OpenSSL

OpenSSL is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end. It is widely used by Internet servers, including the majority of HTTPS websites.

OpenSSL
OpenSSL logo.png
Developer(s)The OpenSSL Project
Initial release1998; 22 years ago (1998)
Stable release1.1.1h (September 22, 2020; 31 days ago (2020-09-22)[1]) [±]
Preview release3.0 Alpha 7 (15 October 2020; 8 days ago (2020-10-15)[2]) [±]
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written inC, assembly, Perl
TypeCryptography library
LicenseApache License 2.0[3]
Websitewww.openssl.org

OpenSSL contains an open-source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols. The core library, written in the C programming language, implements basic cryptographic functions and provides various utility functions. Wrappers allowing the use of the OpenSSL library in a variety of computer languages are available.

The OpenSSL Software Foundation (OSF) represents the OpenSSL project in most legal capacities including contributor license agreements, managing donations, and so on. OpenSSL Software Services (OSS) also represents the OpenSSL project, for Support Contracts.

OpenSSL is available for most Unix-like operating systems (including Linux, macOS, and BSD) and Microsoft Windows.

Project historyEdit

The OpenSSL project was founded in 1998 to provide a free set of encryption tools for the code used on the Internet. It is based on a fork of SSLeay by Eric Andrew Young and Tim Hudson, which unofficially ended development on December 17, 1998, when Young and Hudson both went to work for RSA Security. The initial founding members were Mark Cox, Ralf Engelschall, Stephen Henson, Ben Laurie, and Paul Sutton.[4]

As of May 2019,[5] the OpenSSL management committee consisted of 7 people[6] and there are 17 developers[7] with commit access (many of whom are also part of the OpenSSL management committee). There are only two full-time employees (fellows) and the remainder are volunteers.

The project has a budget of less than one million USD per year and relies primarily on donations. Development of TLS 1.3 is sponsored by Akamai.[8]

Major version releasesEdit

OpenSSL release history[9][10]
Version Original release date Comment Last minor version
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.1 December 23, 1998
  • Official start of the OpenSSL project
0.9.1c (December 23, 1998)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.2 March 22, 1999
  • Successor of 0.9.1c
0.9.2b (April 6, 1999)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.3 May 25, 1999
  • Successor of 0.9.2b
0.9.3a (May 27, 1999)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.4 August 9, 1999
  • Successor of 0.9.3a
0.9.4 (August 9, 1999)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.5 February 28, 2000
  • Successor of 0.9.4
0.9.5a (April 1, 2000)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.6 September 24, 2000
  • Successor of 0.9.5a
0.9.6m (March 17, 2004)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.7 December 31, 2002
  • Successor of 0.9.6m
0.9.7m (February 23, 2007)
Old version, no longer maintained: 0.9.8 July 5, 2005
  • Successor of 0.9.7m
0.9.8zh (December 3, 2015)
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.0 March 29, 2010
  • Successor of 0.9.8n
1.0.0t (December 3, 2015)
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.1[11] March 14, 2012 1.0.1u (September 22, 2016)
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0.2[12] January 22, 2015
  • Successor of 1.0.1
  • Supported until 2019-12-31 (Long Term Support)[13]
  • Suite B support for TLS 1.2 and DTLS 1.2
  • Support for DTLS 1.2
  • TLS automatic elliptic curve (EC) selection
  • API to set TLS supported signature algorithms and curves
  • SSL_CONF configuration API
  • TLS Brainpool support
  • ALPN support
  • CMS support for RSA-PSS, RSA-OAEP, ECDH and X9.42 DH
1.0.2u (December 20, 2019 (2019-12-20))
Old version, no longer maintained: 1.1.0[14] August 25, 2016 (2016-08-25)
  • Successor of 1.0.2h
  • Supported until 2019-09-11[13]
  • Support for BLAKE2 (RFC 7693)
  • Support for ChaCha20-Poly1305 (RFC 7539)
  • Support for X25519 (RFC 7748)
  • Support for DANE and Certificate Transparency
  • Support for CCM Ciphersuites
  • Support for extended master secret
  • SSLv2 removed
  • Kerberos ciphersuite support removed
  • RC4 and 3DES removed from DEFAULT ciphersuites in libssl
  • Remove DSS, SEED, IDEA, CAMELLIA, and AES-CCM from the DEFAULT cipherlist
  • 40 and 56 bit cipher support removed from libssl
1.1.0l (September 10, 2019 (2019-09-10))
Current stable version: 1.1.1[15] September 11, 2018 (2018-09-11) 1.1.1h (September 22, 2020 (2020-09-22))
Future release: 3.0.0 N/A N/A
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

