.
- "UC Berkeley Receives $40 million from Li Ka Shing Foundation". Philanthropy News Digest. June 25, 2005.
- Sanders, Robert (June 23, 2005). "$40-million gift from Li Ka-Shing Foundation boosts health science research". UC Berkeley Media Relations. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
- Julia Cooper (November 13, 2020). "Largest UC Berkeley Contributors". San Francisco Business Times.
- "The Campaign for Berkeley". www.campaign.berkeley.edu.
- "Carnegie Classifications: University of California-Berkeley". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- "Statement of Accreditation Status: University of California at Berkeley". Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2019–2020". University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis.
- "Degrees Offered at the University of California, Berkeley" (PDF). Office of Planning and Analysis, UC-Berkeley. July 1, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "Berkeley Facts". UC Berkeley. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "General Catalog – Undergraduate Degree Requirements". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on September 12, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "Graduate Degree Programs University of California, Berkeley". guide.berkeley.edu. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "Berkeley Graduate Profile". UC Berkeley. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- "Table 20. Campus funding for sponsored research tops $1 billion for first time". Berkeley News. August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
- "Cal Facts" (PDF). admissions.berkeley.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
- "About UC Berkeley: Honors and Awards". Berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "National Academy of Engineering members". Berkeley Engineering. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
- "Nine faculty elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". news.berkeley.edu. April 23, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
- "Berkeley Library Facts" (PDF). www.lib.berkeley.edu.
- "New addition to UC Berkeley Main Library dedicated to former UC President David Gardner". Berkeley.edu. June 12, 1997. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "The Nation's Largest Libraries". American Library Association. July 7, 2006. Archived from the original on November 25, 2022.
- "Mark Twain Papers – UC Berkeley Library". www.lib.berkeley.edu.
- "Oral History Center – UC Berkeley Library". www.lib.berkeley.edu.
- "The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri – UC Berkeley Library". www.lib.berkeley.edu.
- "University Archives – UC Berkeley Library". www.lib.berkeley.edu.
- "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
- "Forbes America's Top Colleges List 2023". Forbes. Retrieved September 22, 2023.
- "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings 2022". The Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
- "2023-2024 Best National Universities". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 22, 2023.
- "2022 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
- "ShanghaiRanking's Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- "QS World University Rankings 2024: Top global universities". Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
- "World University Rankings 2024". Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 27, 2023.
- "2022-23 Best Global Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
- "USA—CWUR World University Rankings 2018–2019". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Zadrozny, Brandy (November 6, 2014). "College Rankings 2014". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company LLC. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes.
- "Kiplinger's Best College Values". The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. December 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "Money's Best Colleges". Money. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "QS World University Rankings: USA 2021". Top Universities. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- "The Top American Research Universities" (PDF). The Center for Measuring University Performance. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "2022–2023 Top Public Colleges & Universities". usnews.com. Retrieved September 13, 2022.
- "CWUR World University Rankings 2020–2021". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "10 institutions that dominated science in 2017". June 12, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- "Introduction to the Nature Index". Retrieved May 28, 2019.
- Kerr, Clark (October 16, 2001). The Gold and the Blue, Volume One: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949–1967, Academic Triumphs. University of California Press. pp. 404–406. ISBN 978-0-520-22367-7.
- "Birds? Planes? No, colossal 'super-brands': Top Six Universities". Times Higher Education (THE). January 1, 1990. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "Six 'superbrands': their reputations precede them". Times Higher Education (THE). March 10, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "World Reputation Rankings 2016: winning recognition worldwide". Times Higher Education (THE). May 4, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "World University Rankings blog: how the 'university superbrands' compare". Times Higher Education (THE). May 10, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "World Reputation Rankings 2018". Times Higher Education. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "2010 Rankings: Doctoral Programs in America". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- "College Scorecard: University of California-Berkeley". United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
- "University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set". University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis.
- "Full-Time MBA Financial Aid – Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley". Haas.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Financial Aid". Berkeley Law. April 10, 2015.
