Janet Louise Yellen (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist. She served as the Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 2014–2018, previously serving as Vice Chair from 2010 to 2014. Previously, she was President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; Chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton; and business professor at the University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business.
|15th Chair of the Federal Reserve|
February 3, 2014 – February 3, 2018
|Preceded by||Ben Bernanke|
|Succeeded by||Jerome Powell|
|Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve System|
October 4, 2010 – February 3, 2014
|Preceded by||Donald Kohn|
|Succeeded by||Stanley Fischer|
|President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco|
June 14, 2004 – October 4, 2010
|Preceded by||Robert Parry|
|Succeeded by||John Williams|
|18th Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers|
February 18, 1997 – August 3, 1999
|Preceded by||Joseph Stiglitz|
|Succeeded by||Martin Baily|
|Born||Janet Louise Yellen
August 13, 1946
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Education||Brown University (BA)
Yale University (MA, PhD)
Yellen was nominated by President Obama to succeed Ben Bernanke as Chairwoman of the United States Federal Reserve. On January 6, 2014, the U.S. Senate confirmed Yellen's nomination. She was sworn in on February 3, 2014, making her the first woman to hold the position.
Early life and education
Yellen was born to a Polish Jewish family in New York City's Brooklyn borough, as the daughter of Anna Ruth (née Blumenthal; 1907–1986), an elementary school teacher and Julius Yellen (1906–1975), a family physician, who worked from the ground floor of their home. Her mother quit her job to take care of Janet and her older brother, John. She graduated from Fort Hamilton High School in the Bay Ridge section of Brooklyn as a valedictorian. She graduated summa cum laude from Pembroke College in Brown University with a degree in economics in 1967. At Brown, Yellen had switched her planned major from philosophy to economics and was particularly influenced by professors George Borts and Herschel Grossman. She received her Ph.D. in economics from Yale University in 1971. Her dissertation was titled "Employment, Output and Capital Accumulation in an Open Economy: A Disequilibrium Approach" under the supervision of Nobel laureates James Tobin and Joseph Stiglitz, who later called Yellen one of his brightest and most memorable students. Two dozen economists earned their Ph.D from Yale in 1971, but Yellen was the only woman in that doctoral class.
Yellen is married to George Akerlof, economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate, professor at Georgetown University, and professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. Their son, Robert Akerlof, teaches Economics at the University of Warwick.
Yellen was an assistant professor at Harvard in 1971–76, an economist with the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in 1977–78., and a lecturer at The London School of Economics and Political Science in 1978–80. Beginning in 1980, Yellen conducted research at the Haas School and taught macroeconomics to full-time and part-time MBA and undergraduate students. She is now a Professor Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley's Haas School of Business, where she was named Eugene E. and Catherine M. Trefethen Professor of Business and Professor of Economics. Twice she has been awarded the Haas School's outstanding teaching award.
Yellen served as Chair of President Bill Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers from February 18, 1997, to August 3, 1999, and was appointed as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors from August 12, 1994 to February 17, 1997. She chairred the Economic Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development from 1997–1999. Yellen serves as president of the Western Economic Association International and is a former vice president of the American Economic Association. She was a fellow of the Yale Corporation.
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
From June 14, 2004, until 2010, Yellen was the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. She was a voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) in 2009. Following her appointment to the Federal Reserve in 2004, she spoke publicly, and in meetings of the Fed’s monetary policy committee, about her concern about the potential consequences of the boom in housing prices. However, Yellen did not lead the San Francisco Fed to "move to check [the] increasingly indiscriminate lending" of Countrywide Financial, the largest lender in the U.S.
In a 2005 speech in San Francisco, Yellen argued against deflating the housing bubble because "arguments against trying to deflate a bubble outweigh those in favor of it" and predicted that the housing bubble "could be large enough to feel like a good-sized bump in the road, but the economy would likely be able to absorb the shock." In 2010, Yellen told the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission that she and other San Francisco Fed officials looked for guidance from Washington because "she had not explored the San Francisco Fed’s ability to act unilaterally," according to the New York Times. Yellen conceded her previous misjudgment of the housing crisis to the Commission: "I guess I thought that similar to the collapse of the stock market around the tech bubble, that most likely the economy could withstand [the housing collapse] and the Fed could move to support the economy the way it had after the tech bubble collapsed."
Vice-chair of the Federal Reserve
On April 28, 2010, President Obama nominated Yellen to succeed Donald Kohn as vice-chair of the Federal Reserve System. In July, the Senate Banking Committee voted 17 to 6 to confirm her, though the top Republican on the panel, Senator Richard C. Shelby of Alabama, voted no, saying he believed Yellen had an "inflationary bias". At the same time, on the heels of related testimony by Fed Chairman Bernanke, FOMC voting member James B. Bullard of the St. Louis Fed made a statement that the U.S. economy was "at risk of becoming 'enmeshed in a Japanese-style deflationary outcome within the next several years'".
Bullard's statement was interpreted as a possible shift within the FOMC balance between inflation hawks and doves. Yellen's pending confirmation, along with those of Peter A. Diamond and Sarah Bloom Raskin to fill vacancies, was seen as possibly furthering such a shift in the FOMC. All three nominations were seen as "on track to be confirmed by the Senate".
On October 4, 2010, Yellen was sworn in for a 4-year term ending October 4, 2014. Yellen simultaneously began a 14-year term as a member of the Federal Reserve Board that will expire on January 31, 2024.
Chair of the Federal Reserve
On October 9, 2013, Yellen was officially nominated to replace Bernanke as Chair of the Federal Reserve. During the nomination hearings held on November 14, 2013, Yellen defended the more than $3 trillion in stimulus funds that the Fed had been injecting into the U.S. economy. Additionally, Yellen testified that U.S. monetary policy is to revert towards more traditional monetary policy once the economy is back to normal.
On December 20, 2013, the U.S. Senate voted 59–34 for cloture on Yellen's nomination. On January 6, 2014, she was confirmed as Chair of the Federal Reserve by a vote of 56–26, the narrowest margin ever for the position. In addition to being the first woman to hold the position, Yellen is also the first Democratic nominee to run the Fed since Paul Volcker became chairman in 1979. After being elected by the Federal Open Market Committee as its chair on January 30, 2014, she took office on February 3.
On December 16, 2015, while Yellen was chair of the Federal Reserve, the latter increased its key interest rate for first time since 2006.
On April 12, 2017, amidst speculation about whether Yellen would be reappointed to a second term, Trump had the following exchange with a WSJ reporter. Asked if Yellen was "toast" when her term ends in 2018, Trump said, "No, not toast."
On November 2, 2017, Trump nominated Jerome Powell to succeed Yellen when her term ends on February 3, 2018, opting not to renominate Yellen. Yellen subsequently announced she would leave the Federal Reserve Board of Governors at the end of her term as chair.
Yellen received generally high marks from supporters and critics alike during her tenure. According to research conducted by The Washington Post in December 2017, unemployment figures showed the greatest improvement since 1948 and, in comparing "S&P 500 cumulative (inflation-adjusted) returns under the past four Fed chairs. Yellen has the highest return... no other recent Fed chair has seen the market climb this far this fast as it did under Yellen."
After the Federal Reserve
On February 2, 2018, Brookings Institution announced that Yellen would be joining the think-tank as a Distinguished Fellow in Residence. She will be affiliated with the Hutchins Center on Fiscal and Monetary Policy, joining her predecessor and former Federal Reserve Chair Ben Bernanke.
Yellen is considered by many on Wall Street to be a "dove" (more concerned with unemployment than with inflation) and as such to be less likely to advocate Federal Reserve interest rate hikes, as compared, for example, to William Poole (former St. Louis Fed president) a "hawk". However, some predicted Yellen could act more as a hawk if economic circumstances dictate.
Yellen is a Keynesian economist and advocates the use of monetary policy in stabilizing economic activity over the business cycle. She believes in the modern version of the Phillips curve, which originally was an observation about an inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation. In her 2010 nomination hearing for Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Yellen said, "The modern version of the Phillips curve model—relating movements in inflation to the degree of slack in the economy—has solid theoretical and empirical support."
In a 1995 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee while serving on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Yellen stated that occasionally letting inflation rise could be a "wise and humane policy" if it increases output. At the same meeting she also stated that each percentage point reduction in inflation results in a 4.4 percent loss of Gross Domestic Product.
Honors and awards
Yellen received the Wilbur Cross Medal from Yale in 1997, an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Brown in 1998, and an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters from Bard College in 2000. She received an Honorary Doctorate from the London School of Economics in May 2015, making her and her husband "the first wife and husband team to hold honorary doctorates from the School".
In 2012, she was elected Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association.
In October 2015, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute ranked Janet Yellen #1 in the Public Investor 100 list
In October 2015, Bloomberg Markets ranked Janet Yellen first in their annual list of the 50 most influential economists and policymakers.
- 2014–2018 Chair, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System
- 2010–2014 Vice Chair, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System
- 2004–2010 President and CEO, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
- 1997–1999 Chair, President's Council of Economic Advisers
- 1994–1997 Member, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
- 1985–2006 Professor, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley
- 1980–1985 Associate Professor, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley
- 1978–1980 Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science
- 1977–1978 Economist, Division of International Finance, Trade and Financial Studies Section, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
- 1974 Research Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- 1971–1976 Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Harvard University
External service and assignments
- President and CEO, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
- Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2001
- Vice President, Western Economics Association, 2001
- Fellow, Yale Corporation 2000–
- Member, National Academy of Sciences Panel on Ensuring the Best Presidential Science and Technology Appointments, 2000
- Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999–
- Advisory Board, Center for International Political Economy, 1999–
- Advisory Board, Brookings Panel on Economic Activity, 1999
- Chair: Economic Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1997–1999
- President's Interagency Committee on Women's Business Enterprise (1997)
- Member and adviser: Brookings Panel on Economic Activity (senior advisor); Advisor Panel in Economics, National Science Foundation;
- Adviser: Congressional Budget Office
- Research fellow: Yale University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Trustee of the Economists for Peace and Security
- The Fabulous Decade: Macroeconomic Lessons from the 1990s (with Alan Blinder), The Century Foundation Press, New York, 2001. ISBN 0-87078-467-6
- "East Germany In From the Cold: The Economic Aftermath of Currency Union" (with George Akerlof, Andrew Rose, and Helga Hessenius), Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1991:1.
- "How Large are the Losses from Rule of Thumb Behavior in Models of the Business Cycle?" (with George Akerlof) in Willima Brainard, William Nordhaus, and Harold Watts, eds., Money, Macroeconomics and Economic Policy: Essays in Honor of James Tobin, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (1991). ISBN 0-262-02325-3
- "An Analysis of Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in the United States," (with George Akerlof and Michael Katz). Quarterly Journal of Economics (May 1996); adapted into a Policy Brief prepared for the Fall 1996 issue of the Brookings Review doi:10.2307/2946680
- "Monetary Policy: Goals and Strategy," Business Economics (July 1996).
- "Trends in Income Inequality and Policy Responses," Looking Ahead, October 1997; reproduced in James Auerbach and Richard Belous, eds., The Inequality Paradox: Growth of Income Disparity, National Policy Association, 1998
- "The Continuing Importance of Trade Liberalization," Business Economics (1998).
- Rose, Andrew K. & Yellen, Janet L., 1989. "Is there a J-curve?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 53–68, July.
- Akerlof, George A., and Janet Yellen, 1986. "Efficiency Wage Models of the Labor Market". Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press.
- Yellen, Janet L, 1984. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 200–205
- McCulloch, Rachel & Yellen, Janet, 1982. "Can capital movements eliminate the need for technology transfer?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1–2), pages 95–106, February.
- Mui, Yian (February 2, 2014). "New Fed Chief Janet Yellen lets a long career of breaking barriers speak for itself". Washington Post.
- Lowrey, Annie (January 6, 2014). "Senate Confirms Yellen as Fed Chairwoman". New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Yellen Takes Over Federal Reserve As Bernanke Departs". Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.
- Obama to nominate Jewish economist Janet Yellen as new Fed chief, worldjewishcongress.org, Wed, 09 Oct 2013
- "Anna Ruth Yellen". Geni.
- "Julius Yellen". Geni.
- "Janet Yellen: A brief profile of the Federal Reserve nominee". The Denver Post. 29 April 2016.
- "Obama to nominate Jewish economist Janet Yellen as new Fed chief". World Jewish Congress. October 9, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- "Janet Yellen's Faith Slips Under the Radar As Gender Takes Over -New Fed Chief Is First Women to Hold the Position". The Jewish Daily Forward. October 15, 2013
- Udland, Myles (14 July 2014). "Janet Yellen Gives Her Clearest Comments Ever About How She Missed The Crisis And How She Sees The World". Business Insider.
The personal details about Yellen are also fascinating: Yellen's brother, John, is the director of the archeology program at the National Science Foundation
- "Fort Hamilton HS class of 1962". Forthamiltonhighschool.net. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Grace, Stephanie (January–February 2014). "Banker to the Nation". Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- "U.C. Berkeley professor turns 'lemons' into Nobel Prize". J. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California. San Francisco Jewish Community Publications. October 12, 2001. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Faculty Directory – University of Warwick, Department of Economics". University of Warwick. Retrieved March 13, 2012.
- "FRB: Janet L. Yellen". www.federalreserve.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- Appelbaum, Binyamin (April 24, 2013). "Possible Fed Successor Has Admirers and Foes". New York Times.
- "Janet Yellen | Faculty Directory | Berkeley-Haas". facultybio.haas.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- "Dr. Janet L. Yellen, Chair, Council of Economic Advisers". Clinton4.nara.gov. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Janet L. Yellen". Brookings. 2018-02-02. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
- Appelbaum, Binyamin (August 13, 2013). "Divining the Regulatory Goals of Fed Rivals". The New York Times.
- Janet Yellen (October 21, 2005). "Presentation to the Fourth Annual Haas Gala" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- "FCIC Staff Audiotape of Interview with Janet Yellen, Federal Reserve Board". Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. November 15, 2010. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Hilsenrath, Jon; Reddy, Sudeep; Wessel, David (July 9, 2009). "White House Ponders Bernanke's Future". The Wall Street Journal.
- Lee, Carol E. (September 16, 2013). "Yellen Is Now Top Fed Hopeful". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- Reddy, Sudeep (April 29, 2010). "Obama Nominates Yellen, Raskin, Diamond to Fed Board". The Wall Street Journal.
- Chan, Sewell, Fed Member’s "Deflation Warning Hints at Policy Shift", The New York Times, July 29, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
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- CNN: "Smooth sailing for Yellen in front of Senate" By Annalyn Kurtz November 14, 2013
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- "Vote Summary – Question: On the Cloture Motion (Motion to Invoke Cloture on the Nomination of Janet L. Yellen to be Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System )". U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 113th Congress – 1st Session. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- Lowrey, Annie (January 6, 2014). "Yellen Wins Backing of Senators to Lead Fed". New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
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- "FYI: Highlights", bloomberg.econoday.com, January 30, 2014.
- Gillespie, Patrick (December 16, 2015). "Finally! Fed raises interest rates". CNNMoney. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- "Yellen sends a message to Trump: Hands off Dodd-Frank". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Baker, Gerard; Lee, Carol E.; Bender, Michael C. (April 12, 2017). . Retrieved April 13, 2017.. WSJ
- Swanson, Ana; Appelbaum, Binyamin (November 2, 2017). "Trump Announces Jerome Powell as New Fed Chairman". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
- Appelbaum, Binyamin (November 20, 2017). "Yellen Will Leave Federal Reserve Next Year". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
- Long, Heather "Janet L. Yellen, America’s first female Fed chair, finishes to ‘standing ovation’"; Washington Post; 13 Dec 2017.
- Wessel, David (2018-02-02). "Welcome to Brookings, Chair Yellen". Brookings. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
- Bull, Alister (March 12, 2010). "FACTBOX-Yellen, Raskin and Diamond eyed for Fed board". Reuters.
- Cussen, Mark P. (October 16, 2013). "Janet Yellen: Background And Philosophy". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- "Senate Committee Hearing on the Nomination of Janet Yellen, Peter Diamond, Sarah Bloom Raskin, Osvaldo Luis Gratacos Munet, and Steve Linick". United States Government Printing Office. July 15, 2010. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
- "Meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee" (PDF). United States Federal Reserve System. January 31 – February 1, 1995. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- http://www.aflse.org/article.html?aid=2339 New York City: LSE Global Forum in New York City (May 15 2015).
- "From LSE to the Chair of the Federal Reserve". London School of Economics. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Beckner, Steven "Yellen Pleased w/Resolution Regime; Must Monitor Regultn Impact" Archived July 13, 2011, at Archive.is Market News International, October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
- Howard, Caroline. "The World's Most Powerful Women 2014". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "Yale awards nine honorary degrees at Commencement 2015". Yale University. May 15, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Warwick to award honorary degree to Janet L. Yellen Chair of the US Federal Reserve System". University of Warwick. October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "Janet Yellen". SWFI. Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Miller, Rich. "Yellen's Sway Over Rates Puts Her Atop Most Influential Ranking". Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Janet Yellen – Faculty Directory". Haas School of Business. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janet Yellen.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Janet Yellen|
- Janet L. Yellen at the Federal Reserve System
- Nomination of Janet L. Yellen: Hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session, on Nomination of Janet L. Yellen, of California, to be Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, November 14, 2013
- Statements and Speeches of Janet L. Yellen (1995–2011) at FRASER (Federal Reserve Archive)
- Janet L. Yellen (2004–2010) at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
- Profile at the Haas School of Business
- Profile and Papers at Research Papers in Economics/RePEc
- Publications at the National Bureau of Economic Research
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Janet Yellen on IMDb
- Works by or about Janet Yellen in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Janet Yellen collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
|Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers
|President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
|Vice Chair of the Federal Reserve System
|Chair of the Federal Reserve