AlgorithmsEdit

OpenSSL supports a number of different cryptographic algorithms:

Ciphers
AES, Blowfish, Camellia, Chacha20, Poly1305, SEED, CAST-128, DES, IDEA, RC2, RC4, RC5, Triple DES, GOST 28147-89,[18] SM4
Cryptographic hash functions
MD5, MD4, MD2, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3, RIPEMD-160, MDC-2, GOST R 34.11-94,[18] BLAKE2, Whirlpool,[19] SM3
Public-key cryptography
RSA, DSA, Diffie–Hellman key exchange, Elliptic curve, X25519, Ed25519, X448, Ed448, GOST R 34.10-2001,[18] SM2

(Perfect forward secrecy is supported using elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman since version 1.0.[20])

FIPS 140-2 complianceEdit

As of December 2012, OpenSSL is one of two open source programs involved in validation under the FIPS 140-2 computer security standard by the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP).[21] (OpenSSL itself is not validated, but a component called the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module, based on OpenSSL, was created to provide many of the same capabilities).[22][23]

A certificate was first awarded in January 2006 but revoked in July 2006 "when questions were raised about the validated module's interaction with outside software." The certification was reinstated in February 2007.[24]

LicensingEdit

OpenSSL is double licensed under the OpenSSL License and the SSLeay License, which means that the terms of both licenses apply.[25] The OpenSSL License is Apache License 1.0 and SSLeay License bears some similarity to a 4-clause BSD License.

As the OpenSSL License is Apache License 1.0, but not Apache License 2.0, it requires the phrase "this product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit" to appear in advertising material and any redistributions (Sections 3 and 6 of the OpenSSL License). Due to this restriction, the OpenSSL License and the Apache License 1.0 are incompatible with the GNU GPL.[26] Some GPL developers have added an OpenSSL exception to their licenses that specifically permits using OpenSSL with their system. GNU Wget and climm both use such exceptions.[27][28] Some packages (like Deluge) explicitly modify the GPL license by adding an extra section at the beginning of the license documenting the exception.[29] Other packages use the LGPL-licensed GnuTLS and MPL-licensed NSS, which both perform the same task.

OpenSSL announced in August 2015 that it would require most contributors to sign a Contributor License Agreement (CLA), and that OpenSSL would eventually be relicensed under the terms of Apache License 2.0.[30] This process commenced in March 2017,[31] and was complete in 2018.[32]

Notable vulnerabilitiesEdit

Timing attacks on RSA keysEdit

On March 14, 2003, a timing attack on RSA keys was discovered, indicating a vulnerability within OpenSSL versions 0.9.7a and 0.9.6. This vulnerability was assigned the identifier CAN-2003-0147 by the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) project. RSA blinding was not turned on by default by OpenSSL, since it is not easily possible to when providing SSL or TLS using OpenSSL.

Denial of service: ASN.1 parsingEdit

OpenSSL 0.9.6k had a bug where certain ASN.1 sequences triggered a large number of recursions on Windows machines, discovered on November 4, 2003. Windows could not handle large recursions correctly, so OpenSSL would crash as a result. Being able to send arbitrary large numbers of ASN.1 sequences would cause OpenSSL to crash as a result.

OCSP stapling vulnerabilityEdit

When creating a handshake, the client could send an incorrectly formatted ClientHello message, leading to OpenSSL parsing more than the end of the message. Assigned the identifier CVE-2011-0014 by the CVE project, this affected all OpenSSL versions 0.9.8h to 0.9.8q and OpenSSL 1.0.0 to 1.0.0c. Since the parsing could lead to a read on an incorrect memory address, it was possible for the attacker to cause a DoS. It was also possible that some applications expose the contents of parsed OCSP extensions, leading to an attacker being able to read the contents of memory that came after the ClientHello.[33]

ASN.1 BIO vulnerabilityEdit

When using Basic Input/Output (BIO)[34] or FILE based functions to read untrusted DER format data, OpenSSL is vulnerable. This vulnerability was discovered on April 19, 2012, and was assigned the CVE identifier CVE-2012-2110. While not directly affecting the SSL/TLS code of OpenSSL, any application that was using ASN.1 functions (particularly d2i_X509 and d2i_PKCS12) were also not affected.[35]

SSL, TLS and DTLS plaintext recovery attackEdit

In handling CBC cipher-suites in SSL, TLS, and DTLS, OpenSSL was found vulnerable to a timing attack during the MAC processing. Nadhem Alfardan and Kenny Paterson discovered the problem, and published their findings[36] on February 5, 2013. The vulnerability was assigned the CVE identifier CVE-2013-0169.

