Pfizer Inc. (// FY-zər) is an American multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology corporation headquartered on 42nd Street in Manhattan, New York City. The name of the company commemorates its co-founder, Charles Pfizer (1824-1906).
|Founded||1849New York Cityin|
|Headquarters||235 East 42nd Street, |
|Albert Bourla, Chairman & CEO|
Frank A. D’Amelio, CFO
Mikael Dolsten, CSO
Lidia Fonseca, CTO
Scott Gottlieb, Director
Helen Hobbs, Director
Susan Hockfield, Director
Dan Littman, Director
Shantanu Narayen, Director
Suzanne Nora Johnson, Director
James Quincey, Director
Jim Smith, Director
|Revenue||$41.908 billion (2020)|
|$8.16 billion (2020)|
|$9.615 billion (2020)|
|Total assets||$178.983 billion (2020)|
|Total equity||$65.495 billion (2020)|
Number of employees
|78,500, of whom 29,400 are in the United States (2020)|
|Footnotes / references|
Pfizer develops and produces medicines and vaccines for immunology, oncology, cardiology, endocrinology, and neurology. The company has several blockbuster drugs or products that each generate more than US$1 billion in annual revenues.
In 2020, 52% of the company's revenues came from the United States, 6% came from each of China and Japan, and 36% came from other countries.
1849–1950: Early historyEdit
Pfizer was founded in 1849 by Charles Pfizer and Charles F. Erhart, two cousins who had immigrated to the United States from Ludwigsburg, Germany, the year before. The business produced chemical compounds, and was headquartered on Bartlett Street in Williamsburgh, New York, where they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was production of citric acid that led to Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property in the area (by now the Williamsburg district of the city of Brooklyn, New York and, beginning in 1898, the City of Greater New York) to expand its lab and factory, retaining offices on Flushing Avenue until the 1960s; the Brooklyn plant ultimately closed in 2009. Following the success of citric acid, Pfizer (at the now-demolished 295 Washington Avenue) and Erhart (at 280 Washington Avenue) established their main residences in the nearby Clinton Hill district, known for its concentration of Gilded Age wealth. Pfizer spent summers in similarly exclusive Newport, Rhode Island, where he died in 1906.
In 1881, Pfizer moved its administrative headquarters to 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan, presaging the company's expansion to Chicago, Illinois a year later. By 1906, sales exceeded $3 million.
World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate, which Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, and the company began a search for an alternative supply. Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid, and they were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919. The company developed expertise in fermentation technology as a result. These skills were applied to the mass production of penicillin, an antibiotic, during World War II in response to the need to treat injured Allied soldiers.
1950–1980: Pivot to pharmaceutical research and global expansionEdit
Due to price declines for penicillin, Pfizer searched for new antibiotics with greater profit potential. Pfizer discovered oxytetracycline in 1950, and this changed the company from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. Pfizer developed a drug discovery program focused on in vitro synthesis to augment its research in fermentation technology. In 1959, the company established an animal health division with a 700-acre (2.8 km2) farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana.
By the 1950s, Pfizer had established offices in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, and the United Kingdom. In 1960, the company moved its medical research laboratory operations out of New York City to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut. In 1980, Pfizer launched Feldene (piroxicam), a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer's first product to reach $1 billion in revenue.
As the area surrounding its Brooklyn plant fell into decline in the 1970s and 1980s, the company formed a public-private partnership with New York City that encompassed the construction of low- and middle-income housing, the refurbishment of apartment buildings for the homeless and the establishment of a charter school.
1980–2000: Development of Viagra, Zoloft, and LipitorEdit
In 1981, the company received approval for Diflucan (fluconazole), the first oral treatment for severe fungal infections including candidiasis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, dermatophytosis, and pityriasis versicolor.
In 1986, Pfizer acquired the worldwide rights to Zithromax (azithromycin), a macrolide antibiotic that is recommended by the Infectious Disease Society of America as a first line treatment for certain cases of community-acquired pneumonia, from Pliva.
In 1989, Pfizer scientists Peter Dunn and Albert Wood created Viagra (sildenafil) for treating high blood pressure and angina, a chest pain associated with coronary artery disease. In 1991, it was patented in the United Kingdom as a heart medication. Early trials for the medication showed that it did not work for the treatment of heart disease, but volunteers in the clinical trials had increased erections several days after taking the drug. In was patented in the United States in 1996 and received approval by the Food and Drug Administration in March 1998. In December 1998, Pfizer hired Bob Dole as a spokesperson for the drug. The patents for Viagra expired in 2020.
In 1991 Pfizer also began marketing Zoloft (sertraline), an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class developed nine years earlier by Pfizer chemists Kenneth Koe and Willard Welch. Sertraline is primarily prescribed for major depressive disorder in adult outpatients as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder in both adults and children. In 2005, the year before it became a generic drug, sales were over $3 billion and over 100 million people had been treated with the drug. The patent for Zoloft expired in the summer of 2006.
In 1996, Eisai, in partnership with Pfizer, received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for donepezil under the brand Aricept for treatment of Alzheimer's disease; Pfizer also received approval for Norvasc (amlodipine), an antihypertensive drug of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker class.
In 1997, the company entered into a co-marketing agreement with Warner–Lambert for Lipitor (atorvastatin), a statin for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although atorvastatin was the fifth statin to be developed, clinical trials showed that atorvastatin caused a more dramatic reduction in low-density lipoprotein pattern C (LDL-C) than the other statin drugs. Upon its patent expiration in 2011, Lipitor was the best-selling drug ever, with approximately $125 billion in sales over 14.5 years.
2000–2010: Further expansionEdit
In 2004, the company received approval for Lyrica (pregabalin), an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, and generalized anxiety disorder. The United States patent on Lyrica was challenged by generic manufacturers and was upheld in 2014, extending the expiration date to 2018. In 2016, the drug had sales of $4.2 billion.
On December 3, 2006, Pfizer ceased development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease. During a Phase III clinical trial involving 15,000 patients, more deaths than expected occurred in the group that took the medicine, and the mortality rate of patients taking the combination of torcetrapib and Lipitor (82 deaths during the study) was 60% higher than those taking Lipitor alone (52 deaths during the study). Lipitor alone was not implicated in the results, but Pfizer lost nearly $1 billion developing the failed drug and its stock price dropped 11% on the day of the announcement.
Between 2007 and 2010, Pfizer spent $3.3 million on investigations and legal fees and recovered about $5.1 million, and had another $5 million of pending recoveries from civil lawsuits against makers of counterfeit prescription drugs. Pfizer has hired customs and narcotics experts worldwide to track down fakes and assemble evidence that can be used to pursue civil suits for trademark infringement.
In July 2008, Pfizer announced 275 job cuts at its manufacturing facility in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Kalamazoo was previously the world headquarters of Upjohn Company, which had been acquired as part of Pharmacia.