- "Six UC campuses to redirect national merit funding to other merit-based scholarships". University of California Newsroom. July 13, 2005. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008.
- NMSC 2018–19 Annual Report (Report). National Merit Scholarship Corporation. October 31, 2019. pp. 38–40.
- "NMSC 2018–19 Annual Report" (PDF). National Merit Scholarship Corporation. October 31, 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2021.
- "Pell Grant". UC Regents. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- "History & discoveries". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- "Melvin Calvin – Facts". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "It's Elementary: Berkeley Can Bask in the Glow as More Elements Hit Periodic Table". Cal Alumni Association. January 7, 2016. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Lawrence Livermore credited with discovery of elements 115, 117 and 118". Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020" (PDF). www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
- "Ernest Lawrence – Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
- Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2007). "Emerson, Gladys Anderson". Encyclopedia of World Scientists. Infobase. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-4381-1882-6.
- Reilly, Edwin D. (2003). Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 50. ISBN 1-57356-521-0.
- Turner, Wallace (May 3, 1983). "Joel Hildebrand, 101, Chemist; Joined U. of California in 1913". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- Shepard, Kiera. "Lie Detection: The Science and Development of the Polygraph". USC Viterbi School of Engineering. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- Ritchie, Dennis M.; Thompson, Ken (July 1978). "The UNIX Time-Sharing System" (PDF). Bell System Tech. J. AT&T. 57 (6): 1905–1929. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1978.tb02136.x. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Nagel, Laurence (September 30, 1996). "The Life of SPICE" (PDF). The Designer's Guide Community. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2012.
- "100 Important Innovations That Came From University Research – Online Universities". August 27, 2012.
- "Chenming Hu". National Science & Technology Medal Foundation. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
- "Bill Joy". UC Berkeley.
- Taylor, Michael (May 11, 2008). "Hugh Bradner, UC's inventor of wetsuit, dies". SFGate. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- "Innovation and Entrepreneurship | Research UC Berkeley". vcresearch.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "In startup sweepstakes, it's Cal vs. Stanford". Berkeley News. September 9, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "UC Berkeley third-largest producer of entrepreneurs, report says | The Daily Californian". The Daily Californian. August 18, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- "UC Berkeley is No. 1 in global entrepreneurship". University of California. September 16, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- "The University Entrepreneurship Report – Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals". CB Insights Research. October 29, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- "One University To Rule Them All: Stanford Tops Startup List – ReadWrite". ReadWrite. December 3, 2012. Retrieved November 23, 2017.
- "Cal's plan to shrink a big, impersonal campus". University of California. May 8, 2014. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
- "Chernin Entertainment". Audiovisual Identity Database. January 20, 2023. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
- Cohen, Adam (June 16, 2002). "The Perfect Store". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- "Pierre Omidyar". Forbes. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- "2020 CENSUS – CENSUS BLOCK MAP: Berkeley city, CA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 4 (PDF p. 5/5). Retrieved July 1, 2023. – Compare to the campus map here
- "OpenStreetMap Oakland". openstreetmap.org. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Moving to Berkeley". Berkeley Postdoctoral Association. Archived from the original on February 29, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
- "Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Research UC Berkeley". vcresearch.berkeley.edu. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
- "Online Exhibit on the Hearst Architectural Competition". Sunsite.berkeley.edu. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "The 10 Tallest University Clock Towers". Best College Reviews. May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- "University of California, Berkeley Campus". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- McCoy, Esther (1960). Five California Architects. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. p. 6. ASIN B000I3Z52W.
