Comparison of cryptography libraries

The tables below compare cryptography libraries that deal with cryptography algorithms and have API function calls to each of the supported features.

Cryptography librariesEdit

Implementation Initiative Development Language Open Source Software Software License Latest Update
Botan Jack Lloyd C++ Yes Simplified BSD 2.18.1 (May 9, 2021; 40 days ago (2021-05-09)[1]) [±]
Bouncy Castle Legion of the Bouncy Castle Inc. Java, C# Yes MIT License
Java1.69 / June 7, 2021; 11 days ago (2021-06-07)[2]
Java FIPSBC-FJA 1.0.2.1 / April 21, 2021; 58 days ago (2021-04-21)[3]
C#1.8.10 / February 16, 2021; 4 months ago (2021-02-16)[4]
C# FIPSBC-FNA 1.0.1.1 / April 21, 2021; 58 days ago (2021-04-21)[5]
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Dell, formerly RSA Security C No[a] Proprietary 4.1.5 (December 17, 2020; 6 months ago (2020-12-17)[6]) [±]
BSAFE Crypto-J Dell, formerly RSA Security Java No[a] Proprietary 6.2.5 (August 15, 2019; 22 months ago (2019-08-15)[7]) [±]
cryptlib Peter Gutmann C Yes Sleepycat License or commercial license 3.4.5 (2019; 2 years ago (2019)[8]) [±]
Crypto++ The Crypto++ project C++ Yes Boost Software License (all individual files are public domain) Jan 2, 2021 (8.4.0)
GnuTLS Nikos Mavrogiannopoulos, Simon Josefsson C Yes GNU LGPL v2.1+ 3.6.14 (June 3, 2020; 12 months ago (2020-06-03)[9]) [±]
LibreSSL OpenBSD Foundation C Yes Apache Licence 1.0 June 15th, 2020
Libgcrypt GnuPG community and g10code C Yes GNU LGPL v2.1+
stable1.9.3 / April 19, 2021; 60 days ago (2021-04-19)[10]
LTS1.8.8 / June 2, 2021; 16 days ago (2021-06-02)[11]


libsodium Frank Denis C Yes ISC license May 30, 2019 (1.0.18)
mbed TLS ARM Limited C Yes Apache Licence 2.0 2.16.2 (June 11, 2019; 2 years ago (2019-06-11)[12]) [±]

2.7.10 (March 19, 2018; 3 years ago (2018-03-19)[12]) [±]

NaCl Daniel J. Bernstein, Tanja Lange, Peter Schwabe C Yes Public domain February 21, 2011[13]
Nettle C Yes GNU GPL v2+ or GNU LGPL v3 3.5.1 (June 27, 2019; 23 months ago (2019-06-27)[14]) [±]
Network Security Services (NSS) Mozilla C Yes MPL 2.0
Standard3.62 / February 19, 2021; 3 months ago (2021-02-19)[15]
Extended Support Release3.53.1 / June 16, 2020; 12 months ago (2020-06-16)[15]
OpenSSL The OpenSSL Project C Yes Apache Licence 1.0 and 4-Clause BSD Licence 1.1.1k (25 March 2021; 2 months ago (2021-03-25)[16]) [±]
wolfCrypt wolfSSL, Inc. C Yes GPL v2 or commercial license 4.7.0 (February 16, 2021; 4 months ago (2021-02-16)[17]) [±]
  1. ^ a b RSA BSAFE source code license was available to purchase when RSA Security was selling BSAFE.

FIPS 140Edit

This table denotes, if a cryptography library provides the technical requisites for FIPS 140, and the status of their FIPS 140 certification (according to the NIST Cryptographic Module Validation Program).