Acquisitions and mergersEdit
In June 2000, Pfizer acquired Werner-Lambert outright for $116 billion. To satisfy conditions imposed by antitrust regulators at the Federal Trade Commission, Pfizer sold off or transferred stakes in several minor products, including RID (a shampoo for treatment of head lice, sold to Bayer) and Werner-Lambert's antidepressant Celexa (which competes with Zoloft). The acquisition created what was, at the time, the second-largest pharmaceutical company worldwide.
In 2003, Pfizer merged with Pharmacia, and in the process acquired Searle and SUGEN. Searle had developed Flagyl (metronidazole), a nitroimidazole antibiotic medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Searle also developed celecoxib (Celebrex) a COX-2 inhibitor and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat the pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, acute pain in adults, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, painful menstruation, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. SUGEN, a company focused on protein kinase inhibitors, had pioneered the use of ATP-mimetic small molecules to block signal transduction. The SUGEN facility was shut down in 2003 by Pfizer, with the loss of more than 300 jobs, and several programs were transferred to Pfizer. These included sunitinib (Sutent), a cancer medication which was approved for human use by the FDA in January 2006. A related compound, SU11654 (Toceranib), was also approved for cancer in dogs, and the ALK inhibitor Crizotinib also grew out of a SUGEN program.
In October 2006, the company announced it would acquire PowerMed.
On October 15, 2009, Pfizer acquired Wyeth for $68 billion in cash and stock, including the assumption of debt, making Pfizer the largest pharmaceutical company in the world. The acquisition of Wyeth provided Pfizer with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, trademarked Prevnar 13; this is used for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal infections. The introduction of the original, 7-valent version of the vaccine, developed by Wyeth in February 2000, led to a 75% reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections among children under age 5 in the United States. Pfizer introduced an improved version of the vaccine in 2010, for which it was granted a patent in India in 2017. Prevnar 13 provides coverage of 13 bacterial variants, expanding beyond the original 7-valent version. By 2012, the rate of invasive infections among children under age 5 had been reduced by an additional 50%.
2010–2020: Further discoveries and acquisitionsEdit
In November 2012, Pfizer received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for Xeljanz, a tofacitinib, for rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. The drug had sales of $1.77 billion in 2018, and in January 2019, it was the top drug in the United States for direct-to-consumer advertising, passing adalimumab (Humira).
On February 1, 2013, Zoetis, the Agriculture Division of Pfizer and later Pfizer Animal Health, became a public company via an initial public offering, raising $2.2 billion. Later in 2013, Pfizer completed the corporate spin-off of its remaining stake in Zoetis.
In September 2015, Pfizer acquired Hospira for $17 billion, including the assumption of debt. Hospira was the largest producer of generic injectable pharmaceuticals in the world.
On November 23, 2015, Pfizer and Allergan announced a planned $160 billion merger, in the largest pharmaceutical deal ever and the third largest corporate merger in history. The proposed transaction contemplated that the merged company maintain Allergan's Republic of Ireland domicile, resulting in the new company being subject to corporation tax at the relatively low rate of 12.5%. The deal was to constitute a reverse merger, whereby Allergan acquired Pfizer, with the new company then changing its name to "Pfizer, plc". On April 6, 2016, Pfizer and Allergan terminated the merger agreement after the Obama administration and the United States Department of the Treasury introduced new laws intended to limit corporate inversions (the extent to which companies could move their headquarters overseas in order to reduce the amount of taxes they pay).
In August 2016, the company made a $40 million bid for the assets of BIND Therapeutics, which was in bankruptcy. The same month, the company acquired Bamboo Therapeutics for $645 million, expanding its gene therapy offerings.
In January 2018, Pfizer announced that it would end its work on research into treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinsonism (a symptom of Parkinson's disease and other conditions). The company said about 300 researchers would lose their jobs.
In July 2019, the company acquired Therachon for up to $810 million, expanding its rare disease portfolio through Therachon's recombinant human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 compound, aimed at treating conditions such as achondroplasia.
In August 2019, Pfizer merged its consumer health business with that of GlaxoSmithKline, into a joint venture owned 68% by GlaxoSmithKline and 32% by Pfizer, with plans to make it a public company. The transaction built on a 2018 transaction where GlaxoSmithKline acquired Novartis' stake in the GSK-Novartis consumer healthcare joint business. The transaction followed negotiations with other companies including Reckitt Benckiser, Sanofi, Johnson & Johnson, and Procter & Gamble.
2020s: COVID-19 vaccine and other initiativesEdit
COVID-19 pandemic and vaccine developmentEdit
Initial development and testingEdit
In March 2020, as the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic became apparent, Pfizer partnered with BioNTech to study and develop COVID-19 mRNA vaccine candidates. Unlike many of its competitors, Pfizer took no initial research funds from the United States' Operation Warp Speed vaccine development program, instead choosing to invest roughly $2 billion of its own funds. Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla has said that he declined money from Operation Warp Speed to avoid government intervention, stating later that "when you get money from someone that always comes with strings. They want to see how we are going to progress, what type of moves you are going to do. They want reports. And also, I wanted to keep Pfizer out of politics, by the way."
In May 2020, Pfizer began testing four different COVID-19 vaccine variations. Vaccines were injected into the first human participants in the U.S. in early May. In July 2020, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that two of the partners' four mRNA vaccine candidates had won fast track designation from the FDA. The company began Phase II-III testing on 30,000 people in the last week of July 2020 and was slated to be paid $1.95 billion for 100 million doses of the vaccine by the US government. The U.S. deal priced two doses at $39, and the company stated that it would not lower the rates for other countries until the outbreak is no longer a pandemic. Pfizer's CEO stated the companies in the private sector producing a vaccine should make a profit. In September 2020, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that they had completed talks with the European Commission to provide an initial 200 million vaccine doses to the EU, with the option to supply another 100 million doses at a later date.
On November 9, 2020, Pfizer announced that BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine, tested on 43,500 people, was found to be 90% effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19, with no serious side effects. The efficacy was updated to 95% a week later. Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist interviewed by the New York Times, described the efficacy figure as "really a spectacular number." The announcement made Pfizer the first company to develop and test a working vaccine for COVID-19.
Over the following month and a half, regulators in various countries approved Pfizer's vaccine for emergency use. The United Kingdom approved the vaccine first, on December 2, followed by Bahrain on December 4, Canada on December 9, and Saudi Arabia on December 10. On December 10, 2020, the United States FDA held an advisory committee meeting to discuss authorization of the vaccine. The next day, the US officially became the 5th country to approve use of Pfizer's vaccine under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), with an independent panel voting 17–4 in support of approval. On December 14, Singapore became one of the first in Asia to approve the vaccine through the Health Sciences Authority. On December 21, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended granting a conditional marketing authorisation for the vaccine in the European Union, under the brand name "Comirnaty."