- "UC Berkeley Strawberry Creek". Strawberrycreek.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Hayward Fault: UC Berkeley". seismo.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- "California Golden Bears – Traditions". Calbears.collegesports.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2005. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "University of California Marching Band ~ About Us". Calband.berkeley.edu. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "Home". UC Rally Committee. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Bear Traditions". Days of Cal. Sunsite.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on January 27, 1998. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "California Golden Bears – Traditions". Calbears.collegesports.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2006. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "California Golden Bears – Traditions". Calbears.collegesports.com. September 7, 1991. Archived from the original on December 12, 2004. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Home". Cal Spirit. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
- "Home". Usca.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "University of California—Berkeley Student Life". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
- "About CalGreeks". ASUC Student Union LEADCenter. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- "Welcome to CalGreeks.com". CalGreeks. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- "Student Action Webpage". Studentaction.org. Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "CalSERVE Webpage". Calserve.org. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- Associated Students of the University of California#List of executive officers
- "ASUC Bylaw 3206: CalTV". ASUC Central Drive (Google Drive).
- "Campus Description—UC Berkeley". University of California. June 2, 2006. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
- "About the Residence Hall Assembly". rha.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- "The Berkeley Group". The Berkeley Group. February 11, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
- "Berkeley Consulting". Retrieved January 23, 2018.
- "Official weblink to ImagiCal". Archived from the original on September 24, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "The Berkeley Forum". Forum.berkeley.edu. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
- "DeCal". Democratic Education at Cal. Archived from the original on November 4, 1999. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
- "DeCal Courses". Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
- "SEB Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- "STAR Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "FSAE Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- "FEB Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- "CalSol Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "CalSMV Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "HPV Website". UC Berkeley. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
- "UC Berkeley To Join ACC 2024-25 Academic Year". Calbears.com. California Golden Bears. September 1, 2023. Retrieved December 3, 2023.
- "State Colors". State-Wide News. University Bulletin. 2 (4): 18. August 24, 1953. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Resource Guide: Student history". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "GOVERNMENT CODE – GOV TITLE 1. GENERAL [100–7914] (Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134.) DIVISION 2. STATE SEAL, FLAG, AND EMBLEMS [399–447] (Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134.)". California Legislative Information Code Section. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Athletics Brand Identity Guidelines: Color". Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Colors". Berkeley, University of California. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "The Scrum Axe ... what IS it?". Bear Insider.
- "California Golden Bears Olympians". calbears.com. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
- "2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings" (PDF). CBS Interactive. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 11, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "Director's Cup results 07–08". Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- "Director's Cup results 10–11" (PDF). Retrieved March 2, 2012.
- Yen, Ruey (November 9, 2017). "Big Splash + Big Kick: Cal vs. Stanford in Men's Water Polo and Men's Soccer". California Golden Blogs. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- "Berkeley Law Distinguished Alumni". sfgate.com. February 26, 2012.
- "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. August 11, 2023.
- "Her Norwegian heritage drew her to projects with the Norwegian Consulate in San Francisco and the Norwegian American Cultural Society, and she hosted a party for Crown Prince Haakon Magnus when he graduated from UC Berkeley in 1999."Carolyne Zinko (July 3, 2008). "Sigrun Corrigan, Bay Area arts patron, dies". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "12.06.2004 – Renowned mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern, who revitalized the study of geometry, has died at 93 in Tianjin, China". www.berkeley.edu. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "BCTP History". ctp.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "History". Space Sciences Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 16, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Berkeley Lab History – 75 Years of World-Class Science". history.lbl.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Nomination Database Gilbert N. Lewis". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- "Gilbert N. Lewis". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- "Gilbert Newton Lewis | Lemelson-MIT Program". lemelson.mit.edu. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- Harris, Reviewed By Harold H. (November 1, 1999). "A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis)". Journal of Chemical Education. 76 (11): 1487. Bibcode:1999JChEd..76.1487H. doi:10.1021/ed076p1487. ISSN 0021-9584.
- "Days of Cal | Glenn T. Seaborg". vm136.lib.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Glenn T. Seaborg – His Biography". www2.lbl.gov. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "University of California: In Memoriam, March 1976". texts.cdlib.org. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- "Janet Yellen | Faculty Directory | Berkeley-Haas". facultybio.haas.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- "Faculty profiles | Department of Economics". www.econ.berkeley.edu. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Maugh, Thomas. "Harvey Itano dies at 89; researcher whose studies provided a breakthrough on sickle cell disease". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- University of California, Berkeley at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Weinstock, Maia. "Channeling Ada Lovelace: Chien-Shiung Wu, Courageous Hero of Physics". Scientific American. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Shampo, MA (July 2002). "Kary Mullis—Nobel Laureate for Procedure to Replicate DNA". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 77 (7): 606. doi:10.4065/77.7.606. PMID 12108595.
