Akamai Technologies

(Redirected from Akamai)

Akamai Technologies, Inc. is an American content delivery network[3] (CDN), cybersecurity, and cloud service company, providing web and Internet security services.[4][5] The company operates a network of servers worldwide and rents the capacity of the servers to customers wanting to increase the efficiency of their websites by using Akamai owned servers located near the user. When a user navigates to the URL of an Akamai customer, their browser is directed by Akamai's domain name system[6] to a proximal edge server that can serve the requested content. Akamai's mapping system[7] assigns each user to a proximal edge server using sophisticated algorithms[8] such as stable matching and consistent hashing, enabling more reliable and faster web downloads. Further, Akamai implements DDoS mitigation and other security services[9] in its edge server platform.

Akamai Technologies, Inc.
Founded1998; 25 years ago (1998)
Key people
RevenueIncrease $3.62 billion (2022)
Decrease $676 million (2022)
Decrease $534 million (2022)
Total assetsIncrease $8.30 billion (2022)
Total equityDecrease $4.36 billion (2022)
Number of employees
c. 9,800 (2022)
Footnotes / references

History Edit

The company was named after akamai, which means 'clever,' or more colloquially, 'cool' in Hawaiian, which Lewin had discovered in a Hawaiian-English dictionary after the suggestion of a colleague.[10]

Akamai Technologies entered the 1998 MIT $50K competition with a business proposition based on their research on consistent hashing,[8] and were selected as one of the finalists.[11] By August 1998, they had developed a working prototype, and with the help of Jonathan Seelig and Randall Kaplan, they began taking steps to incorporate the company.[12] Akamai Technologies was incorporated on August 20, 1998.[13]

In late 1998 and early 1999, a group of business professionals and scientists joined the founding team. Most notably, Paul Sagan, former president of New Media for Time Inc., and George Conrades, former chairman and chief executive officer of BBN Corp. and senior vice president of US operations for IBM. Conrades became the chief executive officer of Akamai in April 1999.[14][15][16] The company launched its commercial service in April 1999 and was listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market from October 29, 1999.[17]

On July 1, 2001, Akamai was added to the Russell 3000 Index and Russell 2000 Index.[18]

On September 11, 2001, co-founder Daniel M. Lewin died in the September 11 attacks at the age of 31 when he was stabbed by one of the hijackers. He was seated closest to the hijackers and attempted to foil the hijacking during his flight aboard American Airlines Flight 11, the first plane to crash into the World Trade Center.[19]

In 2005, Paul Sagan was named chief executive officer of Akamai, taking over from Conrades. Sagan worked to differentiate Akamai from its competitors by expanding the company's breadth of services.[16] Under his leadership, the company grew to $1.37 billion in revenue.[20]

In July 2007, Akamai was added to the S&P 500 Index.[21]

In 2013, co-founder Tom Leighton was elected to the position of chief executive officer, replacing Sagan.[22]

On February 9, 2021, Akamai announced it would reorganize into two internal groups: Security Technology and Edge Technology. The company also re-established the role of chief technology officer, and named Robert Blumofe to serve in that role.[23] Long-time chief security officer (CSO) Andy Ellis announced he would leave in March 2021.[24]

Akamai's headquarters are in Kendall Square. Akamai started in Technology Square and later expanded to multiple buildings in Cambridge Center. They consolidated their offices in a purpose-built building at 145 Broadway in December 2019.[25]

Technologies Edit

Akamai Intelligent Edge Platform Edit

The Akamai Intelligent Platform[26] is a distributed cloud computing platform that operates worldwide. It is a network of over approximately 365,000 servers deployed in more than 135 countries.[27] These servers reside in roughly 1,350 of the world's networks gathering real-time information about traffic, congestion, and trouble spots.[27] Each Akamai server is equipped with proprietary software that uses complex algorithms to process requests from nearby users, then serve the requested content.[26]

Content delivery process Edit

Akamai content delivery to a user

The content delivery process begins with a user submitting a request to a browser. When a user enters a URL, a DNS request is triggered to Akamai's authoritative DNS[6] and an IP address is retrieved. With the IP address, the browser can then directly contact the Akamai edge server for subsequent requests.[28] In a content delivery network (CDN) structure, the domain name of the URL is translated by the mapping system[7] into the IP address of an edge server to serve the content to the user.[26]