Manufacturing and distributionEdit
As of early May 2021, Pfizer and BioNTech had manufactured at least 430 million vaccine doses, which have been distributed to 91 different countries and territories. The companies have said they expect to manufacture nearly 3 billion total vaccine doses in 2021.
In February 2021, after a year long investigation relying on unnamed officials, Pfizer was accused by The Bureau of Investigative Journalism (TBIJ) of employing "high-level bullying" against at least two Latin American countries during negotiations to acquire COVID-19 vaccines, including requesting that the countries put sovereign assets as collateral for payments. According to TBIJ, these negotiation tactics resulted in a months long delay in Pfizer reaching a vaccine agreement with one country and a complete failure to reach agreements with two other countries, including Argentina and Brazil.
In October 2020, the company acquired Arixa Pharmaceuticals.
In November 2020, using a Reverse Morris Trust structure, Pfizer merged its off-patent branded and generic drug business, known as Upjohn, with Mylan to form Viatris, owned 57% by Pfizer shareholders.
Prevnar 13, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, had $5.9 billion in 2020 revenues; Ibrance (palbociclib) for treatment of breast cancer, had $5.4 billion in 2020 revenues; Eliquis (apixaban) to treat and prevent venous thrombosis and to prevent stroke in people with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, had $4.9 billion in 2020 revenues; Xeljanz (tofacitinib) to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis, had $2.4 billion in 2020 revenues; Enbrel (etanercept) to treat autoimmune diseases, had $1.4 billion in 2020 revenues; Xtandi (enzalutamide) to treat prostate cancer, had $1.0 billion in 2020 revenues; and Vyndaqel/Vyndamax (tafamidis) to treat familial amyloid polyneuropathy, had $1.3 billion in 2020 revenues. Other high-revenue products by Pfizer include Chantix/Champix (varenicline) to treat nicotine addiction, had $919 million in 2020 revenues; Inlyta (axitinib), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit growth of breast cancer, had $787 million in 2020 revenues; Nimenrix, a meningococcal vaccine, had $221 million in 2020 revenues; FSME/IMMUN-TicoVac, a tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, had $196 million in 2020 revenues; Genotropin, a growth hormone therapy, had $427 million in 2020 revenues; Somavert (pegvisomant), a growth hormone receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acromegaly, had $277 million in 2020 revenues; Toviaz (fesoterodine), an antimuscarinic drug to treat overactive bladders, had $252 million in 2020 revenues; Bone morphogenetic protein 2, had $274 million in 2020 revenues; Sutent (sunitinib), used to treat cancer, had $819 million in 2020 revenues; Xalkori (crizotinib), an anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-ros oncogene 1 inhibitor for treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma, had $544 million in 2020 revenues; Bosulif (bosutinib), a small molecule BCR-ABL and src tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, had $450 million in 2020 revenues; Retacrit, an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, had $386 million in 2020 revenues; Lorbrena (lorlatinib), an anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-ros oncogene 1 inhibitor used for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, had $204 million in 2020 revenues; Sulperazon (cefoperazone/sulbactam), an antibiotic used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, had $618 million in 2020 revenues; Medrol (methylprednisolone), a glucocorticoid, had $402 million in 2020 revenues; and Vfend (voriconazole), an antifungal medication, had $270 million in 2020 revenues.
Aggressive pharmaceutical marketingEdit
Illegal marketing of gabapentin for off-label usesEdit
In 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved gabapentin only for treatment of seizures. Warner–Lambert, which merged with Pfizer in 2000, used continuing medical education and medical research, sponsored articles about the drug for the medical literature, and alleged suppression of unfavorable study results, to promote gabapentin. Within five years, the drug was being widely used for off-label uses such as treatment of pain and psychiatric conditions. Warner–Lambert admitted to violating FDA regulations by promoting the drug for pain, psychiatric conditions, migraine, and other unapproved uses. In 2004, the company paid $430 million in one of the largest settlements to resolve criminal and civil health care liability charges. It was the first off-label promotion case successfully brought under the False Claims Act. A Cochrane review concluded that gabapentin is ineffective in migraine prophylaxis. The American Academy of Neurology rates it as having unproven efficacy, while the Canadian Headache Society and the European Federation of Neurological Societies rate its use as being supported by moderate and low-quality evidence.
Illegal marketing of BextraEdit
In September 2009, Pfizer pleaded guilty to the illegal marketing of arthritis drug valdecoxib (Bextra) and agreed to a $2.3 billion settlement, the largest health care fraud settlement at that time. Pfizer promoted the sale of the drug for several uses and dosages that the Food and Drug Administration specifically declined to approve due to safety concerns. The drug was pulled from the market in 2005. It was Pfizer's fourth such settlement in a decade. The payment included $1.3 billion in criminal penalties for felony violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and $1.0 billion to settle allegations it had illegally promoted the drugs for uses that were not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) leading to violations under the False Claims Act as reimbursements were requested from Federal and State programs. The criminal fine was the largest ever assessed in the United States to date. Pfizer entered a corporate integrity agreement with the Office of Inspector General that required it to make substantial structural reforms within the company, and publish to its website its post approval commitments and a searchable database of all payments to physicians made by the company.
Termination of Peter RostEdit
Peter Rost was vice president in charge of the endocrinology division at Pharmacia before its acquisition by Pfizer. During that time he raised concerns internally about kickbacks and off-label marketing of Genotropin, Pharmacia's human growth hormone drug. Pfizer reported the Pharmacia marketing practices to the FDA and Department of Justice; Rost was unaware of this and filed an FCA lawsuit against Pfizer. Pfizer kept him employed, but isolated him until the FCA suit was unsealed in 2005. The Justice Department declined to intervene, and Pfizer fired him, and he filed a wrongful termination suit against Pfizer. Pfizer won a summary dismissal of the case, with the court ruling that the evidence showed Pfizer had decided to fire Rost prior to learning of his whistleblower activities.
Illegal marketing of RapamuneEdit
A "whistleblower suit" was filed in 2005 against Wyeth, which was acquired by Pfizer in 2009, alleging that the company illegally marketed sirolimus (Rapamune) for off-label uses, targeted specific doctors and medical facilities to increase sales of Rapamune, tried to get transplant patients to change from their transplant drugs to Rapamune, and specifically targeted African-Americans. According to the whistleblowers, Wyeth also provided doctors and hospitals that prescribed the drug with kickbacks such as grants, donations, and other money. In 2013, the company pleaded guilty to criminal mis-branding violations under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. By August 2014, it had paid $491 million in civil and criminal penalties related to Rapamune.