Implementation FIPS 140-2 mode FIPS 140-2 validated FIPS 140-3 validated
Botan No No No
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes[18] No
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes[19] No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes[20] No
cryptlib Yes No No
Crypto++ No No[a] No
GnuTLS No No No
Libgcrypt Yes Yes[21][b] No
libsodium No No No
mbed TLS No No No
NaCl No No No
Nettle No No No
Network Security Services (NSS) Yes Yes[22][c] No
OpenSSL Yes In Process[23][d] No
wolfCrypt Yes Yes[24] In Process[25][e]
  1. ^ Crypto++ received three FIPS 140 validations from 2003 through 2008. In 2016 NIST moved Crypto++ to the Historical Validation List.
  2. ^ While Libgcrypt is not FIPS 140-2 validated by g10code, validations exist for versions from Amazon Web Services, Oracle, SafeLogic, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and Red Hat.
  3. ^ While the Network Security Services (NSS) is not FIPS 140-2 validated by Mozilla, validations exist for versions from Amazon Web Services, Oracle, Trend Micro, Cisco, Red Hat, SUSE, SafeLogic, and Hewlett Packard Enterprise.
  4. ^ OpenSSL was moved to the Historical Validation List on September 1, 2020 due to the FIPS 186-2 deprecation, but current validations exist for versions from various vendors. OpenSSL has begun the process to validate the new OpenSSL FIPS Provider 3.0, now shown as Implementation Under Test at CMVP.
  5. ^ The wolfCrypt library is on the Implementation Under Test list at CMVP for FIPS 140-3.

Key operationsEdit

Key operations include key generation algorithms, key exchange agreements and public key cryptography standards.

Public key algorithmsEdit

Implementation RSA DSA ECDSA EdDSA Ed448 DH ECDH ElGamal NTRU (IEEE P1363.1) DSS
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[a] Yes No Yes
libsodium No No No Yes
No No No No No
mbed TLS Yes Yes Yes No
Yes Yes No No No
Nettle Yes Yes No Yes
No No No No No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes No No No
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes No Yes Yes
  1. ^ By using the lower level interface.

Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) supportEdit

Implementation NIST SECG ECC Brainpool Curve25519 Curve448 GOST R 34.10[26] SM2
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes No No No No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes No No No No No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes
No
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
libsodium Yes No No Yes Yes No No
mbed TLS Yes Yes Yes Yes
No
Nettle Yes Partial No Yes
No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
wolfCrypt Yes No Yes Yes
No

Public key cryptography standardsEdit

Implementation PKCS #1 PKCS #5[27] / PBKDF2 PKCS #8 PKCS #12 IEEE P1363 ASN.1
Botan Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes[a] No Yes Yes
Libgcrypt Yes Yes[b] Yes[b] Yes[b] Yes[b] Yes[b]
libsodium No No No No No No
mbed TLS Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Nettle Yes Yes No No No No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
  1. ^ The library offers X.509 and PKCS #8 encoding without PEM by default. For PEM encoding of public and private keys the PEM Pack is needed.
  2. ^ a b c d e These Public Key Cryptographic Standards (PKCS) are supported by accompanying libraries and tools, which are also part of the GnuPG framework, although not by the actual libgcrypt library.

Hash functionsEdit

Comparison of supported cryptographic hash functions. Here hash functions are defined as taking an arbitrary length message and producing a fixed size output that is virtually impossible to use for recreating the original message.

Implementation MD5 SHA-1 SHA-2 SHA-3 RIPEMD-160 Tiger Whirlpool BLAKE2 GOST R 34.11-94[28]
(aka GOST 34.311-95)
GOST R 34.11-2012
(Stribog)
[29]
SM3
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
libsodium No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No
mbed TLS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Nettle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No

MAC algorithmsEdit

Comparison of implementations of message authentication code (MAC) algorithms. A MAC is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed in transit (its integrity).

Implementation HMAC-MD5 HMAC-SHA1 HMAC-SHA2 Poly1305-AES BLAKE2-MAC
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes Yes Yes No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes No No
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
libsodium No No Yes Yes Yes
mbed TLS Yes Yes Yes No No
Nettle Yes Yes Yes Yes No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Block ciphersEdit

Table compares implementations of block ciphers. Block ciphers are defined as being deterministic and operating on a set number of bits (termed a block) using a symmetric key. Each block cipher can be broken up into the possible key sizes and block cipher modes it can be run with.