Predictable private keys (Debian-specific)Edit

OpenSSL's pseudo-random number generator acquires entropy using complex programming methods. To keep the Valgrind analysis tool from issuing associated warnings, a maintainer of the Debian distribution applied a patch to Debian's variant of the OpenSSL suite, which inadvertently broke its random number generator by limiting the overall number of private keys it could generate to 32,768.[37][38] The broken version was included in the Debian release of September 17, 2006 (version 0.9.8c-1), also compromising other Debian-based distributions, for example Ubuntu. Ready-to-use exploits are easily available.[39]

The error was reported by Debian on May 13, 2008. On the Debian 4.0 distribution (etch), these problems were fixed in version 0.9.8c-4etch3, while fixes for the Debian 5.0 distribution (lenny) were provided in version 0.9.8g-9.[40]

HeartbleedEdit

 
A logo representing the Heartbleed bug

OpenSSL versions 1.0.1 through 1.0.1f had a severe memory handling bug in their implementation of the TLS Heartbeat Extension that could be used to reveal up to 64 KB of the application's memory with every heartbeat[41][42] (CVE-2014-0160). By reading the memory of the web server, attackers could access sensitive data, including the server's private key.[43] This could allow attackers to decode earlier eavesdropped communications if the encryption protocol used does not ensure perfect forward secrecy. Knowledge of the private key could also allow an attacker to mount a man-in-the-middle attack against any future communications.[citation needed] The vulnerability might also reveal unencrypted parts of other users' sensitive requests and responses, including session cookies and passwords, which might allow attackers to hijack the identity of another user of the service.[44]

At its disclosure on April 7, 2014, around 17% or half a million of the Internet's secure web servers certified by trusted authorities were believed to have been vulnerable to the attack.[45] However, Heartbleed can affect both the server and client.

CCS injection vulnerabilityEdit

The CCS Injection Vulnerability (CVE-2014-0224) is a security bypass vulnerability that results from a weakness in OpenSSL methods used for keying material.[46]

This vulnerability can be exploited through the use of a man-in-the-middle attack,[47] where an attacker may be able to decrypt and modify traffic in transit. A remote unauthenticated attacker could exploit this vulnerability by using a specially crafted handshake to force the use of weak keying material. Successful exploitation could lead to a security bypass condition where an attacker could gain access to potentially sensitive information. The attack can only be performed between a vulnerable client and server.

OpenSSL clients are vulnerable in all versions of OpenSSL before the versions 0.9.8za, 1.0.0m and 1.0.1h. Servers are only known to be vulnerable in OpenSSL 1.0.1 and 1.0.2-beta1. Users of OpenSSL servers earlier than 1.0.1 are advised to upgrade as a precaution.[48]

ClientHello sigalgs DoSEdit

This vulnerability (CVE-2015-0291) allows anyone to take a certificate, read its contents and modify it accurately to abuse the vulnerability causing a certificate to crash a client or server. If a client connects to an OpenSSL 1.0.2 server and renegotiates with an invalid signature algorithms extension, a null-pointer dereference occurs. This can cause a DoS attack against the server.

A Stanford Security researcher, David Ramos, had a private exploit and presented it before the OpenSSL team where they patched the issue.

OpenSSL classified the bug as a high-severity issue, noting version 1.0.2 was found vulnerable.[49]

Key recovery attack on Diffie–Hellman small subgroupsEdit

This vulnerability (CVE-2016-0701) allows, when some particular circumstances are met, to recover the OpenSSL server's private Diffie–Hellman key. An Adobe System Security researcher, Antonio Sanso, privately reported the vulnerability.

OpenSSL classified the bug as a high-severity issue, noting only version 1.0.2 was found vulnerable.[50]

ForksEdit

Agglomerated SSLEdit

In 2009, after frustrations with the original OpenSSL API, Marco Peereboom, an OpenBSD developer at the time, forked the original API by creating Agglomerated SSL (assl), which reuses OpenSSL API under the hood, but provides a much simpler external interface.[51] It has since been deprecated in light of the LibreSSL fork circa 2016.