Akamai delivers web content over its Intelligent Platform by transparently mirroring elements such as HTML, CSS, software downloads, and media objects from customers' servers. The Akamai server is automatically chosen depending on the type of content and the user's network location. Said servers are located in more than 200 countries and territories.[29] Receiving content from an Akamai server, near the user, allows faster downloads and less vulnerability to network congestion. Akamai claims to provide better scalability by delivering the content over the last mile from servers close to end-users, avoiding the middle-mile bottleneck of the Internet.[30] The Download Delivery product line includes HTTP downloads for large downloadable objects, a customizable application for consumers, and analytics tools with metrics that monitor and report on the download process.[31]

Peer-to-peer networking Edit

In addition to using Akamai's own servers, Akamai delivers certain content from other end-users' computers, in the form of peer-to-peer networking.[32][33]

Network Operations Command Center Edit

Akamai's Network Operations Command Center (NOCC) is used for proactive monitoring and troubleshooting of all servers in the global Akamai network.[34] The NOCC provides real-time statistics of Akamai's web traffic. The traffic metrics update automatically and provide a view of the Internet traffic conditions on Akamai's servers and customer websites.[35]

State of the Internet Edit

Akamai releases quarterly a report called the State of the Internet, which is based on data gathered from its Intelligent Platform. The platform provides global Internet statistics such as connection speed, broadband adoption, attack traffic, network connectivity, and mobile connectivity.[36][37]

Visualizing the Internet Edit

Akamai's data visualization tools display how data is moving across the Internet in real-time. Viewers are able to see global web conditions, malicious attack traffic, and Internet connectivity.[38] In addition, the net usage indices monitor global news consumption, industry-specific traffic, and mobile trends.[39] Akamai also offers the Internet Visualization application, which allows users to view real-time data on their mobile device.[40]

OPEN Initiative Edit

On October 9, 2013, Akamai announced its Open Initiative at the 2013 Akamai Edge Conference. OPEN allows customers and partners to develop and customize the way they interact with the Akamai Intelligent Platform. Key components of OPEN include system and development operations integration, real-time big data integration, and a single-point user interface.[41]

Plume Partnership Edit

In January 2021, Akamai partnered with Plume. The partnership combines Akamai Security and Personalization Services (SPS) mobile security suite and real time threat intelligence with Plume's Consumer Experience Management (CEM) Platform.[42]

Primary domains Edit

Akamai Technologies owns about 60 other domains, but the primary domains it uses include:

Corporate Edit

  • akamai.com – Akamai's domain

Content (delivery) domains Edit

  • akamai.net
  • akamaiedge.net
  • akamaihd.net
  • edgesuite.net
  • edgekey.net
  • srip.net[43][44]
  • akamaitechnologies.com
  • akamaitechnologies.fr

DNS servers Edit

  • akamaitech.net
  • akadns.net
  • akagtm.org
  • akam.net
  • akamaistream.net
  • akamaiedge.net
  • akamaihd.net
  • akamai.com

Customers Edit

On July 21, 1999, at Macworld Expo New York, Apple and Akamai announced a strategic partnership to build Apple's new media network, QuickTime TV (QTV), based on QuickTime Streaming Server.[45] Both companies later announced that Apple had made a $12.5 million investment in the company the previous month.[46] Apple continues to use Akamai as their primary CDN[47] for a wide range of applications including software downloads from Apple's Website, QuickTime movie trailers, and the iTunes Store.[48]

In September 1999, Microsoft and Akamai formed a strategic relationship to incorporate Windows Media technology in Akamai's FreeFlow service, as well as to facilitate the porting of the FreeFlow product to the Windows platform; this relationship exists to this day.[49] Microsoft Azure offers Akamai (along with Verizon) as options for its "standard" CDN service.[50]

Arabic news network Al-Jazeera was a customer from March 28, 2003, until April 2, 2003, when Akamai decided to end the relationship.[51] The network's English-language managing editor claimed this was due to political pressure.[52]

In June 2008, The NewsMarket teamed with Akamai to accelerate dynamic content and applications to global media ahead of the Beijing Olympics.[53]

The BBC iPlayer uses Akamai to stream its recorded and live programs, focused through an XML playlist.

The entire China Central Television website, including its streaming video, has been hosted on Akamai's edge servers since late 2009.[54][55] Hulu uses Akamai for hosting video.[56] MIT OpenCourseWare utilizes Akamai's EdgeSuite for its CDN.[57]

Trend Micro uses Akamai for their Housecall antivirus application.

Valve's Steam service uses Akamai's CDN for storing screenshots and icons uploaded by users.

Akamai provided streaming services to ESPN Star (India) during the course of the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011.[58]

Rackspace's Cloud Files use Akamai's CDN for storing its customer's files.

Other customers include Adobe Systems, Airbnb, AMD, AutoTrader.com, COS, ESPN, The Great Courses, Hewlett-Packard, Hilton Worldwide, IBM, J. C. Penney, Jehovah's Witnesses, MTV Networks, NASA, National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, NBC Sports, Pearson Education, Red Bull GmbH, Red Hat, Sony PlayStation and Yahoo!.[59]

Nintendo uses Akamai's Media Delivery Solutions for the Nintendo Switch Online service as well as in their mobile apps, like Super Mario Run.[60]

Acquisitions Edit

  • On February 10, 2000, Akamai acquired Network24 Communications[61] for 621,000 shares of common stock and $12.5 million in cash.[62]
  • On April 20, 2000,[62] Akamai acquired InterVU Inc.[63] for 10.0 million shares of common stock.
  • On July 25, 2000, Akamai acquired CallTheShots, Inc., for an aggregate purchase price of $3,700,000.[62]
  • On June 10, 2005, Akamai acquired Speedera Networks, Inc. for 10.6 million shares of Akamai common stock and options to purchase 1.7 million shares of Akamai common stock.[64]
  • On December 13, 2006, Akamai acquired Nine Systems, Inc.,[65] for an aggregate purchase price of $157,500,000.[66]
  • On March 13, 2007, Akamai acquired Netli Inc. (Netli),[67] for an aggregate purchase price of $154,400,000.
  • On April 12, 2007, Akamai acquired Red Swoosh Inc.[68] for an aggregate purchase price of $18,700,000.[69]
  • On November 3, 2008, Akamai acquired aCerno Inc.,[69] for an aggregate purchase price of $90,800,000.[70]
  • On June 10, 2010, Akamai acquired Velocitude LLC,[71] for an aggregate purchase price of $12,000,000.[72]
  • On February 7, 2012, Akamai acquired Blaze Software, Inc.,[73] for an aggregate purchase price of $19,300,000.[74]
  • On March 6, 2012, Akamai acquired Cotendo, Inc.,[73] for an aggregate purchase price of $278,900,000.[75]
  • On September 13, 2012, Akamai acquired FastSoft, Inc.,[73] for an aggregate purchase price of $14,400,000.[76]
  • On December 4, 2012, Akamai acquired Verivue, Inc.,[73] for an aggregate purchase price of $30,900,000.[77]
  • On November 8, 2013, Akamai acquired Velocius Networks[78] for an aggregate purchase price of $4,300,000.[79]
  • In February 2014, Akamai acquired cyber security provider, Prolexic Technologies[78] for an aggregate purchase price of $390,000,000.[80]
  • In February 2015, Akamai acquired Xerocole Inc., a domain name system technology company.[81]
  • On April 6, 2015, Akamai acquired cloud OTT IPTV service provider Octoshape,[82] for an undisclosed amount.[83]
  • On November 2, 2015, Akamai acquired Bloxx, a provider of Secure Web Gateway (SWG) technology,[84] for an undisclosed amount.[85]
  • On September 28, 2016, Akamai acquired Concord Systems, a provider of technology for the high performance processing of data at scale,[86] for an undisclosed amount.[87]
  • On October 4, 2016, Akamai acquired Soha Systems, an enterprise secure access delivered as a service provider,[88] for an undisclosed amount.[89]
  • On December 19, 2016, Akamai acquired Cyberfend, a bot and automation detection solutions provider,[90] for an undisclosed amount.[91]
  • On March 29, 2017, Akamai acquired SOASTA, a digital performance management company based in Mountain View, CA, for an undisclosed all-cash amount.[92]
  • On October 11, 2017, Akamai acquired Nominum, a carrier-grade DNS and DHCP provider and one of the major players in the creation of the modern DNS, for an undisclosed all-cash amount.[93]
  • In October 2019, Akamai acquired security software provider ChameleonX for $20 million.[94][95]
  • On January 24, 2019, Akamai acquired CIAM provider Janrain.[96]
  • On October 27, 2020, Akamai acquired IoT and mobile security provider Asavie.[97]
  • On February 1, 2021, Akamai acquired Inverse Inc. a Montreal Canadian based security company making an open source Network Access Controller (NAC) called PacketFence.[98]
  • On September 29, 2021 Akamai Technologies acquired Guardicore for $600 Million.[99]
  • On February 15, 2022 Akamai acquired Linode for $900 Million.[100]

Litigation Edit

One of Akamai's patents covers delivering electronic data using a CDN. Internet Web site proprietors (content providers) contract with Akamai to deliver their Web sites' content to individual Internet users. The patented method permits large files, such as video or music files, to be stored on Akamai's servers and accessed from those servers by Internet users. This increases the speed with which Internet users access the content from Web sites.[non-primary source needed]

Akamai's patent was written in a way that called for or permitted actions by multiple persons or entities—such as the content-provider customer and the company providing the CDN service.[101] Akamai's competitor Limelight chose to operate its allegedly infringing service in that manner—it performed most steps of the patented process, and its customers performed a so-called tagging step. Under the interpretation of patent law, when Akamai decided to sue Limelight for patent infringement, a method patent could be infringed upon only when a single actor performed all the steps. The court, therefore, overturned a $40 million jury verdict in Akamai's favor.

Akamai initially lost the case, even taking it to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court returned the case to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, however, with an invitation to re-evaluate its rule, if it chose to do so, that all the steps of a method had to be performed by a single actor for there to be infringement. On remand, the Federal Circuit considered the matter en banc (all active circuit judges) and modified its rule. It now held that a patent could also be directly infringed upon if "an alleged infringer conditions participation in an activity or receipt of a benefit upon performance of a step or steps of a patented method and establishes the manner or timing of that performance". On that basis, the Federal Circuit reinstated the $40 million jury verdict. It said that "Akamai presented substantial evidence demonstrating that Limelight conditions its customers' use of its CDN upon its customers' performance of" the steps that Limelight does not itself perform. This has been considered a substantial change in patent law. The case is Akamai Techs., Inc. v. Limelight Networks, Inc..

Controversies Edit

In 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission charged a former executive at Akamai Technologies for illegally tipping non-public information about the company's financial predicament as part of the insider trading scheme operated by now-imprisoned Galleon Management hedge fund founder Raj Rajaratnam.[102]

The National Security Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation have reportedly used Facebook's Akamai CDN to collect information on Facebook users.[103] This report appears to show intelligence analysts intercepting communications between Facebook and its CDN provider, but does not indicate Akamai as being complicit in this process.

According to researchers from the Universities of Cambridge and California-Berkeley, University College London, and International Computer Science Institute-Berkeley, Akamai has been blocking access to web sites for visitors using Tor.[104][105] This feature, known as 'network lists,' is optional for and implemented by customers of Akamai, and is a feature common to many major IT vendors that provide network security feeds, such as Emerging Threats, which provides such a feed for free.[105]

Key scientific publications Edit

These papers that appear in scientific conferences and journals, are describing Akamai's technology in greater detail.

Notable people Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Akamai Announces Board Of Directors Changes". Akamai Technologies, Inc. March 18, 2021.
  2. ^ "Akamai Technologies, Inc. 2022 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 28, 2023.
  3. ^ J. Dilley, B. Maggs, J. Parikh, H. Prokop, R. Sitaraman, and B. Weihl. "Globally Distributed Content Delivery, IEEE Internet Computing, September/October 2002, pp. 50-58" (PDF).
  4. ^ Hendy, Nina (March 3, 2020). "How to avoid falling victim to a cyber attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  5. ^ Investor's Business Daily (March 17, 2020). "Akamai Stock Finds Support On Video Streaming Surge | Investor's Business Daily". Investor's Business Daily. Retrieved April 16, 2020. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  6. ^ a b Kyle Schomp, Onkar Bhardwaj, Eymen Kurdoglu, Mashooq Muhaimen, and Ramesh K. Sitaraman. "Akamai DNS: Providing Authoritative Answers to the World's Queries, ACM SIGCOMM conference, Aug 2020" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b "End-User Mapping: Next Generation Request Routing for Content Delivery, by F. Chen, R. Sitaraman, and M. Torres, ACM SIGCOMM conference, Aug 2015" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Bruce Maggs and Ramesh Sitaraman (2015). "Algorithmic nuggets in content delivery" (PDF). ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review. 45 (3).
  9. ^ D. Gillman, Y. Lin, B. Maggs and R. K. Sitaraman. "Protecting Websites from Attack with Secure Delivery Networks, IEEE Computer, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 26-34, Apr. 2015" (PDF).
  10. ^ "How these nine Mass. tech companies got their names". Boston Business Journal. April 28, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  11. ^ "Two teams win top prize in MIT $50K contest". MIT News. May 13, 1998. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  12. ^ "Akamai Technologies Inc". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  13. ^ https://www.akamai.com/company/company-history
  14. ^ "Akamai Technologies, Inc. History". fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  15. ^ "Conrades to resign from Akamai". Boston Business Journal. No. January 5, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Frier, Sarah; Womack, Brian (April 26, 2012). "Akamai Says CEO Sagan to Leave; Profit Less Than Estimates". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  17. ^ "AKAMAI TECHNOLOGIES INC (AKAM) IPO". NASDAQ. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  18. ^ "Akamai Technologies, Inc. Added to the Russell 3000 Index and Russell 2000 Index". July 17, 2001. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  19. ^ Leopold, Todd (September 11, 2013). "The legacy of Danny Lewin, the first man to die on 9/11". CNN. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
  20. ^ "Akamai Technologies, Inc. (AKAM) Income Statement". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
  21. ^ Frier, Sarah; Mulier, Thomas (July 10, 2007). "Akamai Names Leighton CEO After Eight-Month Search". DataCenterKnowledge. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  22. ^ Frier, Sarah; Mulier, Thomas (December 17, 2012). "Akamai Names Leighton CEO After Eight-Month Search". BloombergBusinessweek. Archived from the original on September 25, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  23. ^ Gagliordi, Natalie (February 9, 2021). "Akamai tops Q4 expectations, announces reorganization and new CTO". ZDNet. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  24. ^ @csoandy (February 9, 2021). "Thread : Andy Ellis on Twitter..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  25. ^ "Akamai Opens New HQ In Cambridge". www.wbur.org.
  26. ^ a b c Nygren, Erik; Sitaraman, Ramesh K.; Sun, Jennifer, The Akamai Network: A Platform for High-Performance Internet Applications (PDF)
  27. ^ a b "Facts & Figures | Akamai". www.akamai.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  28. ^ Zakas, Nicholas C. (November 29, 2011). "How content delivery networks (CDNs) work". NCZOnline.
  29. ^ "Countries in which Akamai maintains Server Points of Presence" (PDF). June 6, 2022. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  30. ^ "Inside Akamai and the scary future of streaming video, GigaOm". August 19, 2011. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  31. ^ "Download Delivery". Akamai Technologies. January 26, 2018. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  32. ^ Ben Homer (January 26, 2010). "Akamai Using P2P for Enhanced Video Delivery". Online Video Watch. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
  33. ^ "Akamai NetSession Interface – Design Principles". Akamai Technologies. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2011.
  34. ^ Weiss, David (September 25, 2013). "Akamai Gets a New Network Operations Command Center". AV Network. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  35. ^ "Akamai's NOCC To Monitor And Troubleshoot Client Servers". Silicon India News. November 25, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  36. ^ "Akamai Releases First Quarter, 2014 'State of the Internet' Report". June 26, 2014.
  37. ^ Q2 2014 Report Akamai's State of the Internet
  38. ^ "Akamai Introduces First-of-Its-Kind, Real-Time View into Health of the Internet". StreamingMedia.com. June 7, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  39. ^ "Visualizing the internet with Akamai". DataVisualization.ch. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  40. ^ Catone, Josh (June 7, 2007). "Akamai Releases Internet Traffic Visualizations". Readwrite.com. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  41. ^ "Akamai Unveils Open Platform Initiative at Akamai Edge 2013 Customer Conference". Yahoo! Finance. October 9, 2013. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  42. ^ Teresa Cottam (January 27, 2021). "Akamai and Plume Create New Solution for Households and SMEs". Omnisperience.
  43. ^ Young, Jeff; Wolfe, Steven J. (October 18, 2000). "Akamai Unveils EdgeSuite, the Next Generation of Intelligent Content Services". Press release. Akamai Technologies. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  44. ^ Gill, Kathy E. (October 18, 2010), What Is edgesuite.net?, WordPress, archived from the original on October 29, 2013, retrieved March 31, 2012
  45. ^ July 21, 1999 – Apple and Akamai Create High Quality Network for Internet Streaming. Akamai.com. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived March 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ August 18, 1999 – Apple and Akamai Reveal Apple Investment to Cement Strategic Agreement. Akamai.com. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived October 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Customer List. Akamai.com (September 30, 2003). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived February 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ April 29, 2003 – Akamai and Apple Extend Commitment to Deliver Industry Leading Internet Streaming Content and Software Downloads. Akamai.com. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived January 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Microsoft and Akamai Form Strategic Relationship to Enhance Internet Content Delivery. Akamai.com. September 27, 1999. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived February 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "Overview of the Azure Content Delivery Network (CDN)". Microsoft Azure > Documentation. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  51. ^ "Akamai ends Al Jazeera server support". news.cnet.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  52. ^ "Al Jazeera Denied Akamai Services". Tech.mit.edu. April 8, 2003. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
  53. ^ "The NewsMarket partnered with Akamai to Accelerate Dynamic Content and Applications to Global Media Ahead of Beijing Olympics". Akamai Technologies. June 9, 2008. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014.
  54. ^ www.cctv.com. Robtex. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived March 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ "Site report for www.cctv.com". What's that site running? | Netcraft.
  56. ^ About. Hulu (March 12, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Archived October 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "Free Online Course Materials FAQ: Technology MIT OpenCourseWare". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
  58. ^ espnstar.com Breaks India Online Cricket Match Streaming Record. Teck.In (April 18, 2011). Retrieved on August 14, 2013. Archived February 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ "Customer List". Akamai Technologies. Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014.
  60. ^ "Akamai Supports The Worldwide Simultaneous Release Of Nintendo's New Game Console And App". Akamai Technologies. August 28, 2017. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017.
  61. ^ "Akamai to Acquire Network24 Communications". StreamingMedia.com. January 18, 2000. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  62. ^ a b c "Akamai Annual Report 2000" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  63. ^ Richtymyer, Richard (February 7, 2000). "Akamai buys InterVu". CNN Money. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  64. ^ "Akamai Annual Report 2005" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  65. ^ Kawamoto, Dawn (November 20, 2006). "Akamai to buy Nine Systems". CNET News. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  66. ^ "Akamai Annual Report 2006" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  67. ^ Gross, Grant (February 5, 2007). "Akamai to acquire Netli for about $170 million". NetworkWorld. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  68. ^ Arrington, Michael (April 12, 2007). "Payday for Red Swoosh: $15 million from Akamai". Tech Crunch. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  69. ^ a b "Akamai Annual Report 2009" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  70. ^ Kaplan, David (October 21, 2008). "Branching Out, Akamai Acquires Ad Targeter Acerno For $95 Million". Tech Crunch. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  71. ^ "Akamai Annual Report 2010" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  72. ^ Boutin, Paul (June 10, 2010). "Akamai acquires mobile services company Velocitude". VentureBeat. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  73. ^ a b c d "Akamai Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  74. ^ Huang, Gregory T. (February 8, 2012). "Akamai Buys Blaze as Web Optimization Heats Up in Boston". Xconomy. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  75. ^ Wauters, Robin (December 22, 2011). "Done Deal – Akamai Buys Rival Cotendo For $268 Million". Tech Crunch. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  76. ^ McCarthy, Maureen (September 14, 2012). "Akamai Technologies snaps up FastSoft". Boston Business Journal. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  77. ^ Whittaker, Zack (November 13, 2012). "Akamai expands digital content delivery network, acquires Verivue". ZDNet. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  78. ^ a b "Akamai Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Akamai Technologies, Inc.
  79. ^ Dignan, Larry (November 11, 2013). "Akamai buys Velocious Networks". ZDNet. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  80. ^ Lunden, Ingrid (December 2, 2013). "Akamai Buys DDoS Prevention Specialist Prolexic For $370M To Ramp Up Security Offerings For Enterprises". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
  81. ^ Castellanos, Sara (March 2, 2015). "Akamai Technologies acquires Colorado domain name system tech firm Xerocole". Retrieved September 20, 2015.
  82. ^ "Media Delivery Solutions for Streaming Video and Software Delivery - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  83. ^ "Akamai Acquires Octoshape to Optimize Streaming Video - 040615 - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  84. ^ "Bloxx - Real Time Web & Email Filtering". www.bloxx.com.
  85. ^ "Akamai Acquires Bloxx for Cloud Security - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  86. ^ "Concord: Concord.io". Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  87. ^ "Akamai Acquires Data Processing Provider Concord Systems - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  88. ^ "Secure Application Access - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  89. ^ "Akamai Acquires Soha Systems for Secure Remote Access to Enterprise Applications - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  90. ^ "Bot Manager - Akamai". www.akamai.com.
  91. ^ "about/news/press/2016-press/akamai-acquires-cyberfend.jsp". www.akamai.com.
  92. ^ "Akamai agrees to acquire SOASTA". Reuters. March 29, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  93. ^ "Akamai agrees to acquire Nominum". Reuters. October 11, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  94. ^ "Akamai Technologies Announces Acquisition Of ChameleonX - Quick Facts | Markets Insider". markets.businessinsider.com. Insider Inc. and finanzen.net GmbH (Imprint). Retrieved March 20, 2020 – via RTTNews.
  95. ^ "Akamai Technologies Announces Acquisition Of ChameleonX - Quick Facts". www.nasdaq.com. Nasdaq, Inc. Retrieved March 20, 2020 – via RTTNews.
  96. ^ "Akamai Completes Acquisition Of Customer Identity Access Management Company Janrain Inc". www.Akamai.com. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  97. ^ "Akamai Technologies Advances 5G Security Strategy With Acquisition Of Asavie".
  98. ^ "Akamai Technologies Acquires Inverse Inc., Adds To Zero Trust Security Platform". Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  99. ^ Mirchevska, Sara (October 4, 2021). "Akamai Technologies Acquires Guardicore in A$600 Million Worth Deal". HostAdvice.
  100. ^ "Akamai To Acquire Linode to Provide Businesses with a Developer-friendly and Massively-distributed Platform to Build, Run and Secure Next Generation Applications". Akamai. February 15, 2022.
  101. ^ It is usually possible, however, to write such method patent claims in a way that all steps are performed by a single actor, for example, by replacing a step of sending a signal to the person performing the other steps with a step, instead, of receiving that signal. See, e.g., Michael Dzwonczyk Bulletproofing Method Claims for Post-Limelight Enforcement (Feb. 2014). Dzwonczyk asserts that the patent claim "could easily have been rewritten as a single-actor method claim that would not require the performance of any step by a second actor," and provides a rewritten version. See also Harold Wegner, Akamai II: Direct Infringement Déjà Vu (Aug. 2014) at 20-21, to similar effect.
  102. ^ "SEC Charges Former Technology Company Executive for Role in Rajaratnam Insider Trading Scheme". VentureBeat. September 20, 2013.
  103. ^ Harrison Weber (May 15, 2014). "Facebook & Akamai respond to NSA slides alleging massive CDN vulnerability". VentureBeat.
  104. ^ Lisa Vaas (February 29, 2016). "Tor users being actively blocked on some websites". naked security.
  105. ^ a b "TorRules < Main < EmergingThreats". doc.emergingthreats.net.

External links Edit

  • Official website  
  • Business data for Akamai Technologies: