Darwin (operating system)
Darwin is an open-source Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000. It is composed of code developed by Apple, as well as code derived from NeXTSTEP, BSD, Mach, and other free software projects.
|Written in||C, C++, Objective-C, assembly language|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||November 15, 2000|
|Latest release||20.3.0 (December 16, 2020)|
|Platforms||Current: x86-64, 64-bit ARM|
Historical: PowerPC, IA-32, 32-bit ARM (32-bit ARM support was closed-source)
|Default user interface||Command-line interface|
|License||Mostly Apple Public Source License (APSL), with closed-source drivers|
Darwin forms the core set of components upon which macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X), iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and iPadOS are based. It is mostly POSIX-compatible, but has never, by itself, been certified as compatible with any version of POSIX. Starting with Leopard, macOS has been certified as compatible with the Single UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3).
The heritage of Darwin began with NeXT's NeXTSTEP operating system (later, since version 4.0, known as OPENSTEP), first released in 1989. After Apple bought NeXT in 1997, it announced it would base its next operating system on OPENSTEP. This was developed into Rhapsody in 1997, Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000, and Mac OS X 10.0 in 2001.
In 1999, Apple announced it would release the Mach 2.5 microkernel, BSD Unix 4.4 OS, and the Apache Web server components of Mac OS X Server. At the time interim CEO Steve Jobs alluded to British naturalist Charles Darwin by announcing "because it's about evolution". In 2000, the core operating system components of Mac OS X were released as open-source software under the Apple Public Source License (APSL) as Darwin; the higher-level components, such as the Cocoa and Carbon frameworks, remained closed-source.
Up to Darwin 8.0.1, Apple released a binary installer (as an ISO image) after each major Mac OS X release that allowed one to install Darwin on PowerPC and Intel x86 systems as a standalone operating system. Minor updates were released as packages that were installed separately. Darwin is now only available as source code.
The kernel of Darwin is XNU, a hybrid kernel which uses OSFMK 7.3 (Open Software Foundation Mach Kernel) from the OSF, various elements of FreeBSD (including the process model, network stack, and virtual file system), and an object-oriented device driver API called I/O Kit. The hybrid kernel design provides the flexibility of a microkernel[failed verification – see discussion] and the performance of a monolithic kernel.
Hardware and software supportEdit
Darwin currently includes support for the 64-bit x86-64 variant of the Intel x86 processors used in Intel-based Macs and the 64-bit ARM processors used in the iPhone 5S and later, the 6th generation iPod Touch, the 7th generation iPad and later, the iPad Air family, the iPad Mini 2 and later, the iPad Pro family, the fourth generation and later Apple TVs, the HomePod family, and Macs with Apple Silicon such as the 2020 Apple M1 Macs. An open-source port of the XNU kernel exists that supports Darwin on Intel and AMD x86 platforms not officially supported by Apple, though it does not appear to have been updated since 2009. An open-source port of the XNU kernel also exists for ARM platforms. Older versions supported some or all of 32-bit PowerPC, 64-bit PowerPC, 32-bit x86, and 32-bit ARM.
It supports the POSIX API by way of its BSD lineage (largely FreeBSD userland) and a large number of programs written for various other UNIX-like systems can be compiled on Darwin with no changes to the source code.
Darwin does not include many of the defining elements of macOS, such as the Carbon and Cocoa APIs or the Quartz Compositor and Aqua user interface, and thus cannot run Mac applications. It does, however, support a number of lesser-known features of macOS, such as mDNSResponder, which is the multicast DNS responder and a core component of the Bonjour networking technology, and launchd, an advanced service management framework.
In July 2003, Apple released Darwin under version 2.0 of the Apple Public Source License (APSL), which the Free Software Foundation (FSF) classifies as a free software license incompatible with the GNU General Public License. Previous versions were released under an earlier version of the APSL license, which did not meet the FSF definition of free software, although it did meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition.
The following is a table of major Darwin releases with their dates of release and their corresponding macOS releases. Note that the corresponding macOS release may have been released on a different date; refer to the macOS pages for those dates.