In June 2010, health insurance network Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) filed a lawsuit against Pfizer for allegedly illegally marketing drugs Bextra, Geodon and Lyrica. BCBS alleged that Pfizer used kickbacks and wrongly persuaded doctors to prescribe the drugs. According to the lawsuit, Pfizer handed out 'misleading' materials on off-label uses, sent over 5,000 doctors on trips to the Caribbean or around the United States, and paid them $2,000 honoraria in return for listening to lectures about Bextra. Despite Pfizer's claims that "the company's intent was pure" in fostering a legal exchange of information among doctors, an internal marketing plan revealed that Pfizer intended to train physicians "to serve as public relations spokespeople." The case was settled in 2014 for $325 million. Fearing that Pfizer is "too big to fail" and that prosecuting the company would result in disruptions to Medicare and Medicaid, federal prosecutors instead charged a subsidiary of a subsidiary of a subsidiary of Pfizer, which is "nothing more than a shell company whose only function is to plead guilty."
Removal of ads after unflattering articleEdit
According to Harper's Magazine publisher John R. MacArthur, Pfizer withdrew "between $400,000 and a million dollars" worth of ads from Harper's Magazine following an unflattering article on depression medication.
Quigley Company asbestosEdit
The Quigley Company, which sold asbestos-containing insulation products until the early 1970s, was acquired by Pfizer in 1968. In June 2013, asbestos victims and Pfizer negotiated a settlement that required Pfizer to pay a total of $964 million: $430 million to 80% of existing plaintiffs and place an additional $535 million into a settlement trust that will compensate future plaintiffs as well as the remaining 20% of plaintiffs with claims against Pfizer and Quigley. Of that $535 million, $405 million is in a 40-year note from Pfizer, while $100 million is from insurance policies.
Shiley defective heart valvesEdit
Pfizer purchased Shiley in 1979, at the onset of its Convexo-Concave valve ordeal, involving the Bjork–Shiley valve. Approximately 500 people died when defective heart valves fractured and, in 1994, Pfizer agreed to pay $10.75 million to settle claims by the United States Department of Justice that the company lied to get approval for the valves.
Firing of employee that filed suitEdit
A federal lawsuit was filed by a scientist claiming she got an infection by a genetically modified lentivirus while working for Pfizer, resulting in intermittent paralysis. A judge dismissed the case citing a lack of evidence that the illness was caused by the virus but the jury ruled that by firing the employee, Pfizer violated laws protecting freedom of speech and whistleblowers and awarded her $1.37 million.
Celebrex intellectual propertyEdit
Brigham Young University (BYU) said a professor of chemistry, Dr. Daniel L. Simmons, discovered an enzyme in the 1990s that led towards development of Celebrex. BYU was originally seeking a 15% royalty on sales, equating to $9.7 billion. A research agreement had been made between BYU and Monsanto, whose pharmaceutical business was later acquired by Pfizer, to develop a better aspirin. The enzyme Dr. Simmons claims to have discovered would induce pain and inflammation while causing gastrointestinal problems and Celebrex is used to reduce those issues. A six-year battle ensued because BYU claimed that Pfizer did not give Dr. Simmons credit or compensation, while Pfizer claimed that it had met all obligations regarding the Monsanto agreement. In May 2012, Pfizer settled the allegations, agreeing to pay $450 million.
Nigeria Trovafloxacin lawsuitEdit
In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives and personnel from a contract research organization (CRO) traveled to Kano to set up a clinical trial and administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children. Local Kano officials reported that more than fifty children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities. The nature and frequency of both fatalities and other adverse outcomes were similar to those historically found among pediatric patients treated for meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2001, families of the children, as well as the governments of Kano and Nigeria, filed lawsuits regarding the treatment. According to Democracy Now!, "[r]esearchers did not obtain signed consent forms, and medical personnel said Pfizer did not tell parents their children were getting the experimental drug." The lawsuits also accused Pfizer of using the outbreak to perform unapproved human testing, as well as allegedly under-dosing a control group being treated with traditional antibiotics in order to skew the results of the trial in favor of Trovan. Nigerian medical personnel as well as at least one Pfizer physician said the trial was conducted without regulatory approval.
In 2007, Pfizer published a Statement of Defense letter. The letter stated that the drug's oral form was safer and easier to administer, that Trovan had been used safely in more than five thousand Americans prior to the Nigerian trial, that mortality in the patients treated by Pfizer was lower than that observed historically in African meningitis epidemics, and that no unusual side effects, unrelated to meningitis, were observed after four weeks.
In June 2010, the US Supreme Court rejected Pfizer's appeal against a ruling allowing lawsuits by the Nigerian families to proceed.
In December 2010, a United States diplomatic cables leak was released by WikiLeaks indicating that Pfizer hired investigators to find evidence of corruption against Nigerian attorney general Aondoakaa to persuade him to drop legal action. The Washington Post reporter Joe Stephens, who helped break the story in 2000, called these actions "dangerously close to blackmail". In response, the company released a press statement describing the allegations as "preposterous" and saying that it acted in good faith. Aondoakka, who had allegedly demanded bribes from Pfizer in return for a settlement of the case, was declared unfit for office and had his U.S. visa revoked in association with corruption charges in 2010.
The lawsuits were eventually settled out of court. Pfizer committed to paying 35 million USD "to compensate the families of children in the study", another 30 million USD to "support healthcare initiatives in Kano", and 10 million to cover legal costs. Payouts began in 2011.
Pfizer has inherited Wyeth's liabilities in the American Cyanamid site in Bridgewater Township, New Jersey, a highly toxic EPA Superfund site. Pfizer has since attempted to remediate this land in order to clean and develop it for future profits and potential public uses. The Sierra Club and the Edison Wetlands Association have opposed the cleanup plan, arguing that the area is subject to flooding, which could cause pollutants to leach. The EPA considers the plan the most reasonable from considerations of safety and cost-effectiveness, arguing that an alternative plan involving trucking contaminated soil off site could expose cleanup workers. The EPA's position is backed by the environmental watchdog group CRISIS.
In June 2002, a chemical explosion at the Groton plant injured 7 people and caused the evacuation of more than 100 homes in the surrounding area.
Pfizer is a member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a Washington D.C.-based coalition of more than 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger International Affairs budget, which funds American diplomatic, humanitarian, and development efforts abroad.
In the first nine months of 2009, Pfizer spent over $16.3 million lobbying members of the United States Congress, making it the 6th largest lobbying interest in the US (following Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, which ranked 4th but also represents Pfizer interests). A spokeswoman for Pfizer said the company "wanted to make sure our voice is heard in this conversation" in regards to the company's expenditure of $25 million in 2010 to lobby health care reform.
According to United States Department of State cables released by WikiLeaks, Pfizer "lobbied against New Zealand getting a free trade agreement with the United States because it objected to New Zealand's restrictive drug buying rules and tried to get rid of New Zealand's former health minister", Helen Clark, in 1990.
- "Pfizer Inc. 2020 Form 10-K Annual Report" (PDF). Pfizer.
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
- "Fortune 500: Pfizer". Fortune.
- "Forbes Global 2000: Pfizer". Forbes.
- Bomey, Nathan (August 25, 2020). "Exxon Mobil, Pfizer removed from Dow Jones Industrial Average; Salesforce, Honeywell added". USA Today.
- Stevens, Pippa (August 24, 2020). "Salesforce, Amgen and Honeywell added to Dow in major shake-up to the average". CNBC.
- Ponczek, Sarah; Greifeld, Katherine (August 24, 2020). "Exxon Booted from Dow Industrials in Major Embrace of Tech". Bloomberg News.
- Levisohn, Ben (August 25, 2020). "Exxon and Pfizer Just Got Booted From the Dow. Here's What's Replacing Them". Barron's.
- Kenneth T. Jackson. The Encyclopedia of New York City. The New York Historical Society; Yale University Press; September 1995. P. 895. ISBN 978-0-300-05536-8
- "Pfizer's Birthplace, Soon Without Pfizer". The New York Times. January 28, 2007.
- "Guide to the Pfizer Inc. collection ARC.084". Brooklyn Public Library.
- "Our People – The Journey". Pfizer.
- "Penicillin Production through Deep-tank Fermentation – National Historic Chemical Landmark". American Chemical Society.
- "Fluconazole". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016.
- "Azithromycin: A world best-selling Antibiotic". World Intellectual Property Organization.
- Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. (March 2007). "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults" (PDF). Clin. Infect. Dis. 44 Suppl 2: S27–72. doi:10.1086/511159. PMC 7107997. PMID 17278083.
- Wilson, Jacque (March 27, 2013). "Viagra: The little blue pill that could". CNN.
- Cox, David (June 9, 2019). "The race to replace Viagra". The Guardian.
- "Pfizer Inc., New York, has elected its..." Los Angeles Times. March 29, 1991.
- "Kenneth Koe '45". Reed Magazine. Reed College. December 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Smith, Aaron (April 4, 2006). "Who stands to gain when Zoloft goes generic?". CNN Money. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration.
- "Drug Approval Package". Food and Drug Administration.
- Mehta, Praful (November 29, 2011). "Lipitor Patent Expiration - The End of an Era for Atorvastatin Sales". IHS Markit. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Berenson, Alex (July 29, 2006). "A Long Shot Becomes Pfizer's Latest Chief Executive". The New York Times.
- "Pregabalin". American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.
- Frampton, James E. (September 2014). "Pregabalin: A Review of its Use in Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder". CNS Drugs. 28 (9): 835–854. doi:10.1007/s40263-014-0192-0. PMID 25149863. S2CID 5349255.
- Iftikhar, I. H.; Alghothani, L.; Trotti, L. M. (December 2017). "Gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin and rotigotine are equally effective in restless legs syndrome: a comparative meta-analysis". European Journal of Neurology. 24 (12): 1446–1456. doi:10.1111/ene.13449. PMID 28888061. S2CID 22262972.
- Decker, Susan (February 6, 2014). "Pfizer Wins Ruling to Block Generic Lyrica Until 2018". Bloomberg News.
- Speights, Keith (April 17, 2017). "How Pfizer Inc. Makes Most of Its Money". The Motley Fool.
- "Pfizer names new CEO". CNN. July 28, 2006.
- Berenson, Alex; Pollack, Andrew (December 5, 2006). "Pfizer Shares Plummet on Loss of a Promising Heart Drug". The New York Times.
- Berenson, Alex (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer Ends Studies on Drug for Heart Disease". The New York Times.
- Agovino, Theresa (December 3, 2006). "Pfizer ends cholesterol drug development". The Seattle Times. Associated Press.
- Tanne, Janice Hopkins (December 16, 2006). "Pfizer stops clinical trials of heart drug". BMJ. 333 (7581): 1237.2–1237. doi:10.1136/bmj.39059.438044.DB. PMC 1702474. PMID 17170401.
- Bennett, Simeon (July 8, 2010). "Pfizer: Civil Suits for Drug Counterfeiters". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Jones, Al (July 15, 2008). "Pfizer job cuts don't equal a reduction in work load, says company spokesman". Booth Newspapers.
- "It's official: Pfizer buys Pharmacia". CNN. April 16, 2003.
- Hensley, Scott (June 20, 2000). "Pfizer Completes Stormy Takeover Of Warner-Lambert for $116 Billion". The Wall Street Journal.
- Campbell, Todd (May 15, 2017). "Here are the 7 biggest mergers of all time". Business Insider. The Motley Fool.
- "Metronidazole Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com.
- "Celecoxib Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. November 11, 2019.
- "The Spirit Of A Startup Lives On". Bloomberg Businessweek. November 21, 2005.
- "Pfizer expects to shutter South City biotech outpost". American City Business Journals. April 30, 2003.
- Rockoff, Jonathan D. (August 26, 2011). "FDA Approves Pfizer Lung-Cancer Drug". The Wall Street Journal.
- Mortlock, A.A.; Wilson, D.M.; Kettle, J.G.; Goldberg, F.W.; Foote, K.M. (2017). "Selective Kinase Inhibitors in Cancer". Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III. pp. 39–75. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.12391-1. ISBN 978-0-12-803201-5.
- Barriaux, Marianne (October 9, 2006). "Pfizer buys vaccine developer PowderMed". The Guardian.
- Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Wilson, Duff (January 25, 2009). "Pfizer Agrees to Pay $68 Billion for Rival Drug Maker Wyeth". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "Pfizer completes $67 billion deal for rival Wyeth". Reuters. October 15, 2009.
- Karnitschnig, Matthew; Rockoff, Jonathan D. (January 23, 2009). "Pfizer in Talks to Buy Wyeth". The Wall Street Journal.
- Edwards, Jim (January 23, 2009). "The Pfizer–Wyeth Deal Worst-Case Scenario". CBS News.
- "PFIZER COMPLETES ACQUISITION OF WYETH" (Press release). Pfizer. October 14, 2009.
- "CDC – ABCs: Surveillance Reports main page – Active Bacterial Core surveillance". April 5, 2019.
- Herper, Matthew (August 24, 2020). "In the race for a Covid-19 vaccine, Pfizer turns to a scientist with a history of defying skeptics – and getting results". Stat.
- "Ian Read to Retire as Executive Chairman of Pfizer's Board of Directors; Chief Executive Officer Dr. Albert Bourla Named Chairman" (Press release). Business Wire. September 27, 2019.
- "Pfizer to close UK research site". BBC News. February 1, 2011.