Block cipher algorithmsEdit

Implementation AES 3DES Camellia Blowfish Twofish IDEA CAST5 ARIA GOST 28147-89[30]
/ GOST R 34.12-2015
(Magma[31] & Kuznyechik[32])
SM4
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bouncy Castle[33] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Partial[a] No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
cryptlib[34] Yes Yes No Yes
Yes Yes
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Partial[b]
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
libsodium Partial[c] No No No No No No No No No
mbed TLS Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Nettle Yes Yes Yes Yes
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
  1. ^ RSA BSAFE Micro Edition Suite only supports GOST 28147-89, but not GOST R 34.12-2015.
  2. ^ Crypto++ only supports GOST 28147-89, but not GOST R 34.12-2015.
  3. ^ libsodium only supports AES-256, but not AES-128 or AES-192.

Cipher modesEdit

Implementation ECB CBC OFB CFB CTR CCM GCM OCB XTS AES-Wrap Stream EAX
Botan No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes Yes
No Yes
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
Libgcrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
libsodium No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No
mbed TLS Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Nettle Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
wolfCrypt Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes

Stream ciphersEdit

The table below shows the support of various stream ciphers. Stream ciphers are defined as using plain text digits that are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream. Stream ciphers are typically faster than block ciphers and may have lower hardware complexity, but may be more susceptible to attacks.

Implementation RC4 HC-256 Rabbit Salsa20 ChaCha SEAL Panama WAKE Grain VMPC ISAAC
Botan Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
Bouncy Castle Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes No No No No No No No No No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No
cryptlib Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Libgcrypt Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
libsodium No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
mbed TLS Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Nettle Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
OpenSSL Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No

Hardware-assisted supportEdit

These tables compare the ability to utilize hardware enhanced cryptography. By using the assistance of specific hardware the library can achieve greater speeds and / or improved security than otherwise.

Smartcard, SIM and HSM protocol supportEdit

Implementation PKCS #11 PC/SC CCID
Botan Yes No No
Bouncy Castle Yes [a] No No
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes[b] No No
cryptlib Yes No No
Crypto++ No No No
Libgcrypt Yes [35] Yes [36] Yes [36]
libsodium No No No
mbed TLS Yes [37] No No
OpenSSL Yes [37] No No
wolfCrypt Yes No No
  1. ^ In conjunction with the PKCS#11 provider, or through the implementation of operator interfaces providing access to basic operations.
  2. ^ When using RSA BSAFE Crypto-J in native mode using RSA BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition.

General purpose CPU / platform acceleration supportEdit

Implementation AES-NI SSSE3 / SSE4.1 AVX / AVX2 RDRAND VIA PadLock Intel QuickAssist ARMv7-A NEON ARMv8-A cryptography instructions Power ISA v2.03 (AltiVec[a]) Power ISA v2.07 (e.g., POWER8 and later[a])
Botan Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No
BSAFE Crypto-J Yes[b] Yes[b] Yes[b] Yes[b] No No No Yes[b] No No
cryptlib Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Crypto++ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[c] No Yes Yes Yes
Libgcrypt[38] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
libsodium Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
OpenSSL Yes Yes Yes Yes[d] Yes No Yes Yes Yes
wolfCrypt Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes[39] Yes Yes[40] No No
  1. ^ a b AltiVec includes POWER4 through POWER8 SIMD processing. POWER8 added in-core crypto, which provides accelerated AES, SHA and PMUL similar to ARMv8.1.
  2. ^ a b c d e When using RSA BSAFE Crypto-J in native mode using BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition
  3. ^ Crypto++ only provides access to the Padlock random number generator. Other functions, like AES acceleration, are not provided.
  4. ^ OpenSSL RDRAND support is provided through the ENGINE interface. The RDRAND generator is not used by default.

