The Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, doing business as Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS), is an American multinational pharmaceutical company. Headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, BMS is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies and consistently ranks on the Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. corporations. For fiscal 2022, it had a total revenue of $46.2 billion.
|Bristol Myers Squibb|
|Formerly||Bristol-Myers Company (1933–1989)|
|Headquarters||Princeton, New Jersey (official mailing address; headquarters is actually located in Lawrence, New Jersey)|
(Chairman & CEO)
|Revenue||US$46.16 billion (2022)|
|US$7.71 billion (2022)|
|US$6.32 billion (2022)|
|Total assets||US$96.82 billion (2022)|
|Total equity||US$31.06 billion (2022)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Bristol Myers Squibb manufactures prescription pharmaceuticals and biologics in several therapeutic areas, including cancer, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psychiatric disorders.
BMS's primary research and development (R&D) sites are located in Lawrence, New Jersey (formerly Squibb, near Princeton), Summit, New Jersey, formerly HQ of Celgene, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Redwood City, California, and Seville in Spain, with other sites in Devens and Cambridge, Massachusetts, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium, Tokyo, Japan, Hyderabad; Bangalore India and Wirral, United Kingdom. BMS previously had an R&D site in Wallingford, Connecticut (formerly Bristol-Myers).
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The Squibb corporation was founded in 1858 by Edward Robinson Squibb in Brooklyn, New York. Squibb was known as an advocate of quality control and high purity standards early within the pharmaceutical industry. He went on to self-publish an alternative to the U.S. Pharmacopeia titled Squibb's Ephemeris of Materia Medica, after failing to convince the American Medical Association to incorporate higher purity standards.
Materia Medica, Squibb products, and Edward Squibb's opinion on the fundamentals of pharmacy are found in many medical papers of the late 1800s. The American Journal of Pharmacy published more than one hundred papers of Squibb's research surrounding the industry.
The sons of Edward Squibb sold the company to Lowell M. Palmer and Theodore Weicker in 1905, who incorporated the company. Around this time, the Squibb logo was developed, which represented the company's products of "uniformity, purity, efficacy, and reliability based on research."
Squibb Corporation served as a major supplier of medical goods to the Union Army during the American Civil War, providing portable medical kits containing morphine, surgical anesthetics, and quinine for the treatment of malaria (which was endemic in most of the Eastern United States at that time).
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2020)
In 1887, Hamilton College graduates William McLaren Bristol and John Ripley Myers purchased the Clinton Pharmaceutical company of Clinton, New York. In May 1898, they decided to rename it Bristol, Myers and Company. Following Myers' death in 1899, Bristol changed the name to the Bristol-Myers Corporation.
During the 1890s, the company introduced its first nationally recognized product Sal Hepatica, a laxative mineral salt, followed by Ipana toothpaste in 1901. Other divisions were Clairol (hair colors and haircare) and Drackett (household products such as Windex and Drano).
In 1943, Bristol-Myers acquired Cheplin Biological Laboratories, a producer of acidophilus milk in East Syracuse, New York, and converted the plant to produce penicillin for the World War II Allied forces. After the war, the company renamed the plant Bristol Laboratories in 1945 and entered the civilian antibiotics market, where it faced competition from Squibb.
Penicillin production at the East Syracuse plant ended in 2005, when it became less expensive to produce overseas. As of 2010, the facility was used for the manufacturing process development and production of other biologic medicines for clinical trials and commercial use.
In 1989, Bristol-Myers and Squibb merged and became Bristol-Myers Squibb.
In 1999, then-U.S. President Bill Clinton awarded Bristol-Myers Squibb the National Medal of Technology, the nation's highest recognition for technological achievement, "for extending, and enhancing human life through innovative pharmaceutical research and development and for redefining the science of clinical study through groundbreaking and hugely complex clinical trials that are recognized models in the industry."
2000 to 2010 edit
In 2002, the company was involved in a lawsuit of illegally maintaining a monopoly on Taxol, its cancer treatment, and it was again sued for the antitrust lawsuit 5 years later, which cost the company $125 million for settlement.
Also in 2002, Bristol-Myers Squibb was involved in an accounting scandal that resulted in a significant restatement of revenues from 1999 to 2001. The restatement was the result of an improper booking of sales related to "channel stuffing" as the practice of offering excess inventory to customers to create higher sales numbers. The company has since settled with the United States Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission, agreeing to pay $150 million, while neither admitting nor denying guilt.