- Mckinney, Maureen (March 1, 2011). "Pfizer closes King Pharmaceuticals acquisition". Modern Healthcare.
- Yukhananov, Anna (September 4, 2012). "FDA approves Pfizer leukemia drug". Reuters.
- "Drug Approval Package". Food and Drug Administration.
- Sagonowsky, Eric (February 20, 2019). "Pfizer switches RA patients to lower dose of fast-growing Xeljanz as safety issues arise in postmarketing study". FiercePharma.
- "Zoetis™ Files IPO Registration Statement" (Press release). Business Wire. August 13, 2012.
- J. de la Merced, Michael (February 1, 2013). "Shares of Zoetis Surge on Debut". The New York Times.
- Dieterich, Chris (January 31, 2013). "Zoetis Raises $2.2 Billion in IPO". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Shares of animal health company Zoetis soar in IPO". CBS News. Associated Press. February 1, 2013.
- Loftus, Peter (May 22, 2013). "Pfizer to Spin Off Remaining Zoetis Stake". The Wall Street Journal.
- Humer, Caroline; Pierson, Ransdell (May 22, 2013). "Pfizer to spin off Zoetis stake to shareholders". Reuters.
- Wasserman, Emily (September 29, 2014). "Pfizer Completes Acquisition Of InnoPharma". FiercePharma.
- "Pfizer to Acquire InnoPharma for Up to $360M". genengnews.com. July 16, 2014.
- "Pfizer Buys Redvax, Boosting Vaccine Portfolio". genengnews.com. January 5, 2015.
- Beaver, Julia A.; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Charlab, Rosane; Chen, Wei; Palmby, Todd; Tilley, Amy; Zirkelbach, Jeanne Fourie; Yu, Jingyu; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Crich, Joyce; Chen, Xiao Hong; Hughes, Minerva; Bloomquist, Erik; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Kluetz, Paul G.; Kim, Geoffrey; Ibrahim, Amna; Pazdur, Richard; Cortazar, Patricia (November 1, 2015). "FDA Approval: Palbociclib for the Treatment of Postmenopausal Patients with Estrogen Receptor–Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 21 (21): 4760–4766. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1185. PMID 26324739. S2CID 24762535.
- "Palbociclib (IBRANCE)". Food and Drug Administration. February 9, 2019.
- "Pfizer, Lilly to Resume Phase III Tanezumab Clinical Program". genengnews.com. March 23, 2015.
- Gali, Weinreb (May 14, 2015). "Pfizer to collaborate on Bar-Ilan DNA robots". Globes.
- "Pfizer Buys Two GSK Meningitis Vaccines for $130M". genengnews.com. June 22, 2015.
- "Pfizer Completes Acquisition of Hospira" (Press release). Pfizer. September 3, 2015 – via Business Wire.
- "Pfizer completes $17-billion Hospira acquisition". The Pharma Letter. September 4, 2015.
- Gelles, David; Thomas, Katie (February 5, 2015). "Pfizer Bets $15 Billion on New Class of Generic Drugs". The New York Times.
- "8-K". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 6, 2015.
- "Pfizer to Acquire Hospira". Pfizer (Press release).
- Neilan, Catherine (February 5, 2015). "Pfizer, Hospira share prices to soar after $17bn deal announced". City A.M.
- Bhalla, Mohit; Singh, Khomba (December 16, 2009). "US-based Hospira to buy Orchid Chemicals' injectables biz for $400 mn". The Economic Times.
- "Pfizer seals $160bn Allergan deal to create drugs giant". BBC News. November 23, 2015.
- Pierson, Ransdell; Berkrot, Bill (November 24, 2015). "Pfizer to buy Allergan in $160 billion deal". Reuters.
- "Pfizer to Acquire Allergan for $160B". genengnews.com. November 23, 2015.
- Koons, Cynthia (November 22, 2015). "Pfizer and Allergan to Combine With Joint Value of $160 Billion". Bloomberg News.
- Bray, Chad (April 6, 2016). "Pfizer and Allergan Call Off Merger After Tax-Rule Changes". The New York Times.
- Humer, Caroline; Banerjee, Ankur (April 6, 2016). "Pfizer, Allergan scrap $160 billion deal after U.S. tax rule change". Reuters.
- "Pfizer Completes Acquisition of Anacor" (Press release). Pfizer. June 24, 2016 – via Business Wire.
- "Pfizer to Acquire Anacor Pharmaceuticals for $5.2B". genengnews.com. May 16, 2016.
- "Pfizer Places High Bid of $40M for BIND Therapeutics". genengnews.com. July 27, 2016.
- "Pfizer Acquires Bamboo Therapeutics in a $645M Deal". genengnews.com. August 1, 2016.
- "Pfizer to Acquire Medivation for $14B". genengnews.com. August 22, 2016.
- "Pfizer to buy cancer drug firm Medivation for $14bn". BBC News. August 22, 2016.
- "Pfizer Completes Acquisition of Medivation" (Press release). OncoImmune. September 28, 2016 – via Business Wire.
- "OncoImmune Licenses ONC-392 to Pfizer for Up to $250M". genengnews.com. October 15, 2016.
- "OncoImmune Announces Option and License Agreement with Pfizer Inc" (Press release). Pfizer. September 15, 2016 – via Business Wire.
- "Pfizer Completes Acquisition of Small Molecule Anti-Infective Business From AstraZeneca" (Press release). Pfizer. December 23, 2016 – via Business Wire.
- "Pfizer Buys AstraZeneca Antibiotics for Up to $1.575B". genengnews.com. August 24, 2016.
- Staton, Tracy (August 24, 2016). "Pfizer grabs AZ antibiotics in $1.5B deal. Pre-split prep or just another sales-boosting buy?". FiercePharma.
- Hiltzik, Michael (January 8, 2018). "Pfizer, pocketing a big tax cut from Trump, will end investment in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's research". Los Angeles Times.
- "FDA approves enzalutamide for castration-resistant prostate cancer" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. July 13, 2018.
- "Alexandria Real Estate Equities, Inc. Expands Its First-in-Class New York City Regional Life Science Cluster Franchise with the Strategic Acquisition of 219 East 42nd Street in Manhattan, Subject to a Leaseback" (Press release). PR Newswire. July 13, 2018.
- "BioNTech Signs Collaboration Agreement with Pfizer to Develop mRNA-based Vaccines for Prevention of Influenza" (Press release). BioNTech. August 16, 2018.
- Mathias, Tamara; Banerjee, Ankur (October 1, 2018). "Pfizer to replace longtime CEO Read with veteran Bourla". Reuters.
- Maidenberg, Micah (October 9, 2018). "Pfizer Prepares for CEO Transition With Executive Suite Changes". The Wall Street Journal.