- Tryon, Edward P. (1973). "Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?". Nature. 246 (5433): 396–397. Bibcode:1973Natur.246..396T. doi:10.1038/246396a0. S2CID 4166499.
- Impey, Chris (2012). How It Began: A Time-Travelers Guide To the Universe (First ed.). New York, United States: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-393-08002-5.
- Parsons, Paul (2001). The Big Bang: The Birth of Our Universe. London: DK Publishing, Inc. p. 36. ISBN 0-7894-8161-8.
- Hipwell, Deirdre (September 1, 2005). "Obituaries – Professor John Bahcall". London: The Times(United Kingdom). Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- "Peter Smith Named Thomas R. Brown Distinguished Chair in Integrative Science". University of Arizona (Press release). University Communications. March 15, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- "NASA Spacecraft Confirms Martian Water, Mission Extended". NASA. July 31, 2008.
- Apple Computer was co-founded by Steve Wozniak( BS 1986). Harriet Stix (May 14, 1986). "A UC Berkeley Degree Is Now the Apple of Steve Wozniak's Eye". Los Angeles Times.
- Intel was co-founded by Gordon Moore (BS 1950). Jose Rodriguez (July 17, 1996). "Intel chairman awarded UC Berkeley's highest honor at Silicon Valley tribute". University of California at Berkeley Public Information Office.
- LSI Logic was cofounded by Robert Walker (BS EE 1958). "Contributors (August 1970)". IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 5 (4): 168–169. August 1970. Bibcode:1970IJSSC...5..168.. doi:10.1109/JSSC.1970.1050102. ISSN 0018-9200.
- The Gap was founded by Donald Fisher (BS 1951), who served as its inaugural president and chairman of the board. "Business Visionary Don Fisher, BS 51". Obituaries. Cal Business. University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business (Fall 2009). Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- MySpace was cofounded by Tom Anderson (BA 1998). Owen Gibson (June 23, 2008). "200 million friends and counting". The Guardian (publication in the United Kingdom). London.
- PowerBar was cofounded by Brian Maxwell (BA 1975) and his wife Jennifer Maxwell (BS 1988). "Cal mourns passing of Brian Maxwell, former coach, runner, PowerBar founder, and philanthropist". UC Berkeley News. March 22, 2004.
- Berkeley Systems and MoveOn.org were cofounded by Joan Blades (BA 1977). Hawkes, Ellen. "Joan Blades". Women of the Year 2003. Ms. Magazine (Winter 2003). Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Bolt, Beranek and Newman was cofounded by Richard Bolt (BA 1933, MA 1937, PhD 1939). Leo L. Beranek (1979). "Acoustical Society of America Gold Medal Award – 1979 Richard Henry Bolt". Acoustical Society of America. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012.
- Chez Panisse was founded by Alice Waters (BA 1967). Martin, Andrew. "Alice Waters". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2010.; and Marian Burros (August 14, 1996). "Alice Waters: Food Revolutionary". The New York Times.
- GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice) was cofounded by Craig Walker (BA 1988, JD 1995). "A Symposium on Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship March 7–8, 2008 – Speakers". Berkeley Technology Law Journal. Berkeley Center for Law & Technology. 2008. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008.
- HTC Corporation and VIA Technologies were cofounded by Cher Wang (BA 1980, MA 1981). Laura Holson (October 26, 2008). "With Smartphones, Cher Wang Made Her Own Fortune". The New York Times.
- Marvell Technology Group was founded by Weili Dai, (BA Computer Science 1984) and her husband Sehat Sutardja (MS 1983, PhD 1988 EECS) and brother-in-law Pantas Sutardjai (MS 1983, PhD 1988 ). Sarah Yang (February 27, 2009). "Dedication of new CITRIS headquarters marks new stage of innovation to help fuel economic growth". University of California, Berkeley and the UC Regents.
- Opsware was cofounded by In Sik Rhee (BS EECS 1993).David Sheff (August 2008). "Crank it up". Wired Magazine.
- RedOctane was cofounded by brothers Charles Huang (BA 1992 ) and Kai Huang (BA CS 1994). Don Steinberg (October 1, 2008). "Just Play – Guitar Hero". Inc Magazine.
- Ward, Stephanie Francis (September 12, 2012). "Moradzadeh and Silberman Maintain High-Tech, No-Pomp Practice". ABA Journal. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- SanDisk was cofounded by Sanjay Mehrotra (BS 1978, MS EE 1980). "Corporate Officers". SanDisk.
- Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker was cofounded by John Scharffenberger (BA 1973). Jessica Kwong (January 29, 2009). "Berkeley Scharffen Berger Factory to Close". Daily Californian. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- VMware was cofounded by Edward Wang (BS EECS 1983, MS 1988, PhD 1994), along with Diane Greene (MS CS 1988) and her husband Mendel Rosenblum (MS 1989, PhD 1992). "VMware Leadership". VMware.
- Zilog was cofounded by Ralph Ungermannn (BSEE 1964). Lawrence M. Fisher (February 19, 1988). "Business People: Ungermann-Bass Chairman Finds a Merger He Likes". The New York Times.
- DHL was cofounded by Larry Hillblom (Law 1969). Saul Hansell (May 23, 1995). "Larry L. Hillblom, 52, Founder Of DHL Worldwide Express". The New York Times.
- KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth) was cofounded by John Hanke (MBA 1996). "Haas Alumnus Maps the Future at Google Earth". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
- Sun Microsystems was cofounded by Bill Joy (MS 1982). "2009 Goff Smith Lecture: Bill Joy, The Promise of Green Technologies". University of Michigan College of Engineering. October 16, 2009. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009.
- The Learning Company was cofounded by Warren Robinett (MS 1976). Kuekes, P. J.; Robinett, W.; Williams, R. S. (September 2006). "Effect of Conductance Variability on Resistor-Logic Demultiplexers for Nanoelectronics". IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology. 5 (5): 446–454. Bibcode:2006ITNan...5..446K. doi:10.1109/TNANO.2006.880405. ISSN 1536-125X. S2CID 26435923.
- John Riccitiello (BS 1981) has served as the CEO of Electronic Arts since 2007, and previously served as the president and COO of the company from 1996 to 2003. He is also the cofounder of Elevation Partners (with U2 singer Bono). HarmonyService (Fall 2007). "University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business – John Riccitiello, BS 81". Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Eric Schmidt (MS 1979, PhD 1982) has been the CEO of Google since 2001. Pescovitz, David (May 27, 2014). "Eric Schmidt Searches and Finds Success (Again)". Lab Notes: Research from the Berkeley College of Engineering. College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley. 3 (1 (Jan/Feb 2003)). Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Shantanu Narayen (MBA 1993) has been the CEO of Adobe Systems since 2007. "Shantanu Narayen MBA 93". University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business. 2009.
- Paul Jacobs (BS 1984, MS 1986, PhD 1989 EECS) has been the CEO of Qualcomm since 2005. Abby Cohn (November 2008). "Mobile Phone Metamorphosis". "Innovations" by UC Berkeley College of Engineering. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- "Berkeley Unix worked so well that DARPA chose it for the preferred 'universal computing environment' to link ARPANET research nodes, thus setting in place an essential piece of infrastructure for the later growth of the Internet. An entire generation of computer scientists cut their teeth on Berkeley Unix. Without it, the Net might well have evolved into a shape similar to what it is today, but with it, the Net exploded." Andrew Leonard (May 16, 2000). "BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code". Salon.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2005.
- Deutsch was awarded a 1992 citation by the Association for Computing Machinery for his work on Interlisp("ACM Award Citation – L. Peter Deutsch". Archived from the original on May 4, 2012.)
- L. Peter Deutsch is profiled on pages 30, 31, 43, 53, 54, 66 (which mentions Deutsch beginning his freshman year at Berkeley), and page 87 in the following book: Steven Levy (January 2, 2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-385-19195-2.
- L. Peter Deutsch is profiled in pages 69, 70–72, 118, 146, 227, 230, 280, 399 of the following book: Michael A. Hiltzik (March 3, 1999). Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age. Collins Business. ISBN 0-88730-891-0.
- "Fellow Awards – Charles Thacker". Computer History Museum. 2007.
- Michael A. Hiltzik (March 3, 1999). Dealers of Lightning: Xerox Parc and the Dawn of the Computer Age. Collins Business. p. 70. ISBN 0-88730-891-0.
- Elizabeth Weise (March 15, 2010). "Charles Thacker wins Turing Award, computing's 'Nobel prize'". USA Today.
- Lawrence M. Fisher (February 27, 1994). "Sound Bytes; On Building a Better Highway". The New York Times.
- Andrew Leonard (May 16, 2000). "BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code". Salon.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2005.
- Rachel Chalmers (May 17, 2000). "The unknown hackers – Open-source pioneers Bill and Lynne Jolitz may be the most famous programmers you've never heard of". Salon.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2005.
- E-Soft Inc (January 1, 2012). "Mail (MX) Server Survey". Security Space.
- "eXperimental Computer Facility's proud present and impressive past". Engineering News. February 10, 2003. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2009.
- Pei-Yuan Wei's contributions are profiled on pages 56, 64, 68, and 83, in the World Wide Web creator's autobiography (Tim Berners-Lee (November 7, 2001). Weaving the Web. Collins Business. ISBN 0-06-251586-1.)
- Tim Berners-Lee (November 7, 2001). Weaving the Web. Collins Business. pp. 68, 83. ISBN 0-06-251586-1.
- "General Walton H. Walker had ordered her out of Korea..... Like many another soldier, old and young, General Walker was convinced that women do not belong in a combat zone... General Douglas MacArthur reversed Walker's ruling. To the Herald Tribune, MacArthur sent a soothing telegram: 'Ban on women correspondents in Korea has been lifted. Marguerite Higgins is held in highest professional esteem by everyone.'" "The Press: Last Word". Time. July 31, 1950. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
- "The Press: Pride of the Regiment". Time. September 25, 1950. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011.
- "Columnists: Lady at War". Time. January 14, 1966. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011.
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (2008). "Robert Penn Warren". The Biography Channel. Archived from the original on August 30, 2010.
- Nominated for seven Academy Awards, All the King's Men won Oscars for Best Picture of 1949, Best Actor (Broderick Crawford), and Best Supporting Actress (Mercedes McCambridge) Bosley Crowther (2007). "All the King's Men – Review Summary". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- Shannon Lee (April 23, 2009). "Journalism School Alumna Part Of Pulitzer-Prize Winning Staff". The Daily Californian. Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- Vance, Ashlee (April 12, 2010). "Matt Richtel". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
- "Matt Richtel". The Pulitzer Prizes. 2010.
- Cathy Cockrell (September 14, 2005). "Leon Litwack Rocks". The Berkeleyan and the UC Berkeley NewsCenter.
- Cathy Cockrell (May 8, 2007). "Leon Litwack's last stand". UC Berkeley NewsCenter (University of California, Berkeley).
- "The Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes – Columbia University.
- Freida Lee Mock (BA 1961) won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 1995 for Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision. "Behind the Lens – Extended Interviews with POV Filmmakers". Public Broadcasting Service and American Documentary Inc. March 4, 2011. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2011 for Inside Job. Andrew Pulver (February 28, 2011). "Oscars 2011: Inside Job banks best documentary award". The Guardian (United Kingdom).