On October 24, 2002, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. restated earnings downward for parts of 2000 and 2001, while revising 2002 earnings upward because of its massive inventory backlog imbroglio that spurred two government investigations. On March 15, 2004, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. adjusted upward its fourth-quarter and full-year 2003 results after reversing an earlier decision about how to deal with accounting errors made in prior years.
As part of a deferred prosecution agreement, the company was placed under the oversight of a monitor appointed by the U.S. attorney in New Jersey. In addition, the former head of the Pharma group, Richard Lane, and the ex-CFO, Fred Schiff, were indicted for federal securities violations.
In July 2006, an investigation of the company was made public, and the FBI raided the company's corporate offices. The investigation centered on the distribution of Plavix and charges of collusion. On September 12, 2006, the monitor, former Federal Judge Frederick B. Lacey, urged the company to remove then-CEO Peter Dolan over the Plavix dispute. Later that day, BMS announced that Dolan would indeed step down.
The deferred prosecution agreement expired in June 2007 and the Department of Justice did not take any further legal action against the company for matters covered by the DPA. Under CEO Jim Cornelius, who was CEO following Dolan until May 2010, all executives involved in the "channel-stuffing" and generic competition scandals have since left the company.
In 2009, the company began a major restructuring focusing on the pharmaceutical business and biologic products, along with productivity initiatives and cost-cutting and streamlining business operations through a multiyear program of on-going layoffs. This was part of a business strategy launched in 2007 to transform the company from a large, diversified pharmaceutical company to a specialty biopharma company, which also included the closure of half of their manufacturing facilities.: 19 As another cost-cutting measure, Bristol-Myers Squibb also reduced health-care subsidies for retirees and planned to freeze their pension plan at the end of 2009.
BMS is a Fortune 500 Company (#114 in 2010 list). Newsweek's 2009 Green Ranking recognized Bristol-Myers Squibb as eighth among 500 of the largest United States corporations. Also, BMS was included in the 2009 Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index of leading sustainability-driven companies.
2010 onward edit
In 2010, Lou Schmukler joined Bristol-Myers Squibb as the president of global product development and design. Schmukler led the team that completed the company's strategic transformation to a specialty biopharmaceutical company that had begun in 2007. As of 2011, the company had a dozen manufacturing facilities and six product development sites.
In December 2014, the company received FDA approval for the use of the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo) in treating patients whose skin cancer cannot be removed or have not responded to previous drug therapies. In February 2015, the company initiated a research partnership with Rigel Pharmaceuticals which could generate more than $339 million. In March, the company obtained an exclusive opportunity to both licence and commercialise PROSTVAC, Bavarian Nordic's phase III prostate-specific antigen targeting cancer immunotherapy. Bavarian Nordic would receive an upfront payment of $60 million and incremental payments up to $230 million, if the overall survival of test patients exceeds that seen in Phase II tests. Bavarian could also receive milestone payments of between $110 million and $495 million, dependent on regulatory authorization, and these payments have the potential to total up to $975 million.
In May 2015, Dr. Giovanni Caforio became CEO of the company; Caforio was formerly the company's COO and succeeded Andreotti upon his retirement. Andreotti subsequently succeeded James Cornelius as executive chairman upon his retirement.
In late February 2017, The Wall Street Journal and Fortune, among others, reported that activist investor Carl Icahn had taken a stake in the company, signaling a potential future takeover from the likes of Gilead Sciences.
In April 2018, the company reported net income of $1.5 billion, or 91 cents per share, for the first quarter of the year, thanks to the increased sales of their cancer drug Opdivo.
Corporate acquisitions and divestments as Bristol Myers Squibb edit
In August 2009, during a major restructuring activity, BMS acquired the biotechnology firm Medarex as part of the company's "String of Pearls" strategy of alliances, partnerships, and acquisitions. In November 2009, Bristol Myers Squibb announced that it was "splitting off" Mead Johnson Nutrition by offering BMY shareholders the opportunity to exchange their stock for shares in Mead Johnson. According to Bristol Myers Squibb, this move was expected to further sharpen the company's focus on biopharmaceuticals.
In October 2010, the company acquired ZymoGenetics, securing an existing product, as well as pipeline assets in hepatitis C, cancer, and other therapeutic areas.
Bristol Myers Squibb agreed to pay around $2.5 billion in cash to buy Inhibitex Inc. in attempt to compete with Gilead/Pharmasset to produce hepatitis C drugs. The settlement will be finished in 2 months for its Inhibitex's shareholders acceptance of 126% premium price of its price over the previous 20 trading days ended on January 6. On June 29, BMS extended its portfolio of diabetes treatments when it agreed to buy Amylin Pharmaceuticals for around US$5.3 billion in cash and pay US$1.7 billion to Eli Lilly to cover Amylin's debt and its outstanding collaboration-related obligations. AstraZeneca, which already collaborated on several diabetes treatments with BMS, agreed to pay US$3.4 billion in cash for the right to continue development of Amylin's products. Two years later, the company divested Amylin to AstraZeneca.: 19
In April 2014, BMS announced its acquisition of iPierian for up to $725 million.
In February 2015, the company acquired Flexus Biosciences for $1.25 billion. As part of this deal, BMS will gain full rights to Flexus' lead small molecule IDO1-inhibitor, F001287. In November, the company acquired the cardiovascular disease drug developer Cardioxyl for up to $2.075 billion. The deal strengthens the BMS' critical pipelines with the phase II candidate for acute decompensated heart failure, CXL-1427.
In March 2016, the company announced it would acquire Padlock Therapeutics for up to $600 million. In early July, the company announced it would acquire Cormorant Pharmaceuticals for $520 million, boosting BMS' oncology offering through Cormorants monoclonal antibody targeted against interleukin-8.
In August 2017 the company acquired IFM Therapeutics for $300 million upfront, with contingency payments of $1.01 billion due on certain milestones – allowing BMS to better compete against Merck & Co's cancer rival treatment, Keytruda.
In early January 2019, the company announced it would acquire Celgene (NASDAQ:CELG) for $74 billion ($95 billion including debt), in a deal that would become the largest pharmaceutical-company acquisition ever. The Celgene acquisition aimed to be a refresher to the company's pipeline, helping to overcome from declining sales of Opdivo relative to competitor Keytruda. Under the terms of the deal, Celgene shareholders would receive one BMS share as well as $50 in cash for each Celgene share held, valuing Celgene at $102.43 a share; representing a 54% premium to the previous days closing price. Investor opposition to this acquisition, leading into an April 12 shareholder vote, appeared when BMS's second-largest investor, Wellington Management, voiced its opposition, followed by investor Starboard Value. In April 2019 BMS announced that 75% of its shareholders voted to approve the pending merger with Celgene. Transaction to close in the third quarter of 2019, subject to regulatory approvals. Newly issued BMS shares and CVRs will commence trading on the New York Stock Exchange, with the CVRs trading under the symbol 'BMYRT'.
The strategic divestment of the company's consumer health business, UPSA, to Taisho completed in 2019. UPSA focused product delivery on France and the rest of Europe. As early as 2005, the company had divested individual consumer products, and its US- and Canada-focused consumer products business.
In February 2020, BMS and partner Biomotiv launched a new company called Anteros Pharmaceuticals, which focuses on creating inflammation and fibrosis medicines. In August, the business announced it would acquire Forbius and its TGF-beta 1 & TGF-beta 3 inhibitors. In October, BMS announced it would acquire cardiology company MyoKardia for $13.1 billion ($225 per share) gaining control of mavacamten, a cardiovascular drug for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and the development of two key treatments: danicamtiv (MYK-491) and MYK-224.
In June 2022, BMS announced it would acquire Turning Point Therapeutics Inc for $4.1 billion in cash ($76 per share, a 122.5% premium to its last closing price), helping to boost its complement of cancer drugs, specifically repotrectinib.
In August 2023, Bristol Myers Squibb partnered with Cellares for the robotic production of CAR-T treatments of which it has two approved. In September 2023, BMS announced it would pay Zenas BioPharma $50m upfront for a strategic license and collaboration to develop and commercialise obexelimab, a novel, bi-functional antibody for autoimmune diseases.
In October 2023, BMS agreed to acquire Mirati Therapeutics, an American biotechnology company that develops targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, in an all-cash deal worth $4.8 billion, and an additional $1 billion in milestone payment.
List of mergers and acquisitions edit
The following is an illustration of the company's major mergers and acquisitions and historical predecessors:
- Bristol-Myers Squibb (Formed by the merger of Squibb Corporation (Est 1858) and Bristol-Myers (Est 1887))
- Adnexus Therapeutics
- Kosan Biosciences
- Medarex (Acq 2009)
- ZymoGenetics (Acq 2010)
- Amira Pharmaceuticals
- Inhibitex Inc (Acq 2012)
- Amylin Pharmaceuticals (Acq 2012 jointly with AstraZeneca)
- iPierian (Acq 2014)
- Flexus Biosciences (Acq 2015)
- Cardioxyl (Acq 2015)
- Padlock Therapeutics (Acq 2016)
- Cormorant Pharmaceuticals (Acq 2016)
- IFM Therapeutics (Acq 2017)
- Celgene (Acq 2019)
- Signal Pharmaceuticals, Inc (Acq 2000)
- Anthrogenesis (Acq 2002)
- Pharmion Corporation (Acq 2008)
- Gloucester Pharmaceuticals (Acq 2009)
- Abraxis BioScience Inc (Acq 2010)
- Avila Therapeutics, Inc (Acq 2012)
- Quanticel (Acq 2015)
- Receptos (Acq 2015)
- EngMab AG (Acq 2016)
- Delinia (Acq 2017)
- Impact Biomedicines (Acq 2018)
- Juno Therapeutics (Acq 2018)
- AbVitro (Acq 2016)
- RedoxTherapies (Acq 2016)
- Forbius (Acq 2020)
- MyoKardia (Acq 2020)
- Turning Point Therapeutics (Acq 2022)
- Mirati Therapeutics (Acq pending)
For the fiscal year 2018,Bristol Myers Squibb reported earnings of US$1.007 billion, with an annual revenue of US$20.776 billion, an increase of 6.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Bristol-Myers Squibb's shares traded at over $55 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$81.6 billion in October 2018. In 2018, 85% of the company's revenues came from just five products. In 2018, Bristol-Myers Squibb spent 36% of its total revenue on R&D expenses. Bristol-Myers Squibb ranked 145th on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue in 2018.
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Carbon footprint edit
Bristol Myers Squibb reported Total CO2e emissions (Direct + Indirect) for the twelve months ending 31 December 2020 at 278 Kt (-6 /-2.1% y-o-y). The company aims to become net neutral carbon by 2040.
|Dec 2016||Dec 2017||Dec 2018||Dec 2019||Dec 2020|
The following is a list of key pharmaceutical products:
- Avalide (irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide) – comarketed with Sanofi
- Avapro (irbesartan) – comarketed with Sanofi
- Coumadin (warfarin)
- Eliquis (apixaban) – comarketed with Pfizer
- Plavix (clopidogrel) – comarketed with Sanofi
- Pravachol (pravastatin)
- Bydureon (exenatide extended-release) – marketed by BMS only in some countries
- Byetta (exenatide) – marketed by BMS only in some countries, such as Russian Federation
- Farxiga/Forxiga (dapagliflozin)
- Glucophage (metformin) – marketed by BMS only in USA
- Glucophage XR (metformin extended release) – marketed by BMS only in USA
- Glucovance (Glyburide/metformin) – marketed by BMS only in USA
- Kombiglyze XR/Komboglyze (saxagliptin/metformin extended release) – comarketed with AstraZeneca
- Onglyza (saxagliptin) – comarketed with AstraZeneca
Infectious diseases, including HIV infection and associated conditions
- Atripla (efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) – comarketed with Gilead Sciences
- Azactam (aztreonam)
- Baraclude (entecavir)
- Daklinza (daclatasvir)
- Evotaz (atazanavir/cobicistat)
- Megace (megestrol acetate)
- Reyataz (atazanavir)
- Sustiva/Stocrin (efavirenz)
- Videx (didanosine)
- Videx EC (didanosine delayed-release)
- Zerit (stavudine)
- Kenalog-10 (triamcinolone acetonide)
- Kenalog-40 (triamcinolone acetonide)
- Abecma (idecabtagene vicleucel)
- BiCNU (carmustine)
- Breyanzi (lisocabtagene maraleucel)
- CeeNU (lomustine)
- Droxia/Hydrea (hydroxycarbamide)
- Empliciti (Elotuzumab)
- Erbitux (cetuximab)
- Etopophos (etoposide)
- Ixempra (ixabepilone)
- Lysodren (mitotane)
- Megace (megestrol acetate)
- Opdivo (nivolumab) is a programmed death receptor blocking antibody used for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma and metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma. In contrast to traditional chemotherapies and targeted anti-cancer therapies, which exert their effects by direct cytotoxic or tumor growth inhibition, nivolumab acts by inducing the immune system to attack the tumor.
- Sprycel (dasatinib)
- Taxol (paclitaxel). At one time, BMS held the solitary contract to harvest the bark of endangered yew trees on United States territory for the manufacture of chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (Taxol). Current paclitaxel production comes from renewable sources. BMS also held the original paclitaxel license, but there are now multiple generic producers.