- Ramsey, Lydia (October 1, 2018). "Pfizer's CEO is stepping down after 8 years — meet the man who will be replacing him". Business Insider.
- Jarvis, Lisa M. (October 3, 2018). "Pfizer unveils CEO succession plan". Chemical & Engineering News.
- Bakolia, Ravikash (July 1, 2019). "Pfizer completes acquisition of Therachon to bolster rare disease drug portfolio". S&P Global.
- "Pfizer Completes Acquisition of Array Biopharma" (Press release). Pfizer. July 30, 2019 – via Business Wire.
- "GSK completes transaction with Pfizer to form new world-leading Consumer Healthcare Joint Venture" (Press release). GlaxoSmithKline. August 1, 2019.
- "GlaxoSmithKline plc and Pfizer Inc to form new world-leading Consumer Healthcare Joint Venture" (Press release). GlaxoSmithKline. December 19, 2018.
- "Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline Announce Joint Venture to Create a Premier Global Consumer Healthcare Company". Pfizer (Press release). December 18, 2018.
- "GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer merge healthcare arms". BBC News. December 19, 2018.
- Helfand, Carly (October 16, 2017). "Reckitt Benckiser's still keen on a Pfizer OTC buy. But can it afford one?". FiercePharma.
- Helfand, Carly (October 26, 2017). "Sanofi, J&J could join GlaxoSmithKline, Reckitt in $20B bidding war for Pfizer OTC: report". FiercePharma.
- Helfand, Carly (October 25, 2017). "GlaxoSmithKline eyes Pfizer's OTC unit. But will a buy imperil its dividend?". FiercePharma.
- Czachor, Emily (November 9, 2020). "Pfizer Avoided R&D Funding From Trump's Operation Warp Speed Because of Bureaucracy, Politics". Newsweek. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Minkoff, Yoel (May 13, 2020). "Pfizer sees expanded coronavirus vaccine trials". Seeking Alpha. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- "Pfizer and BioNTech Granted FDA Fast Track Designation for Two Investigational mRNA-based Vaccine Candidates Against SARS-CoV-2" (Press release). BioNTech. July 13, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020 – via GlobeNewswire.
- DeArment, Alaric (July 13, 2020). "Pfizer, BioNTech get fast-track from FDA for Covid-19 vaccines". MedCity News. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "Pfizer Beats Forecasts as Vaccine Trial Enters Final Stage". The Wall Street Journal. July 29, 2020.
- "Pfizer To Charge $39 Per Coronavirus Vaccine Course To All Developed Countries For Similar Volume Commitments As US". Benzinga. Yahoo!. July 29, 2020.
- "Pfizer CEO Says Companies Should Make Profit On Covid-19 Vaccines". Barron's.
- Kilgore, Tomi. "Pfizer, BioNTech conclude talks over supplying EU with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate". MarketWatch. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- "Pfizer and BioNTech to Potentially Supply the EU with 200 Million Doses of mRNA-based Vaccine Candidate Against SARS-CoV-2". Pfizer (Press release). Retrieved September 10, 2020.
- "Covid vaccine: First 'milestone' vaccine offers 90% protection". BBC News. November 9, 2020.
- Kounang, Nadia (November 9, 2020). "Pfizer and BioNTech say final analysis shows coronavirus vaccine is 95% effective with no safety concerns". CNN. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
- Thomas, Katie; Gelles, David; Zimmer, Carl (November 9, 2020). "Pfizer's Early Data Shows Vaccine Is More Than 90% Effective". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Roberts, Michelle (December 2, 2020). "Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine judged safe for use in UK". BBC News. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- "Bahrain becomes second country to approve Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine". www.aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera. December 4, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Austen, Ian (December 9, 2020). "Canada Approves Vaccine and Could Start Shots Next Week". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- "Saudi Arabia approves Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine as Bahrain plans to give the public free shots". KTLA. December 11, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Steenhuysen, Manas Mishra, Julie (December 11, 2020). "U.S. FDA advisers overwhelmingly back authorizing Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Thomas, Katie; LaFraniere, Sharon; Weiland, Noah; Goodnough, Abby; Haberman, Maggie (December 12, 2020). "F.D.A. Clears Pfizer Vaccine, and Millions of Doses Will Be Shipped Right Away". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
- Abdullah, Zhaki (December 14, 2020). "Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine approved by Singapore, first shipment expected by end-December". CNA.
- "EMA recommends first COVID-19 vaccine for authorisation in the EU". Europa. December 21, 2020.
- Higgins-Dunn, Noah (May 4, 2021). "BioNTech, with partner Pfizer, on track to make 3B COVID vaccine doses in 2021, CEO says". FiercePharma. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Investigation: Drugmaker 'bullied' Latin American nations". Al Jazeera English. March 11, 2021.
- "Pfizer to buy 9.9% of CStone for $200 million, eyes collaboration". Reuters. September 29, 2020.
- Al Idrus, Amirah (October 22, 2020). "Biotech Pfizer snaps up antibiotics maker Arixa and its oral Avycaz follow-up". FiercePharma.
- "Pfizer Completes Transaction to Combine Its Upjohn Business with Mylan" (Press release). Pfizer. November 16, 2020 – via Business Wire.
- "Pfizer Completes Combination Of Upjohn And Mylan; Viatris To Begin Trading On Nov. 17". Nasdaq. November 16, 2020.
- Sabatini, Patricia (November 16, 2020). "Mylan completes merger with Upjohn to form Viatris". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- Bruell, Alexandra (January 5, 2021). "Pfizer Introduces New Logo Playing Up Role in Drug Creation". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660.
- "Pfizer Acquires Amplyx Pharmaceuticals" (Press release). Pfizer. April 28, 2021 – via Business Wire.
- Taylor, Nick Paul (April 28, 2021). "Pfizer buys Amplyx to grow infectious disease pipeline". FiercePharma.
- Wosen, Jonathan (April 28, 2021). "Pfizer acquires fungus-fighting San Diego biotech". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (May 15, 2000). "Inside the Happiness Business". New York.
- Oldani, Michael (2002). "Tales from the Script" (PDF). Kroeber Society Papers. 87: 147–176 – via University of California Berkeley.
- Oldani, Michael J. (2004). "Thick Prescriptions: Toward an Interpretation of Pharmaceutical Sales Practices". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 18 (3): 325–356. doi:10.1525/maq.2004.18.3.325. ISSN 1548-1387. PMID 15484967.
- Steinman MA, Bero LA, Chren MM, Landefeld CS (August 2006). "Narrative review: the promotion of gabapentin: an analysis of internal industry documents". Annals of Internal Medicine. 145 (4): 284–93. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00008. PMID 16908919.
- Henney JE (August 2006). "Safeguarding patient welfare: who's in charge?". Annals of Internal Medicine. 145 (4): 305–7. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00013. PMID 16908923. S2CID 39262014.