|0.1||March 16, 1999||Mac OS X Server 1.0 releases||
|0.2||April 14, 1999||Mac OS X Server 1.0.1|
|0.3||August 5, 1999||Based on Rhapsody 5.5
|1.0||April 12, 2000||Developer preview 3
|1.1||April 5, 2000||Developer preview 4|
|1.2.1||November 15, 2000||Mac OS X Public Beta (code-named "Kodiak")|
|1.3.1||April 13, 2001||Mac OS X v10.0 (code-named "Cheetah")||
|1.4.1||October 2, 2001||Mac OS X v10.1 (code-named "Puma")|
|5.1||November 12, 2001||Mac OS X v10.1.1
|5.5||June 5, 2002||Mac OS X v10.1.5|
|6.0.1||September 23, 2002||Mac OS X v10.2 (code-named "Jaguar")|
|6.8||October 3, 2003||Mac OS X v10.2.8|
|7.0||October 24, 2003||Mac OS X Panther||Mac OS X v10.3.0|
|7.9||April 15, 2005||Mac OS X v10.3.9|
|8.0||April 29, 2005||Mac OS X v10.4.0
|8.11||November 14, 2007||Mac OS X v10.4.11|
|9.0||October 26, 2007||Mac OS X v10.5.0
|9.8||August 5, 2009||Mac OS X v.10.5.8|
|10.0||August 28, 2009||Mac OS X v10.6.0
|10.8||June 23, 2011||Mac OS X v10.6.8|
|11.0.0||July 20, 2011||Mac OS X v10.7.0
|11.4.2||October 4, 2012||Mac OS X v10.7.5 (supplemental)|
|12.0.0||February 16, 2012||OS X Mountain Lion||OS X v10.8.0|
|12.6.0||January 27, 2015||OS X v10.8.5 (with Security Update 2015-001)|
|13.0.0||June 11, 2013||OS X v10.9.0
|13.4.0||September 17, 2014||OS X v10.9.5|
|14.0.0||September 18, 2014||OS X v10.10.0|
|14.5.0||August 13, 2015||OS X v10.10.5|
|15.0.0||September 16, 2015||OS X v10.11.0 and iOS 9.0
|15.6.0||July 18, 2016||OS X v10.11.6 and iOS 9.3.3|
|16.0.0||September 13, 2016||macOS v10.12.0 and iOS 10.0.1 (initial release version)
|16.5.0||March 27, 2017||macOS v10.12.4 and iOS 10.3|
|16.6.0||July 19, 2017||macOS v10.12.6 and iOS 10.3.3|
|17.0.0||September 19, 2017||
|17.5.0||March 29, 2018||macOS 10.13.4
|17.6.0||June 1, 2018||macOS v10.13.5|
|17.7.0||July 9, 2018||macOS v10.13.6 and iOS 11.4.1|
|18.0.0||September 24, 2018|
|18.2.0||October 30, 2018||macOS v10.14.1 and iOS 12.1
|19.0.0||September 19, 2019|
|19.2.0||December 10, 2019||macOS 10.15.2 and iOS 13.3|
|19.3.0||January 28, 2020||macOS 10.15.3 and iOS 13.3.1
|19.4.0||March 24, 2020|
|19.5.0||April 30, 2020||macOS 10.15.5 and iOS 13.5|
|19.6.0||June 1, 2020||macOS 10.15.6 beta 2 and iOS 13.6.0 beta 2|
|20.0.0||June 22, 2020||macOS 11.0 beta 1 and iOS 14.0 beta 1|
|20.1.0||September 3, 2020||macOS 11.0 and iOS 14.0|
|20.2.0||November 12, 2020||macOS 11.1 and iOS 14.3|
|20.3.0||December 16, 2020||macOS 11.2 beta, iOS 14.4 beta, iPadOS 14.4 beta, watchOS 7.3 beta and tvOS 14.4 beta.|
The jump in version numbers from Darwin 1.4.1 to 5.1 with the release of Mac OS X v10.1.1 was designed to tie Darwin to the Mac OS X version and build numbering system, which in turn is inherited from NeXTSTEP. In the build numbering system of macOS, every version has a unique beginning build number, which identifies what whole version of macOS it is part of. Mac OS X v10.0 had build numbers starting with 4, 10.1 had build numbers starting with 5, and so forth (earlier build numbers represented developer releases).
Due to the free software nature of Darwin, there have been projects that aim to modify or enhance the operating system.
OpenDarwin was a community-led operating system based on the Darwin system. It was founded in April 2002 by Apple Inc. and Internet Systems Consortium. Its goal was to increase collaboration between Apple developers and the free software community. Apple benefited from the project because improvements to OpenDarwin would be incorporated into Darwin releases; and the free/open source community benefited from being given complete control over its own operating system, which could then be used in free software distributions such as GNU-Darwin.
On July 25, 2006, the OpenDarwin team announced that the project was shutting down, as they felt OpenDarwin had "become a mere hosting facility for Mac OS X related projects", and that the efforts to create a standalone Darwin operating system had failed. They also state: "Availability of sources, interaction with Apple representatives, difficulty building and tracking sources, and a lack of interest from the community have all contributed to this." The last stable release was version 7.2.1, released on July 16, 2004.
PureDarwin is a project to create a bootable operating system image from Apple's released source code for Darwin. Since the cessation of OpenDarwin and the release of bootable images since Darwin 8.x, it has been increasingly difficult to create a full operating system as many components become closed source. The project has managed to create an Xmas release based on Darwin 9 with an X11 GUI and a command-line only 17.4 Beta based on Darwin 17.
Other derived projectsEdit
- MacPorts (formerly DarwinPorts), Fink, and Homebrew are well known projects to port UNIX programs to the Darwin operating system and provide package management. In addition, several standard UNIX package managers—such as RPM, pkgsrc, and Portage—have Darwin ports. Some of these operate in their own namespace so as not to interfere with the base system.
- GNU-Darwin is a project that ports packages of free software to Darwin. They package OS images in a way similar to a Linux distribution.
- The Darwine project was a port of Wine that allows one to run Microsoft Windows software on Darwin.
- SEDarwin is a port of TrustedBSD mandatory access control framework and portions of the SELinux framework to Darwin. It was incorporated into Mac OS X 10.5.
- The Darbat project is an experimental port of Darwin to the L4 microkernel family. It aims to be binary compatible with existing Darwin binaries.
- The Darling project is a compatibility layer for running macOS binaries on Linux systems. It uses some Darwin source code.
- There are various projects that focus on driver support: e.g., wireless drivers, wired NIC drivers modem drivers, card readers, and the ext2 and ext3 file systems.
- "Kernel Architecture Overview". Kernel Programming Guide.
- "darwin-xnu/README.md at master". Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
- "Binary Drivers required for PureDarwin". Archived from the original on November 18, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
- "Mac OS X Leopard - Technology - UNIX". Leopard Technology Overview. Apple Inc. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008.
Leopard is now an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product, conforming to the SUSv3 and POSIX 1003.1 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads.
- The Open Group (May 18, 2007). "Mac OS X Version 10.5 Leopard on Intel-based Macintosh computers certification". Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- "macOS version 10.13 High Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Walsh, Jeff (March 22, 1999). "Apple goes open source with key OS components". InfoWorld. Vol. 21 no. 12. IDG InfoWorld. p. 40. Retrieved February 17, 2020.
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.archive .org /web /20161007041552 /https: //opensource .apple .com /static /iso /
- Jim Magee. WWDC 2000 Session 106 - Mac OS X: Kernel. 14 minutes in.
- "Mac Technology Overview: Kernel and Device Drivers Layer". Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- Singh, Amit (January 7, 2004). "XNU: The Kernel". Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- Roch, Benjamin. "Monolithic kernel vs. Microkernel". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.89.9877. Cite journal requires
- "Additional Features". Porting UNIX/Linux Applications to OS X. Apple Inc.
- "Voodoo XNU Kernel Source". Requires an Apache SVN client.
- "XNU on ARMv7".
- "FSF's Opinion of the Apple Public Source License (APSL) 2.0".
- "The Problems with older versions of the Apple Public Source License (APSL)".
- "Open Source Releases". Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- "Technical Note TN2029: Mac OS X v10.1". Apple Developer Connection. Archived from the original on November 14, 2001.
- Siracusa, John (September 5, 2002). "Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- Siracusa, John (November 9, 2003). "Mac OS X 10.3 Panther". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- Siracusa, John (April 28, 2005). "Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Siracusa, John (October 28, 2007). "Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Siracusa, John (August 31, 2009). "Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
- As found on a jailbroken iPhone 4S
- "SystemExtensions". Apple Developer Documentation.
- "DriverKit". Apple Developer Documentation.
- System Extensions and DriverKit. Apple Developer Documentation.
- Prabhakar, Ernie (November 9, 2001). "Darwin Version - New Scheme in Software Update 1". darwin-development (Mailing list). Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
- "OpenDarwin". OpenDarwin Project. Archived from the original on January 6, 2006.
- OpenDarwin Core Team and Administrators (July 25, 2006). "OpenDarwin Shutting Down". OpenDarwin Project. Archived from the original on August 4, 2006.
- "OpenDarwin 7.2.1 Released". August 5, 2004. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
- PureDarwin Xmas (2015)
- "PureDarwin 17.4 Beta". GitHub. PureDarwin. November 30, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- "Security Enhanced Darwin". SEDarwin. January 22, 2007. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011.
- "What's New In Mac OS X: Mac OS X v10.5". Mac OS X Reference Library. Apple Inc. November 13, 2009. Archived from the original on December 8, 2009.
- "L4/Darwin (aka Darbat)". Ertos.nicta.com.au. May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013.
- "Darling: macOS translation layer for Linux". www.darlinghq.org. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
- yuriwho (May 5, 2002). "WirelessDriver Home Page". Wirelessdriver.sourceforge.net. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "iwi2200 Darwin". SourceForge. March 27, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- "Port BSD tulip driver(s) to Darwin OS | Download Port BSD tulip driver(s) to Darwin OS software for free at". Sourceforge.net. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "RealTek network driver for Mac OS X/Darwin". SourceForge. March 15, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2010. Project inactive since March 15, 2006.
- fansui; et al. (August 1, 2007). "RTL8150LMEthernet". SourceForge. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- "ZyXEL Modem Drivers for OS X/Darwin | Download ZyXEL Modem Drivers for OS X/Darwin software for free at". Sourceforge.net. May 14, 2002. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Mac OS X PC Card ATA Driver". Pccardata.sourceforge.net. December 20, 2001. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Mac OS X Ext2 Filesystem | Download Mac OS X Ext2 Filesystem software for free at". Sourceforge.net. October 14, 2002. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "ext2 filesystem in user space". SourceForge. July 14, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2010.