- Jawad Qadir (March 31, 2010). "UC Berkeley Professor Mixes Sound for Award Winning Films". The Daily Californian. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
- "Talk of the Gown – Blues in the News". California Magazine. Cal Alumni Association. June 2003.
- Sandra Fischione Donovan (March 12, 2010). "Beaver County native wins fourth Oscar for visual effects". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review.
- "Haas NewsWire, February 20, 2001". Haas School of Business and the University of California, Berkeley. February 20, 2001. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008.
- "Television Program Faculty and Lecturers". Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and the Regents of the University of California. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009.
- "Asian Hall of Fame – Induction Ceremony". Robert Chinn Foundation. 2007. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- "Meet the Team – Kristen Sze". KGO News. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008.
- "Colon Cancer Claims Veteran Journalist Leroy Sievers". ABC News. August 16, 2008.
- "MegaMetro NewsCenter Story Archives June–August 2000". MegaMetro TV NewsCenter. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Maynard, John (June 19, 2005). "Youth Is Served At Local Emmys". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- "Elisabeth Leamy Bio". ABC News. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- "Stewart Copeland". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. 2013. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013.
- "SuChin Pak Biography – Reporter, Host and Interviewer – MTV News". MTV.
- "Stephan Jenkins: Musician". People Magazine. May 10, 1999.
- "One-of-a-Kind Recording Project Fills Fantasy Studios: Karen Lile, an independent executive producer and co-owner of Piano Finders brings together Grammy winners and top producers for one special benefit album". Music Trades Magazine. Published continuously since 1890 (The Global Issue): 40–42. December 2018.
- Witt, Fred (February 18, 2019). "2 Weeks Inside Studio D, of Fantasy Studios". KCSM Jazz News. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
- Gregorian, Dareh (May 28, 2000). "LENNON'S PAL WANTS $1.6M FOR 'LOST' PIANO". New York Post. Retrieved September 5, 2023.
- Fusek, Maggie (September 2, 2023). "Lennon, Ono, Warhol Linked To Lost Baldwin by Bay Area Experts: The story behind the iconic Lennon-Ono-Green-Warhol piano valued over $3 million and how a Walnut Creek-based pair proved its authenticity". Patch. Retrieved September 4, 2023.
- "Michele Tafoya 's Monday Night Football Sideline Reporter; Play-By-Play and Sideline Commentator". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008.
- Daniel Roberts and Pablo S. Torre (April 11, 2012). "Jerry Maguire aspires to be you". Sports illustrated.
- Jerry Maguire was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, and won for Best Supporting Actor (Cuba Gooding, Jr.).
- "The six medals she won are the most by an American woman in any sport, breaking the record she tied four years ago. Her career total matches the third-most by any U.S. athlete." Jaime Aron (August 17, 2008). "Coughlin's 6 medals most by a US woman". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011.
- "Masayoshi Son". Forbes. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
- "Jon Stryker". Forbes. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- "Kutayba Alghanim". Forbes. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- Robinson, Edward (August 3, 2011). "Publicity Shy Tycoon Forging Modern Peru Amid Expanding Economy". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
- "Democratic Donor Built up Vast $8bn Private Wealth Fund in Bermuda". The Guardian. November 7, 2007.
Further reading edit
- Brechin, Gray (1999). Imperial San Francisco. UC Press Ltd. ISBN 0-520-21568-0.
- Cerny, Susan Dinkelspiel (2001). Berkeley Landmarks: An Illustrated Guide to Berkeley, California's Architectural Heritage. Berkeley Architectural Heritage Association. ISBN 0-9706676-0-4.
- Freeman, Jo (2003). At Berkeley in the Sixties: The Education of an Activist, 1961–1965. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21622-2.
- Helfand, Harvey (2001). University of California, Berkeley. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-293-3.
- Rorabaugh, W. J. (1990). Berkeley at War: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506667-7.
- Wiseman, Frederick (Director) (2013). At Berkeley (Motion picture). Zipporah Films.
- Wong, Geoffrey (May 2001). A Golden State of Mind. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-55212-635-8.