Code size and code to comment ratioEdit

Implementation Source Code Size

(kSLOC = 1000 lines of source code)

Code Lines to Comment Lines Ratio
Botan 133[41] 4.55[41]
Bouncy Castle 1359[42] 5.26[42]
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition 1117[a] 4.04[a]
BSAFE Crypto-J 271[b] 1.3[b]
cryptlib 241 2.66
Crypto++ 115[43] 5.74[43]
Libgcrypt 216[44] 6.27[44]
libsodium 44[45] 21.92[45]
mbed TLS 105[46] 33.9[46]
Nettle 111[47] 4.08[47]
OpenSSL 472[48] 4.41[48]
wolfCrypt 39 5.69
  1. ^ a b Based on CCME 4.1.4, including tests source. Generated using https://github.com/XAMPPRocky/tokei
  2. ^ a b Based on Crypto-J 6.2.5, excluding tests source. Generated using https://github.com/XAMPPRocky/tokei

PortabilityEdit

Implementation Supported Operating System Thread safe
Botan Linux, Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonflyBSD, AIX, QNX, Haiku, IncludeOS Yes
Bouncy Castle General Java API: J2ME, Java Runtime Environment 1.1+, Android. Java FIPS API: Java Runtime 1.5+, Android. C# API (General & FIPS): CLR 4.
BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition Solaris, HP-UX, Tru64, Linux, Android, FreeBSD, AIX, 32 and 64-bit Windows (Visual Studio), macOS (Darwin), iOS, VxWorks Yes
BSAFE Crypto-J Solaris, Linux, Android, FreeBSD, AIX, 32 and 64-bit Windows, macOS (Darwin) Yes
cryptlib AMX, ARINC 653, BeOS, ChorusOS, CMSIS-RTOS/mbed-rtos, DOS, DOS32, eCOS, embOS, FreeRTOS/OpenRTOS, uItron, MQX, MVS, Nucleus, OS/2, Palm OS, QNX Neutrino, RTEMS, SMX, Tandem NonStop, Telit, ThreadX, uC/OS II, Unix (AIX, FreeBSD, HP-UX, Linux, macOS, Solaris, etc.), VDK, VM/CMS, VxWorks, Win16, Win32, Win64, WinCE/PocketPC/etc, XMK Yes
Crypto++ Unix (AIX, OpenBSD, Linux, MacOS, Solaris, etc.), Win32, Win64, Android, iOS, ARM Yes[a]
Libgcrypt All 32 and 64 bit Unix Systems (Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, macOS etc.), Win32, Win64, WinCE and more Yes[49]
libsodium macOS, Linux, OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, DragonflyBSD, Android, iOS, 32 and 64-bit Windows (Visual Studio, MinGW, C++ Builder), NativeClient, QNX, JavaScript, AIX, MINIX, Solaris Yes
mbed TLS Win32/64, Unix Systems, embedded Linux, Micrium's µC/OS, FreeRTOS ?
OpenSSL Solaris, IRIX, HP-UX, MPE/iX, Tru64, Linux, Android, BSD (OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, DragonflyBSD), NextSTEP, QNX, UnixWare, SCO, AIX, 32 and 64-bit Windows (Visual Studio, MinGW, UWIN, CygWin), UEFI, macOS (Darwin), iOS, HURD, VxWorks, uClinux, VMS, DJGPP (DOS), Haiku Yes
wolfCrypt Win32/64, Linux, macOS, Solaris, ThreadX, VxWorks, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, embedded Linux, WinCE, Haiku, OpenWRT, iPhone (iOS), Android, Nintendo Wii and Gamecube through DevKitPro, QNX, MontaVista, NonStop, TRON/ITRON/µITRON, Micrium's µC/OS, FreeRTOS, SafeRTOS, Freescale MQX, Nucleus, TinyOS, HP-UX Yes
  1. ^ Crypto++ is thread safe at the object level, i.e. there is no shared data among instances. If two different threads access the same object then the user is responsible for locking.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Botan: Release Notes". Retrieved 2021-05-21.
  2. ^ "Release Notes - bouncycastle.org". 2021-06-07. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  3. ^ "Java FIPS Resources - bouncycastle.org". 2021-04-21. Retrieved 2019-08-29.
  4. ^ "The Legion of the Bouncy Castle C# Cryptography APIs". 2021-02-16. Retrieved 2021-02-17.
  5. ^ "C# .NET FIPS Resources - bouncycastle.org". 2021-04-21. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  6. ^ "Dell BSAFE Crypto-C Micro Edition 4.1.5 and Micro Edition Suite 4.6 Release Advisory".
  7. ^ "RSA announces the release of RSA BSAFE® Crypto-J 6.2.5".
  8. ^ Gutmann, Peter (2019). "Downloading". cryptlib. University of Auckland School of Computer Science. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  9. ^ "The GnuTLS Transport Layer Security Library". Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  10. ^ "Libgcrypt 1.9.3 released". dev.gnupg.org. 2021-04-19. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  11. ^ "Libgcrypt 1.8.8 released". dev.gnupg.org. 2021-06-02. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  12. ^ a b "Mbed TLS 2.16.0, 2.7.9 and 2.1.18 released". 2018-12-21. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  13. ^ Downloading and installing NaCl, Bernstein, Lange, Schwabe, retrieved 2017-05-22
  14. ^ "Nettle ChangeLog file @ git tag nettle_3.5.1_release_20190627".
  15. ^ a b "Release notes for recent versions of NSS". Mozilla Developer Network. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  16. ^ "OpenSSL: Newslog". Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  17. ^ "wolfSSL ChangeLog". 2021-02-16. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
  18. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&Vendor=bouncy+castle&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  19. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&Vendor=rsa&ModuleName=crypto-c+micro&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  20. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&ModuleName=crypto-j&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  21. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&ModuleName=libgcrypt&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  22. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&ModuleName=+NSS&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  23. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/modules-in-process/iut-list
  24. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/validated-modules/search?SearchMode=Basic&ModuleName=wolfcrypt&CertificateStatus=Active&ValidationYear=0
  25. ^ https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/cryptographic-module-validation-program/modules-in-process/iut-list
  26. ^ RFC 7091
  27. ^ RFC 8018
  28. ^ RFC 5831
  29. ^ RFC 6986
  30. ^ RFC 5830
  31. ^ RFC 8891
  32. ^ RFC 7801
  33. ^ Bouncy Castle Specifications, bouncycastle.org, retrieved 2018-04-10
  34. ^ cryptlib Encryption Toolkit, Peter Gutmann, retrieved 2015-11-28
  35. ^ With Scute, scute.org
  36. ^ a b With GnuPG's SCdaemon & gpg-agent, gnupg.org
  37. ^ a b With an libp11 engine
  38. ^ hwfeatures.c, dev.gnupg.org
  39. ^ https://www.wolfssl.com/wolfSSL/Blog/Entries/2017/1/18_wolfSSL_Asynchronous_Intel_QuickAssist_Support.html
  40. ^ https://www.wolfssl.com/wolfSSL/Blog/Entries/2016/10/13_wolfSSL_ARMv8_Support.html
  41. ^ a b Language Analysis of Botan, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2018-07-18
  42. ^ a b Language Analysis of Bouncy Castle, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2015-12-23
  43. ^ a b Language Analysis of Crypto++, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2018-07-18
  44. ^ a b Language Analysis of Libgcrypt, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2015-12-23
  45. ^ a b Language Analysis of libsodium, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2017-05-07
  46. ^ a b Language Analysis of mbed-tls, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2019-09-15
  47. ^ a b Language Analysis of Nettle, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2015-12-23
  48. ^ a b Language Analysis of OpenSSL, OpenHub.net, retrieved 2017-05-07
  49. ^ GnuPG documentation: Libgcrypt overview - thread safety, GnuPG.org, retrieved 2016-04-16