LibreSSLEdit

In April 2014 in the wake of Heartbleed, members of the OpenBSD project forked OpenSSL starting with the 1.0.1g branch, to create a project named LibreSSL.[52] In the first week of pruning the OpenSSL's codebase, more than 90,000 lines of C code had been removed from the fork.[53]

BoringSSLEdit

In June 2014, Google announced its own fork of OpenSSL dubbed BoringSSL.[54] Google plans to co-operate with OpenSSL and LibreSSL developers.[55][56][57] Google has since developed a new library, Tink, based on BoringSSL.[58]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "OpenSSL: Newslog". Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  3. ^ "Change license to the Apache License v2.0 · openssl/openssl@1513331". GitHub.
  4. ^ Laurie, Ben (January 6, 1999). "ANNOUNCE: OpenSSL (Take 2". ssl-users (Mailing list). Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  5. ^ "New Committers". OpenSSL Software Foundation. May 20, 2019. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "OpenSSL Management Committee". OpenSSL Software Foundation. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  7. ^ "OpenSSL Committers". OpenSSL Software Foundation. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  8. ^ Marquess, Steve (January 19, 2017). "Akamai sponsors TLS 1.3". openssl-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  9. ^ "OpenSSL – Changelog". OpenSSL Software Foundation. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  10. ^ "OpenSSL – Release Strategy". OpenSSL Software Foundation. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
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  13. ^ a b c "Release Strategy". www.openssl.org. OpenSSL Foundation. February 25, 2019.
  14. ^ "OpenSSL 1.1.0 Series Release Notes". Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  15. ^ a b Caswell, Matt (September 11, 2018). "OpenSSL 1.1.1 Is Released". www.openssl.org. OpenSSL Foundation.
  16. ^ Caswell, Matt (February 8, 2018). "Using TLS1.3 With OpenSSL - OpenSSL Blog". www.openssl.org. OpenSSL Foundation.
  17. ^ Matt Caswell (November 28, 2018). "The Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch". OpenSSL Blog. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "GOST engine OpenSSL 1.0.0 README". cvs.openssl.org. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013.
  19. ^ "OpenSSL source code, directory crypto/whrlpool". Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  20. ^ "Protecting data for the long term with forward secrecy". Retrieved November 5, 2012.
  21. ^ Validated FIPS 140-1 and FIPS 140-2 Cryptographic Modules. NIST. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
  22. ^ "FIPS-140". openssl.org. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  23. ^ "OpenSSL User Guide for the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module v2.0" (PDF). openssl.org. March 14, 2017. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  24. ^ "NIST recertifies open source encryption module". gcn.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007.
  25. ^ "OpenSSL: Source, License". openssl.org.
  26. ^ "Licenses – Free Software Foundation". fsf.org.
  27. ^ "WGET 1.10.2 for Windows (win32)". users.ugent.be. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008.
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  29. ^ "Deluge LICENSE file". deluge-torrent.org. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
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  31. ^ "OpenSSL Re-licensing to Apache License v. 2.0 To Encourage Broader Use with Other FOSS Projects and Products". March 23, 2017. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  32. ^ Lee, Victoria; Radcliffe, Mark; Stevenson, Chirs (5 February 2019). "Top 10 FOSS legal developments of 2018". Opensource.com, Red Hat. Archived from the original (html) on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019. The OpenSSL project announced that it had completed its shift from the OpenSSL/SSLeay license to the Apache Software License version 2 (ASLv2).
  33. ^ "OpenSSL Updates Fix Critical Security Vulnerabilities". August 9, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
  34. ^ "OpenSSL ASN.1 asn1_d2i_read_bio() Heap Overflow Vulnerability". Cisco.
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  40. ^ "DSA-1571-1 openssl – predictable random number generator". Debian Project. May 13, 2008.
  41. ^ OpenSSL.org (April 7, 2014). "OpenSSL Security Advisory [07 Apr 2014]". Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  42. ^ OpenSSL (April 7, 2014). "TLS heartbeat read overrun (CVE-2014-0160)". Retrieved April 8, 2014.
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  44. ^ "Why Heartbleed is dangerous? Exploiting CVE-2014-0160". IPSec.pl. 2014.
  45. ^ Mutton, Paul (April 8, 2014). "Half a million widely trusted websites vulnerable to Heartbleed bug". Netcraft Ltd. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
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  47. ^ "CVE-2014-0224". CVE. 2014.
  48. ^ "OpenSSL Security Advisory". OpenSSL. June 5, 2014.
  49. ^ "OpenSSL Patches Severe Denial-of-Service Vulnerability". Brandon Stosh. March 20, 2015.
  50. ^ Goodlin, Dan (January 28, 2016). "High-severity bug in OpenSSL allows attackers to decrypt HTTPS traffic". Ars Technica.
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  54. ^ "BoringSSL". Git at Google.
  55. ^ "Google unveils independent 'fork' of OpenSSL called 'BoringSSL'". Ars Technica. June 21, 2014.
  56. ^ "BoringSSL". Adam Langley's Weblog. June 20, 2014.
  57. ^ "BoringSSL wants to kill the excitement that led to Heartbleed". Sophos. June 24, 2014.
  58. ^ Buchanan, Bill (August 30, 2018). "Goodbye OpenSSL, and Hello To Google Tink". Medium. Retrieved April 4, 2019.

External linksEdit