- Vumon (teniposide)
- Yervoy (ipilimumab)
- Orencia (abatacept)
- Nulojix (belatacept)
Out of production edit
Divested brands edit
(Former Bristol-Myers brands, now divested)
Products under development edit
The following is a selective list of investigational products under development, as of 2023:
- Luspatercept - phase III: On 28 August 2023, BMS' drug Reblozyl has received FDA label expansion, making it a first-line treatment option for anemia in adults with low- to intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who may need regular blood transfusions. This decision, supported by data from the Phase III COMMANDS study, highlights Reblozyl's superiority over erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in treating MDS-related anemia, potentially driving the drug's sales towards its $4 billion sales goal by 2030. The drug's efficacy in patients both with and without specific symptoms further widens its scope of application.
- Beclabuvir (BMS-791325) – phase III
- BMS-906024 – phase I
- BMS-955176 – phase II
- Brivanib alaninate (BMS-582664) – development terminated
- Elotuzumab (BMS-901608) – phase III
- Fostemsavir (BMS-663068) – approved in the United States in July 2020
- Lirilumab (BMS-986015)
- Lulizumab pegol (BMS-931699) – phase II
Public-private engagement edit
Academia and education edit
- Institute for Advanced Study - Gift matching and direct donor.
- Mentoring in IBD - Sponsor.
- Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) - Donor.
- Population Health Research Institute (PHRI) at McMaster University Medical School - Partner.
- University of Toronto - Donor.
- University of Washington - Donor.
Conferences and events edit
- Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) - Donor.
- Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (PMCC) - Foundation donor and sponsor for the PMCC Conference.
- Scarborough Health Network (SHN) - Donor to the Scarborough Health Foundation.
- SickKids - Donor to the SickKids Foundation.
- Sinai Health System - Donor to the Sinai Health Foundation.
- Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre - Donor.
Medical societies edit
- American Society of Hematology (ASH) - Corporate supporter.
- Arthritis Society - National corporate partner.
- Canadian Society of Internal Medicine - Sponsor.
- European Society of Cardiology - Sponsor.
- Spanish Cardiac Society - Partner.
Political lobbying edit
- BIOTECanada - Member company. BIOTECanada lobbies the Canadian government for policies favorable to the pharmaceutical industry.
- Innovative Medicines Canada - Member.
- International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA) - Member.
- National Health Council - Member.
- National Pharmaceutical Council - Member.
- Personalized Medicine Coalition - Member.
- Pharmaceutical Advertising Advisory Board - Client.
- Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America - Member.
- Research!America - Member.
Professional associations edit
- Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) - Corporate partner.
- Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) - Corporate sponsor.
- CARE Faculty - Sponsor. CARE is a Canadian coalition of medical specialists based in Oakville, Ontario. BMS was a sponsor for their 2021 Winter Hematology Update event.
- Colorectal Cancer Canada (CRC) - Sponsor.
- Health Products Stewardship Association - Member.
Research and development edit
Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johns Hopkins University and the Rockefeller Foundation are currently the subject of a $1 billion lawsuit from Guatemala for "roles in a 1940s U.S. government experiment that infected hundreds of Guatemalans with syphilis". A previous suit against the United States government was dismissed in 2011 for the Guatemala syphilis experiments when a judge determined that the U.S. government could not be held liable for actions committed outside of the U.S.
See also edit
Notes and references edit
- Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (27 July 2023). "Current Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Form 8-K)". SEC.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
- "Bristol Myers Squibb 2022 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". SEC.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 14 February 2023.
- "Bristol Myers Squibb to invest Rs 800 crore to set up facility in Hyderabad for drug development, IT". 23 February 2023 – via The Economic Times - The Times of India.
- "Bristol-Myers Squibb and Biocon's Syngene open new R&D Facility at Biocon Park" (Press release). Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Worldwide Research and Development Facilities – Bristol Myers Squibb". www.bms.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- "Bristol-Myers Squibb to lay off 149 as Wallingford, Connecticut, site nears closure". Fiercepharma.com. 17 July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- Gray, Christopher (30 August 2012). "Still in Fashion, a Century Later". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Kumar, B. (14 November 2012). Mega Mergers and Acquisitions: Case Studies from Key Industries. Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-00590-8. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- The National Druggist. 1905. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "E. R. Squibb | American chemist". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Hollopeter, W.C. (8 January 1885). "Inverse Type of Temperature in Typhoid Fever, with a Report of Two Cases — Temperature Peculiarities in Epidemics, with a Report of Seven Cases in One Family". Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 112: 28–32. doi:10.1056/NEJM188308301090903. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
The writer noticed (in December, 1882) the important fact that when common or Japan camphor and crystallized carbolic acid are mixed together and subjected to heat, a colorless liquid would be the result. The only reference he finds so far with regard to this reaction occurs in the very excellent and valuable scientific publication of Dr. E. R. Squibb, " Ephemeris of Materia Medica", etc., on page 673, vol. ii., No. 5, where a brief allusion appears under the appellation of Compound Alum Powder. Dr. F. R. Squibb, however, in a letter to the writer states that he has " several times before heard of this reaction between phenol and camphor.
- Worthen, Dennis (2003). "Edward Robinson Squibb (1819–1900): Advocate of Product Standards". Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. 46 (6): 754–758. doi:10.1331/1544-3188.8.131.524.Worthen. PMID 17176693. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Blake, J.B. (1899). "Administration of Ether at the Boston City Hospital". Boston Med Surg J. 141 (13): 312–314. doi:10.1056/NEJM189909281411303. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
Until within six months Squibb's other has been exclusively used at the Boston City Hospital. Recently .MeliiHTéift's ether has been tried, ¡uni has given fair satisfaction ; Squibb's is still preferred by most of the house officers.
- Brown, W.S. (1885). "Forty Year's Experience in Midwifery". Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 112 (11): 241. doi:10.1056/nejm188503121121101. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
One reason why ergot has fallen into disrepute is the poor quality of many specimens offered for sale. Dr. Squibb's aqueous extract rarely disappoints me.
- Capace, Nancy (1 January 2001). Encyclopedia of Delaware. Somerset Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-403-09612-1. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Claire (27 August 2013). "A history of Bristol-Myers Squibb". pharmaphorum.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
- Smith (2001). Medicines for the Union Army: the United States Army laboratories during the Civil War. Pharmaceutical Products Press. ISBN 9780789009470. Accessed 2014-11-25.
- Navy Medicine. Naval Medical Command. 2005. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Rosenbloom, Bert (25 July 2012). Marketing Channels (in German). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-133-70757-8. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Cox, Jim (18 September 2008). Sold on Radio: Advertisers in the Golden Age of Broadcasting. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5176-0. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- Bert Rosenbloom, Marketing Channels, Bristol-Myers Squibb Archived 24 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 2011, page 609
- "Ipana toothpaste tasted success in early 1900s". Loveland Reporter-Herald. 20 April 2017. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Salpukas, Agis (16 August 1984). "BUSINESS PEOPLE; 3 Executive Changes Set by Bristol-Myers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Botti, Timothy J. (2006). Envy of the World: A History of the U.S. Economy & Big Business. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-432-7. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "Bristol-Myers Squibb marks completion of East Syracuse plant's transformation". syracuse. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "Bristol-Myers Squibb: Big Pharma's small wonder". Fortune. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Harris, Gardiner (19 January 2009). "Drug Making's Move Abroad Stirs Concerns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "At Bristol-Myers Squibb plant in East Syracuse, old buildings will make way for new drugs". syracuse. 30 June 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- "Bristol Myers Squibb East Syracuse Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Facility – Pharmaceutical Technology". www.pharmaceutical-technology.com. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- "Bristol-Myers, Squibb Agree to Merge : $12-Billion Stock Swap Would Form 2nd-Largest Drug Firm". Los Angeles Times. 28 July 1989. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "NSTMF". NSTMF. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Bristol hit with antitrust suit". CNN. 4 June 2002. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
- Chopra, Prem (2009). Masters of the Game. Brook of Life. ISBN 978-0-9786321-3-7. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
- "Bristol-Myers Squibb Company : Lit. Rel. No. 18822" (Press release). US Securities and Exchange Commission. 6 August 2004. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
Bristol-Myers inflated its results primarily by: (1) stuffing its distribution channels with excess inventory near the end of every quarter in amounts sufficient to meet sales and earnings targets set by officers ("channel-stuffing")
- "Bristol-Myers to restate earnings as third quarter profits plunge". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
- "Bristol-Myers restates results upward due to accounting errors". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- Saul, Stephanie (15 June 2005). "2 Former Bristol-Myers Executives Charged With Fraud". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- "Former Bristol-Myers Squibb Senior Executive Pleads Guilty for Role in Dishonest Dealings with the Federal Government". FBI. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
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