- Mulleners WM, McCrory DC, Linde M (August 2014). "Antiepileptics in migraine prophylaxis: An updated Cochrane review". Cephalalgia. 35 (1): 51–62. doi:10.1177/0333102414534325. PMID 25115844. S2CID 43079346.
- Loder E, Burch R, Rizzoli P (June 2012). "The 2012 AHS/AAN guidelines for prevention of episodic migraine: a summary and comparison with other recent clinical practice guidelines". Headache. 52 (6): 930–45. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02185.x. PMID 22671714. S2CID 540800.
- Harris, Gardiner (September 2, 2009). "Pfizer pays $2.3 billion to settle marketing case". The New York Times.
- "Justice Department Announces Largest Health Care Fraud Settlement in Its History" (Press release). United States Department of Justice. September 2, 2009.
- Harris, Gardiner (September 3, 2009). "Pfizer Pays $2.3 billion to Settle Marketing Case". The New York Times.
- Johnson, Carrie (September 3, 2009). "In Settlement, A Warning To Drugmakers: Pfizer to Pay Record Penalty In Improper-Marketing Case". The Washington Post.
- "Pfizer agrees record fraud fine". BBC News. September 2, 2009.
- "Corporate Integrity Agreement between the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services and Pfizer Inc" (PDF). Office of Inspector General. August 31, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 15, 2011.
- "ROST v. PFIZER, INC". Casetext.
- Berenson, Alex (June 8, 2005). "At Pfizer, the Isolation Increases for a Whistle-Blower". The New York Times.
- Staton, Tracy (June 14, 2010). "Congress joins probe into Wyeth's Rapamune marketing". FiercePharma.
- Palmer, Eric (June 14, 2010). "Pfizer settles more off-label marketing cases tied to Rapamune". FiercePharma.
- Edwards, Jim (June 10, 2010). "Blue Cross Names and Shames Pfizer Execs Linked to Massages-for-Prescriptions Push". CBS News.
- Bounds, Jeff (June 10, 2010). "Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas sues Pfizer". American City Business Journals.
- Staton, Tracy (June 11, 2010). "BCBS names Pfizer managers in kickback suit". FiercePharma.
- "Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas sues Pfizer over drug marketing". The Dallas Morning News. June 11, 2010.
- Griffin, Drew; Segal, Andy (April 2, 2010). "Feds found Pfizer too big to nail". CNN.
- Smythe, Christie (June 2, 2014). "Pfizer Agrees to $325 Million Neurontin Marketing Accord". Bloomberg News.
- Petrovich, Dushko (March 15, 2013). "The Art of Making Magazines edited by Victor S. Navasky and Evan Cornog". Bookforum.
- Kary, Tiffany (June 27, 2013). "Pfizer to pay $958M to end asbestos litigation". Bloomberg News.
- Meier, Barry (July 2, 1994). "Pfizer Unit to Settle Charges Of Lying About Heart Valve".
- "Ex-Pfizer Worker Cites Genetically Engineered Virus In Lawsuit Over Firing". Hartford Courant. March 14, 2010. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012.
- Pollack, Andrew; Wilson, Duff (April 2, 2010). "A Pfizer Whistle-Blower Is Awarded $1.4 Million". The New York Times.
- "Pfizer Settles B.Y.U. Lawsuit Over Development of Celebrex". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 1, 2012.
- Oldani, Michael (2016), "Trovafloxacin (Trovan) Controversy", The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society, SAGE Publications, Inc., pp. 1444–1447, doi:10.4135/9781483349985.n409, ISBN 9781483350004, retrieved January 21, 2019
- Murray, Senan (June 20, 2007). "Anger at deadly Nigerian drug trials". BBC News.
- Ramakrishnan M, Ulland AJ, Steinhardt LC, Moïsi JC, Were F, Levine OS (2009). "Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review". BMC Medicine. 7: 47. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-47. PMC 2759956. PMID 19751516.
- "Nigerians sue Pfizer over test deaths". BBC News. August 30, 2001.
- "WikiLeaks Cables: Pfizer Targeted Nigerian Attorney General to Undermine Suit over Fatal Drug Tests". Democracy Now!. December 17, 2010.
- "Panel Faults Pfizer in '96 Clinical Trial In Nigeria". The Washington Post. May 7, 2006.
- Edwards, Jim (February 10, 2011). "Pfizer Bribed Nigerian Officials in Fatal Drug Trial, Ex-Employee Claims". CBS News.
- "Trovan, Kano State Civil Case – Statement Of Defense" (PDF). Pfizer. July 2007.
- "Pfizer-Nigeria appeal dismissed". BBC News. June 29, 2010.
- Boseley, Sarah (December 9, 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: Pfizer 'used dirty tricks to avoid clinical trial payout'". The Guardian. London.
- "Pfizer Statement Regarding Article In The Guardian" (PDF) (Press release). Pfizer. December 9, 2010.
- Edwards, Jim (January 4, 2011). "In Defense of Blackmail: Why Shouldn't Pfizer Dig Dirt on Crooked Pols?". CBS News.
- "Michael Aondoakaa "Unfit" To Remain SAN, Says CDHR In High-Powered Petition". Sahara Reporters.
- "Wikileaks on Nigeria's Corrupt Oil Sales at NNPC, Shell, US Ambassador". December 12, 2010.
- Lenzer, J. (August 16, 2011). "Pfizer settles with victims of Nigerian drug trial". BMJ. 343 (aug16 3): d5268–d5268. doi:10.1136/bmj.d5268. PMID 21846712. S2CID 8758603.
- "Pfizer Implemented More than 4,000 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Since 2000". United States Chamber of Commerce. November 15, 2019.
- "Pfizer Recognized by Carbon Disclosure Project for Carbon Performance" (Press release). Pfizer. September 13, 2012 – via Business Wire.
- "American Cyanamid Superfund Site Fact Sheet" (PDF). New Jersey. December 2011.
- Paik, Eugene (March 9, 2012). "Activists say EPA $204M fix for polluted American Cyanamid property will not permanently resolve problem". NJ.com.
- "The tempest". The Washington Post. May 28, 2006.
- "U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, Global Trust members". U.S. Global Leadership Coalition.
- Steinbrook, Robert (December 3, 2009). "Lobbying, Campaign Contributions, and Health Care Reform". New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (23): e52. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0910879. PMID 19923565.
- Fisher, David; Milne, Jonathan (December 19, 2010). "WikiLeaks: Drug firms tried to ditch Clark". The New Zealand Herald.
- Mishra, Manas (July 2, 2019). Kuber, Shailesh (ed.). "Senator Warren asks former FDA chief Gottlieb to resign from Pfizer board". Reuters.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pfizer.|
- Official website
- Business data for Pfizer Inc.: