November 1964

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The following events occurred in November 1964:

November 21, 1964: Verrazano Narrows Bridge now open
November 28 and 30, 1964: Mariner 4 and Zond 2 race to Mars
November 3, 1964: Lyndon Johnson wins 44 of 50 states in U.S. presidential election

November 1, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

Bruno Munari's "Swing into books" poster for the 46th annual Children's Book Week in the U.S.
  • Viet Cong infiltrators staged a mortar attack on Bien Hoa Air Base in South Vietnam, destroying five U.S. Air Force B-57 Canberra bombers, a U.S. Air Force HH-43F helicopter, and four Republic of Vietnam Air Force A-1 Skyraider attack aircraft, and damaging 15 B-57 bombers and some HH-43F helicopters. Five servicemen were killed and 72 wounded.[1] The attack happened shortly after midnight Indochina Time (after 1700 hrs 10/31 UTC, or after 12 noon 10/31 in Washington).[2]
  • The Studebaker Corporation announced a bankruptcy settlement of its debts owned on its retirement pension plans. Although people who were already drawing full benefits would continue to do so, and workers who had at least 10 years of service and were at least 60 years old got full payment, all other participants got little or nothing. Lump sums representing about 15% of accrued benefits were paid to 4,080 participants, who got between $200 to $1,600 if they had 10 years service and were between 40 and 59 years old. The 2,900 remaining employees who were less than 40 or who had less than 10 years got nothing back from their plan contributions.[3]
  • Born: Daran Norris, American voice actor best known for The Fairly OddParents, where he portrayed both the father (Mr. Turner) and the fairy godfather (Cosmo); as Daran Morrison Nordlund in Ferndale, Washington

November 2, 1964 (Monday)Edit

November 3, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

Democrat Lyndon Johnson
Republican Barry Goldwater
  • In the U.S. presidential election, President Lyndon Johnson defeated his Republican challenger, U.S. Barry Goldwater with a record of 61.05 percent of the popular vote and the electoral votes of 44 of the 50 states. Johnson received 43,127,041 out of 70,639,284 votes and Goldwater got 27,175,770; he also got 486 electors to Goldwater's 52.[10] The election marked a change in traditional voting patterns, with five Democratic Party states in the Deep South (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina) being carried by Goldwater and nearly all of the commonly Republican Party strongholds favoring Johnson. The Johnson/Humphrey ticket received no votes in Alabama because no Democratic party electors were on the ballot in that state; 210,732 of the 689,817 votes cast there went to other presidential candidates.[11]
  • Nationwide voting also gave the Democrats a larger majority in the House of Representatives (295 to 140 over the Republicans) and in the Senate (a 68 to 32 advantage).[12]
  • Eduardo Frei Montalva was inaugurated for a six-year term as the 29th President of Chile.[13]
  • Born:

November 4, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

  • Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was arrested after denouncing the Shah of Iran,[14] sentenced to exile, put on an airplane in Tehran, and flown to the city of Bursa in Turkey. In the evening, the government issued a statement that "Based on credible information, evidence, and sufficient reasons against Mr. Khomeini and threats imposed by him against the national interest, security, independence, and territorial integrity of the country, he has been exiled from Iran on 13 Aban 1343."[15] After a year in Turkey, Khomeini would move to Iraq until 1978; he would become the leader of Iran in 1979 after successfully advocating the overthrow of the Shah.[16]
  • In Bolivia, the government of President Víctor Paz Estenssoro was overthrown in a coup led by General Alfredo Ovando Candía, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and was replaced by his Vice-President, General René Barrientos, who had assisted in the plot.[17] The overthrow brought an end to 12 years of rule by the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR) political party, the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement. Paz was sent into exile in Peru, but would return in 1971 and would become president again from 1985 to 1989.[18]
  • Trần Văn Hương was installed as the new Prime Minister of South Vietnam as part of a civilian government selected by the nation's military leaders.[19]

November 5, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • Mariner 3, a U.S. space probe intended to make the first flyby of Mars, was successfully launched from Cape Kennedy, but the lightweight heat-shielding shroud that had been used to protect its instruments from air friction had melted and failed to separate after the Atlas/Agena rocket left the atmosphere.[20] Because the protective shroud was stuck to the payload, the $25,000,000 Mariner's solar panels were unable to unfold and the craft could not be controlled after it achieved solar orbit.[21] The problem with the shroud's design would be determined in time to prevent the same thing from happening to Mariner 4 three weeks later.[22]
  • In West Germany, the cabinet of Chancellor Ludwig Erhard voted against seeking an extension of the 20-year statute of limitations for prosecution of war crimes, though it would not announce its decision until November 11.[23] Without an extension, six months remained for the indictment of former Nazis, who would not face prosecution after May 6, 1965.[24]
  • The Swaziland Railway was opened in a dedication ceremony by King Sobhuza II, with railroad tracks crossing the landlocked South African kingdom for the first time. The railway line did not originally transport passengers and, as the official history states, "was established for the sole purpose of transporting a single commodity – iron ore", specifically between the Ngwenya Mine (on the western edge of the nation) and the village of Goba, Mozambique (across the border from eastern edge).[25]
  • Died:

November 6, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • Uganda's Prime Minister Milton Obote gave instructions to the African nation's security police "to use such powers as they have to protect the lives and the properties of the public" and gave authorization to use deadly force against civilians as they felt necessary. Four days later, the Naakulabye neighborhood in the capital, Kampala, police responded to a husband and wife argument by firing their weapons into a crowd of people who had gathered around to see what was happening, killing six of them indiscriminately.[26]
  • Died:

November 7, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • Soviet Communist Party leader Leonid Brezhnev attempted to mend relations with the People's Republic of China by hosting Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai and his advisers in Moscow on the anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, the first celebration since the removal of Nikita Khrushchev as leader three weeks earlier. However, the position of China's Mao Zedong (declared the same day in the party newspaper People's Daily) was that reconciliation was not possible so long as the Soviets continued to appease "United States imperialism" and to attempt a peaceful co-existence with "the common enemy" of Communism.[27] Another historian notes that any patching of relations "that had seemed possible after Khrushchev's fall evaporated after the Soviet minister of defense, Rodion Malinovsky... approached Chinese Marshal He Long, member of the Chinese delegation to Moscow, and asked when China would finally get rid of Mao like the CPSU had disposed of Khrushchev."[28]
  • At the annual parade of new weapons through Red Square in Moscow, the Soviets displayed the first anti-ballistic missile, referred to as the ABM-1 Galosh by NATO and the A-350 by the Soviet military. The large new weapon — 60 feet (18 m) long, 8 feet (2.4 m) in diameter and driven by four motors,[29] was described as being capable of destroying incoming missiles at great distances and "was an unexpected surprise to Western intelligence analysts".[30]
  • Born: Dana Plato, American child actress who portrayed Kimberly Drummond on Diff'rent Strokes; as Dana Michelle Strain in Maywood, California (died 1999)

November 8, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

November 9, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • Typhoon Joan struck South Vietnam quickly after Typhoon Iris (1964) and parts of North Vietnam, temporarily halting most Vietnam War operations[35] and causing torrential rains and floods that would kill amore than 5,000 people.[36][37] The floods affected 13 provinces in South Vietnam,[38] with most of the dead in the Quảng Ngãi, Quảng Nam and Quảng Tín provinces.[39]
  • Dr. Bertram D. Cohn of the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn applied for the patent to the earliest version of the inferior vena cava filter, beginning "[t]he modern era of limited surgical invasive prophylaxis" of pulmonary embolism" and would be granted U.S. patent number 3,334,629 on August 8, 1967; during the same year that Dr. Cohn's patent was granted, Dr. Kazi Mobin-Uddin of the University of Miami would create the filter that "would be the first to gain wide acceptance in clinical use", the "umbrella filter" because its six spokes opened to widen the inferior vena cava, the large vein that brings blood into the right atrium of the heart.[40]
  • Eisaku Satō was sworn in as the new Prime Minister of Japan on the retirement of Hayato Ikeda.[41] In his inaugural speech, he pledged to bring the island of Okinawa, which had been under American control since Japan's surrender in World War II, back to Japanese sovereignty.[42]
  • The new Labour Party government of Britain's Prime Minister Wilson narrowly overcame a vote of no confidence, raised by the Conservative opposition in opposition to Labour's plans to again nationalize the British steel industry. The motion failed, 300 to 307, in the House of Commons.[43]
  • Prime Minister Lester Pearson approved a minor revision of the new Flag of Canada before submitting it to the approval of Canada's Parliament. Although George Stanley's winning proposal of a red maple leaf on white background between two red bars remained the same, designer Jacques Saint-Cyr revised the number of points on the leaf from 13 to 11.[44]
  • Born: Sandra "Pepa" Denton, Jamaican-born American hip hop artist and part of the group Salt-N-Pepa; in Kingston
  • Died: Cecília Meireles, 63, Brazilian poet and educator

November 10, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

  • The "Porsche 901" sports car, introduced at the Paris Auto Show the previous month, was rebranded as the Porsche 911 after 82 of the vehicles had been constructed. French automaker Peugeot had objected to the designation with the claim "that it held all the rights to all car model numbers with zero as the middle digit", and the West German Porsche company "elected to switch rather than fight French logic."[45]
  • American physicist Glenn T. Seaborg was awarded U.S. patent no. 3,156,523 for his development of the chemical element Americium, number 95 on the periodic table; he would receive a patent for Curium on December 15.[46]
  • Prime Minister Robert Menzies of Australia announced his intent to introduce legislation to revive National Service, the compulsory military service for young men aged 20 and older.[47] The move was made in response to the Indonesian Confrontation.
  • Kenya effectively became a one-party state, as the remaining 23 legislators of the short-lived Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) returned to the Kenya African National Union (KANU).[48]
  • Prime Minister Wilson's government survived its second vote of no-confidence in as many days. The second motion, which failed, 294 to 315, was over the Labour government's proposals for free health care, larger pensions, and higher taxes, "to take from citizens according to their means, to give to citizens according to their means.[49]
  • Born:
  • Died: Jimmie Dodd, 54, American actor and TV personality known for hosting The Mickey Mouse Club, died of lung cancer.[50]

November 11, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

November 12, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, abdicated as the monarch of the small Western European nation of 320,000 people, after a reign of 45 years. Her son Jean, who became the new Grand Duke of Luxembourg.[52] Charlotte had ascended the throne in 1919 after the abdication of her older sister, the Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde; Jean would abdicate the throne in 2000 in favor of his son, Henri.[53]
  • The televised, public execution of the surviving two members of the Jeune Haiti rebels was conducted by a firing squad on orders of Haiti's President, François "Papa Doc" Duvalier.[54] Louis Drouin and Marcel Numa had been part of a 13-man guerrilla team that had tried in August to overthrow Duvalier's dictatorship.[55] Duvalier directed that the schoolchildren of Port-au-Prince be brought to watch the event, which took place outside of the walls of the national cemetery. Channel 5, the nation's only television station, covered the event for rebroadcast.[56]
  • Born: David Ellefson, American thrash metal bass guitarist for Megadeth; in Jackson, Minnesota
  • Died: Fred Hutchinson, 45, manager of the baseball's Cincinnati Reds died less than a year after being diagnosed with cancer; Hutchinson, in his 13th season guiding a major league baseball team, had managed the Reds through the first 109 games of their 162-game 1964 season before stepping down on August 12.

November 13, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • David Russell, a homeless transient, became the first apparent victim of a serial killer who would become known as the "Skid Row Slasher"; Russell's body was found on the steps of the central building of the Los Angeles Public Library. The next day, the body of 67-year old Benjamin Hornberg, was found in the restroom of a skid row hotel. Both men had been stabbed multiple times before their throats had been slashed, ear-to-ear. For the next ten years, there would be no similar killings; during a two-month period in December 1974 and January 1975, Vaughn Greenwood would murder nine more transients in a similar fashion before being apprehended.[57]
  • Syria fired artillery at two settlements on the other side of its border with Israel, with shells fired from the Golan Heights at Kibbutz Dan and at Sha'ar Yishuv.[58] In retaliation, the Israeli Air Force conducted a massive air strike on positions in Syria, "taking the opportunity to destroy the Syrian diversion equipment" that was being used to reroute the waters of the Jordan River away from Israel, and sending "a signal that Israel would not hesitate to use all the means at its disposal to thwart the counterdiversion scheme even at the price of a military confrontation with the Arab states."[59][60]
  • In the United States, Bob Pettit of the St. Louis Hawks became the first NBA player to score 20,000 points, in a 123-106 loss to the host Cincinnati Royals. Pettit, who was in his 11th NBA season and who had 19,993 points going into the game, made a short hook shot with 10:40 left in the second quarter, and would finish with 20,022.[61]
  • Died: Oskar Becker, 75, German mathematician and historian

November 14, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • American anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon began his stay with the Yanomami people who would become the subject of his 1967 bestseller, The Fierce People. The Yanomami lived in Venezuela's Amazonas state (where Chagnon set up his camp) and across the Amazon River in Brazil. Chagnon's ethics would come under question years later from another anthropologist, R. Brian Ferguson of Rutgers University, who would publish a followup study, Yanomami Warfare, in 1995. "A war started between groups which had been at peace for some time on the very first day Chagnon got there", Ferguson would write, "and it continued until he left. I don't think that was an accident." In Ferguson's opinion, Chagnon had fomented warfare between the two rival groups in order to write the 1967 book.[62]
  • A former executive of Procter & Gamble, manufacturer of products that included one of America's most popular brands of toothpaste, Crest, was arrested after trying to sell a 188-page Crest marketing strategy to Procter & Gamble's top competitor in the dentifrice industry, Colgate-Palmolive, which made Colgate. From Chicago, Eugene Andrew Mayfield had called a New York executive at Colgate-Palmolive, who, in turn, contacted the FBI. Mayfield flew from Chicago to New York and, as arranged, the two sat in adjacent stalls in the men's restroom at the TWA terminal at the Kennedy Airport. "Mayfield passed over the copied document while the Colgate man passed over $20,000 in marked bills. Then Mayfield walked out into the arms of waiting FBI agents." At Mayfield's criminal trial, testimony was presented that estimated the worth of the document to be more than one million dollars.[63][64]
  • Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Bridgetown, Barbados, was officially opened.
  • Born:
  • Died: Heinrich von Brentano, 60, former West German Foreign Minister

November 15, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

November 16, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • The Communist Party of the Soviet Union reorganized its Politburo a little more than a month after ousting Nikita Khrushchev as its leader and replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev. Frol Kozlov, who had once been viewed as Khrushchev's successor but who had been incapacitated by a stroke, was removed and former KGB Director Alexander Shelepin replaced him. Petro Shelest, the leader of the Ukrainian SSR party, was elevated from candidate membership to full membership. As a final purge of Khrushchev's legacy, his son-in-law, Alexei Adzhubei, was expelled from the Central Committee "for errors committed in his work".[71]
  • Joshua Nkomo, the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, was transferred from the prison in Salisbury (now Harare), along with 16 other ZAPU party members who had been detained by the white-ruled colonial government of Rhodesia, following a ruling by the southern African nation's highest court. Nkomo and his men remained imprisoned, however, and were transferred 440 miles (710 km) away to the remote Gonakudzingwa Restriction Camp.[72] Nkomo would remain at Gonakudzingwa for the next ten years.
  • British Prime Minister Wilson declared in a speech to Parliament, "If there is one nation that cannot afford to chalk on the walls 'World go home', it is Britain. We are a world power, and a world influence, or we are nothing." The statement came after Wilson had announced that the United Kingdom would phase out its military bases in the Persian Gulf and in the Pacific Ocean.[73]
  • Born: Diana Krall, Canadian jazz pianist and singer, in Nanaimo, British Columbia

November 17, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

November 18, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

  • The United States and the Soviet Union signed the "Agreement on Cooperation Between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America in the Field of Desalination, Including the Use of Atomic Energy", was signed in Moscow.[76][77]
  • The Grumman C-2 Greyhound cargo airplane made its first flight.[78]
  • The desegregation of restaurants, lodging and theaters in McComb, Mississippi took place "without incident" after the NAACP had selected the small town in order to test compliance with the new Civil Rights Act of 1964. A group of 20 African-American men and women were able to get served food, rent motel rooms, and sit where they wished to watch a movie. McComb Mayor Gordon Burt and local business leaders had taken out newspaper advertisements urging residents to peacefully comply with the law, and provided police officers nearby as needed; the group started with dinner at the Continental Motel restaurant across from the police station, and the only response was that "The only three white patrons got up and left as the Negroes entered."[79] John White, who chaired the McComb City Police Committee, told reporters that the white members of the community had put pressure on businesses to change with the times, and noted that "Any time the power structure of a community takes a stand against violence, it certainly curtails the possibility of trouble."[80]
  • FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover held a rare press briefing and gave the most vicious public denouncement of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. during his lifetime. Reporters of the Women's National Press Club were invited to hear Hoover's briefing called to respond to King's statements about the FBI's assignment of personnel to civil rights cases, and told the women that King— who had been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1964— was "the most notorious liar in the country" and then told them to "feel free to print that".[81][82]
  • South Korea's President Park Chung-hee announced its list of 167 companies that the government would financially support in their efforts to increase in "light industries such as textiles, hair goods and knit wear", primarily because those were the industries "that could readily absorb surplus labor".[83]
  • Born: Rita Cosby, American television newsanchor and journalist; in Brooklyn
  • Died:

November 19, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

November 20, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • The bishops at the Second Vatican Council voted overwhelmingly in favor of resolutions to reach out to Christian and non-Christian religions outside of the Roman Catholic Church, including a statement that rescinded the Church's previous position that the Jewish people were guilty for their ancestors' role in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ; the measure regarding Judaism passed by a margin of 1,770 to 185.[87] Another resolution, which passed 1,838 to 136, stated that the Church would no longer take a total stance against non-Christian religions (such as Islam, Judaism or Buddhism). Finally, the council approved, 2,054 to 64, a commitment to ecumenism with non-Catholic Christians with efforts "by prayer, word and deed" to mend the rifts that divided the world's 900 million Christians. Pope Paul VI would promulgate the doctrine, Unitatis redintegratio, the next day.[88]
  • Linjeflyg Flight 277, a twin-engine Convair CV-340 airplane, struck electric power lines as it was making its approach for a landing at Ängelholm in Sweden. Thirty-one of the 43 people on board were killed in what was the worst air disaster in Swedish history up to that time. The plane was nearing the end of a 300-mile flight from Stockholm to the Ängelholm airport. Twenty of the 39 passengers had been scheduled to disembark at Halmstad but the plane had been prevented from landing because of bad weather.[89]
  • Canada's Prime Minister Pearson announced that a previously unnamed mountain peak in the Yukon territory would be named for the late U.S. President John F. Kennedy, nearly one year after the President's assassination. The 14,000 foot (4,300 m) high Mount Kennedy is located 15 miles away from the U.S. state of Alaska.[90]

November 21, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

November 22, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

  • Golfer Jack Nicklaus narrowly defeated Arnold Palmer to become the top money winner of the year as the 1964 PGA Tour, tying for second place in the final event of the Tour, the Cajun Classic Open Invitational. Palmer had been the top money winner in 1962 and 1963, and was the leading moneymaker going into the tournament at Lafayette, Louisiana, ahead of Nicklaus by $318 ($111,703 against Nicklaus's $111,385). Although Miller Barber finished first at Lafayette (with 277 strokes for the 72 holes) to win his first PGA tournament ever, Gay Brewer missed a 15-foot putt on the 18th hole and finished at 282 instead of 281, and had to share second place with Nicklaus, who won $1,900; Palmer finished fourth, with $1,500. As a result, Nicklaus had earnings of $113,284.50 for the year, and Palmer had $113,202.37; the difference was only 81 dollars and 13 cents.[97]
  • Officials on the American side of Niagara Falls in the state of New York reported the appearance of a third separate waterfall after the falls "had been two cataracts from the beginning of recorded history".[98] The appearance of a new island created another split in the flow of the Niagara River, which was believed to be temporary.
  • The Cowra Japanese War Cemetery was dedicated in Cowra, New South Wales as a final resting place for the remains of 523 Japanese soldiers and sailors who died in Australia during World War II, and as a memorial to 231 Japanese men killed in the "Cowra breakout" from the prisoner of war camp located there.[99]
  • In the little town of Schellsburg, Pennsylvania, population 288, the churchgoers "held a service of organization formalizing the union of four congregations of different denominations", marking "the first such four-way merger in the history of religion in the United States".[100] The United Church of Schellsburg combined the members of the town's Presbyterian, Lutheran, Methodist and United Church of Christ members into one group, after a 101 to 25 vote that had been taken on October 4.

November 23, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • TWA Flight 800 from Rome to Athens crashed as it was aborting a take off at 2:05 in the afternoon from the Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport, killing 50 of the 73 people on board in an avoidable accident.[101] Construction was in progress on the airport's runway 25, shortening the available length from 8,600 feet (2,600 m) to 6,500 feet (2,000 m); in addition, a steamroller was working only 100 feet (30 m) from the runway. One of the Boeing 707's four engines failed, the jet could not be controlled and it clipped the steamroller, then burst into flame. Escape chutes were brought out after a delay and only 23 people survived after getting out; 45 passengers and five of the 11 member crew died of carbon monoxide poisoning.[102][103] TWA would continue to use the "Flight 800" designation; on July 17, 1996, another TWA Flight 800 would be the call sign for a Boeing 747 that crashed into the ocean after taking off from New York for Paris.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court declined to review, and let stand, a lower court ruling that rejected a change in the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States, specifically taking back out the phrase "under God" from the pledge that schoolchildren were required to recite at the beginning of the day. Courts in the state of New York had rejected a suit premised on the idea that the reference to God was a violation of the First Amendment guarantees of the separation of church and state in the United States.[104]
  • Swiss and German authorities reach an agreement to exchange Verenahof to Switzerland for an equal amount of Swiss land, as well as settling other border disputes in the area.[105]
  • Died: Edward C. Daly, 43, American cleric and Roman Catholic Bishop of Des Moines, Iowa, was among the victims of the TWA plane crash in Rome. Daly had been attending the Second Vatican Council and was returning home by way of Athens.

November 24, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

  • Belgian paratroopers and mercenaries captured Stanleyville in a rescue mission to liberate 3,000 foreigners who had been taken hostages by Congolese rebels.[106] Although most were saved, at least 120 hostages "died in the period before the rescue, during the rescue itself, and in massacres in the countryside that followed"[107][108] In the first week after the city was retaken, government forces would begin the process of executing 300 suspected rebels. According to witness reports released in January, suspects were led into Patrice Lumumba Stadium and displayed in front of spectators; "If the spectators cheered or clapped, the suspect was released. If they booed, he was condemned to death." Over 500 persons condemned were killed by sub-machine guns after being driven to the countryside.[109]
  • Australia's parliament passed the National Service Act 1964, restoring the draft of 20-year-old men into the Army, with a system of selection based on birthday.[110]
  • The United National Liberation Front, a separatist group in India, was formed in the Union Territory of Manipur to carry out a war against the national government.[111]
  • Born: Alistair McGowan, British comedian and impressionist, in Evesham
  • Died:

November 25, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

November 26, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • Television was introduced to Pakistan as the Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) went on the air in the city of Lahore.[116]
  • Nineteen crew members on the Norwegian tanker MV Stolt Dagali were killed when their ship sank after being cut in half by the Israeli cruise ship SS Shalom off the coast of the United States.[117] The Stolt Dagali, with a crew of 43, was carrying "a cargo of solvents and vegetable oils" from Philadelphia to New York City to pick up more cargo; the Shalom had departed from New York with 616 passengers on their way to the West Indies. At 2:15, as the ships proceeded through a heavy fog, the faster Shalom cut "directly through the tanker's hull, splitting her neatly in two". The stern of the Stolt Dagali sank immediately with all on board; the forward two-thirds of the tanker stayed afloat and the U.S. Coast Guard and the Shalom to rescue 24 survivors from the icy waters of the Atlantic Ocean.[118]
  • An angry mob in Cairo set fire to the United States Information Agency library in the Egyptian capital as a protest against American support for the Congo rescue. The city's fire department was slow in responding and the library's 24,000 book collection was destroyed along with the furniture and equipment.[119]
  • Born:

November 27, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • Lhendup Dorji, who had been the acting Prime Minister of Bhutan after being appointed on July 25 (following the April 5 assassination of Jigme Palden Dorji), was dismissed by King Jigme Singye Wangchuck. No new Prime Minister was appointed for the Himalayan mountain kingdom, and the king would appoint a Royal Advisory Council to serve the function of administering the government.[120]
  • One of U.S. President Johnson's pet dogs, named "Her" died during surgery at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center after apparently "swallowing a stone on the White House grounds". The pet beagle had become famous after Johnson had lifted her by her ears for photographers.[121]
  • Born: Robin Givens, American television actress; in New York City

November 28, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

Mariner 4 launched
  • NASA launched the Mariner 4 space probe from Cape Kennedy at 8:22 in the morning, three weeks after the failure of Mariner 3. Traveling at 8,300 miles per hour (13,400 km/h), the fourth Mariner started off toward Mars on a seven-month journey.[122] On its original trajectory, the probe would have missed the Red Planet by 150,000 miles (240,000 km), but a correction was made on December 5. Mariner 4 would make its closest approach (within 6,118 miles (9,846 km) of Mars) and return television pictures on July 15, 1965.[123][22]
  • The Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (NPD), the National Democratic Party of Germany, was founded in West Germany by extreme right-wing members of the Deutsche Reichspartei, the Gesamtdeutsche Partei and the Deutsche Partei. A former Nazi Party member, Adolf von Thadden guided the NPD, but Fritz Thielen, a co-founder of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) was installed as the NPD's first Chairman in order "to create the appearance of being a national- conservative party with a leadership without a Nazi past."[124]
  • Süleyman Demirel was elected as the new leader of the Adalet Partisi, the Justice Party of Turkey.[125] A year later, he would become Prime Minister with the Justice Party's win of the October 10 general election.
  • Tommy Ross, a soccer football striker for Ross County F.C. in the lower level Highland Football League of Scotland, set a record for the fastest hat-trick (three consecutive goals). In the game against Nairn County F.C., Ross made three goals in 90 seconds.[126]
  • On the last day of scheduled games during the 1964 NCAA University Division football season, the #1-ranked Notre Dame Fighting Irish blew a 17-0 halftime lead against the USC Trojans at Los Angeles, and lost the game, 20-17.[127] With that loss, the #2-ranked Alabama Crimson Tide (which had closed its season at 10-0-0 with its win over Auburn two days earlier) was voted the #1 ranking by both the Associated Press poll of sportswriters and the United Press International poll of coaches to be recognized by the NCAA as the unofficial college football champion for 1964. At the time, no polling was taken after the postseason bowl games. Alabama would lose in the Orange Bowl to Texas, while the nation's other major unbeaten and untied team, the #2 ranked Arkansas Razorbacks, would win the Cotton Bowl over Nebraska. Since no further polls were taken, however, Arkansas would remain at second place despite its 11-0-0 record.
  • Died: Charles Meredith, 70, American silent film star and stage actor

November 29, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

  • On the first Sunday of Advent in the Roman Catholic Church, Catholics "walked into their parishes around the globe and, for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire, participated in a mass that was given largely in their native tongue." From the founding of the Catholic church up until 1964, the mass had always been conducted in Latin, until a reform by the Second Vatican Council.[128][129]
  • Twenty-four people were trampled to death and 37 more injured in Mexico after a political rally in Jalapa, where 5,000 assembled in an arena to watch Veracruz state Governor Fernando Lopez Arias. In the excitement to attend a festival at a nearby park, the crowd proceeded down one of the stairways toward the exit when a woman fell, and those further up the stairs began falling as well.[130]
  • A group of Congo's Simba rebels shot down a chartered Belgian DC-4 airplane as it was taking off from the Stanleyville airport following the recapture of the city. Of 51 people on board, most of them Congolese National Army soldiers, only seven survived.[131]
  • A different group of rebels entered the village of Bafwabaka and kidnapped the 46 nuns in a Roman Catholic convent, the Sisters of the Holy Family, operated by Marie-Clémentine Anuarite Nengapeta.[132] Nengapeta, who would be beatified in 1985, would be murdered on December 1.
  • White mercenaries and Congolese troops rescued more than 100 Belgian civilians after driving the Simba rebels out of the village of Dingila.[133]
  • Born: Don Cheadle, American film actor and producer; in Kansas City
  • Died: Anne de Vries, 60, Dutch novelist

November 30, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • Zond 2, the Soviet Union's probe set to make a flyby of the planet Mars, was launched two days after the United States had sent Mariner 4.[134] Although Zond 2 would pass within 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) of Mars on August 6, 1965, far closer than the Mariner 4 probe, the Zond would be unable to transmit images because of damage to one of its solar panels.[135]
The tiara
  • Pope Paul VI gave his gold, silver and bejeweled papal tiara to the United States for permanent display "in gratitude for all that Americans have done for the poor of the world". Cardinal Francis Spellman, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York, announced the gift and displayed the crown in a meeting with fellow clergymen at a hotel in New York City.[136]
  • Sir Winston Churchill celebrated his 90th and last birthday. The day before the celebration, hundreds of well-wishers stood outside his Hyde Park home in London and sang "Happy Birthday to You" and "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow".[137]


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  2. ^ "Mortars Smash U.S. Jet Bombers", The Age (Melbourne), November 2, 1964, p1
  3. ^ Sylvester J. Schieber, The Predictable Surprise: The Unraveling of the U.S. Retirement System (Oxford University Press, 2012)
  4. ^ "Brother Dethrones Big-Spending Saud", Chicago Tribune, November 3, 1964, p19
  5. ^ Alexei Vassiliev, The History of Saudi Arabia (Al Saqi Books, 1998), p366
  6. ^ "Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) pp673-674
  7. ^ Uzi Rabi, Emergence of States in a Tribal Society: Oman Under Sa'Id Bin Taymur, 1932–1970 (Apollo Books, 2011) p183
  8. ^ "Shell Reports Oil Find In Oman", Honolulu Star-Advertiser, November 3, 1964, p2
  9. ^ The New York Times Story of the Yankees: 382 Articles, Profiles and Essays from 1903 to Present, ed. by Dave Anderson (Hachette Books, 2012)
  10. ^ Joseph Nathan Kane, Facts about the Presidents" (H. W. Wilson Company, 1968) p259
  11. ^ "4 Records Set by Nov. 3 Popular Vote", Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1964, p8
  12. ^ "Johnson Gets Big Majority in Congress", Chicago Tribune, November 5, 1964, p2
  13. ^ "Chile, Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p161
  14. ^ "Cleric Banished", Honolulu Star-Advertiser, November 5, 1964, p13
  15. ^ Yvette Hovsepian-Bearce, The Political Ideology of Ayatollah Khamenei: Out of the Mouth of the Supreme Leader of Iran (Routledge, 2015) p8
  16. ^ "Khomeini, Ruhollah", in Government Leaders, Military Rulers and Political Activists, by David W. Del Testa (Routledge, 2014) p100
  17. ^ "President Flees Bolivia— Junta Seizes Reins After Army Revolt", Chicago Tribune, November 5, 1964, p1
  18. ^ "Bolivia, Republic of", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p95
  19. ^ "Trần Văn Hương", in Historical Dictionary of Ho Chi Minh City, by Justin Corfield (Anthem Press, 2013) p299
  20. ^ "U.S. ROCKET TO MARS FAILS— Lacks Speed Needed; Radio Control Dies", Chicago Tribune, November 6, 1964, p1
  21. ^ "Mariner Helpless", Chicago Tribune, November 7, 1964, p2
  22. ^ a b David M. Harland and Ralph Lorenz, Space Systems Failures: Disasters and Rescues of Satellites, Rocket and Space Probes (Springer, 2007) p10
  23. ^ "Nazi Trial Limit Unchanged— West Germany's Cabinet Vetoes and Extension", Chicago Tribune, November 12, 1964, p1A-12
  24. ^ Hannfried von Hindenburg, Demonstrating Reconciliation: State and Society in West German Foreign Policy Toward Israel, 1952–1965 (Berghahn Books, 2007) p81
  25. ^ Swaziland Railway History
  26. ^ A. B. K. Kasozi, Social Origins of Violence in Uganda, 1964–1985 (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994) p78
  27. ^ "Peking Demands Resistance to America", Chicago Tribune, November 7, 1964, p1
  28. ^ Daniel Leese, Mao Cult: Rhetoric and Ritual in China's Cultural Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 2011) p84
  29. ^ "The Anti-Ballistic Missile: Some Political and Strategic Considerations", by Louis Morton, The Virginia Quarterly Review (Winter 1966) p28
  30. ^ Matthew Jones, The Official History of the UK Strategic Nuclear Deterrent: Volume I: From the V-Bomber Era to the Arrival of Polaris, 1945–1964 (Routledge, 2017)
  31. ^ "Yemen's Civil War Stopped by Cease-Fire", Chicago Tribune, November 9, 1964, p1A-1
  32. ^ Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997) pp326-327
  33. ^ U.S. Wins 2 Paralympic Gold Medals", Chicago Tribune, November 9, 1964, p3-3
  34. ^ "Hukuma", in Party, Government and Freedom in the Muslim World (E. J. Brill, 1968) p35
  35. ^ "'Forget' War to Fight Flood in S. Vietnam", Chicago Tribune, November 10, 1964, p8
  36. ^ "Viet Floods Drown 5,000, Block Yanks", Chicago Tribune, November 13, 1964, p3
  37. ^ "Storm Floods Central Vietnam", Pittsburgh Press, November 9, 1964, p17
  38. ^ "Flood Disaster In Vietnam", Sydney Morning Herald, November 11, 1964, p3
  39. ^ "More Than 5,000 Dead In Vietnam Floods", Sydney Morning Herald, November 14, 1964, p3
  40. ^ "Inferior Vena Cava Placement", by Nirav Patel, et al., in Endovascular Surgery (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2010) p664
  41. ^ "Japan Picks Sato as Its New Chief", Chicago Tribune, November 9, 1964, p1
  42. ^ Yukinori Komine, Negotiating the U.S.–Japan Alliance: Japan Confidential (Routledge, 2016)
  43. ^ "LABOR WINS IN FIRST TEST— British Vote 307 to 300 on Steel Issue", Chicago Tribune, November 10, 1964, p1
  44. ^ "A Flag for Canada", by Michael Large, in Made in Canada: Craft and Design in the Sixties, ed. by Alan C. Elder (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005) p48
  45. ^ Patrick Paternie, Porsche 911 Red Book 1965–2004 (MotorBooks International, 2004) p8
  46. ^ "Shrinking Science: An Introduction to Nanotechnology", by Hope Shand and Kathy Joe Wetter, in State of the World 2006: Special Focus: China and India (W.W. Norton, 2006) p91
  47. ^ Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia (Cambridge University Press, 1999) pp231-232
  48. ^ Charles Hornsby, Kenya: A History Since Independence (I.B.Tauris, 2013) p96
  49. ^ "British Labor Wins Second Test 315-294", Chicago Tribune, November 11, 1964, p1
  50. ^ "Mickey Mouse Leader, Jimmie Dodd, Dies", Miami News, November 11, 1964, p18
  51. ^ Robert A. Hill, ed., The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Vol. VII (University of California Press, 1991) p942
  52. ^ "Duchess Ends Reign Today in Luxemburg", Chicago Tribune, November 12, 1964, p1B-5
  53. ^ "HRH Grand Duke Jean". Service information et presse du gouvernement luxembourgeois. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  54. ^ "Executions In Haiti Seen On TV", Sydney Morning Herald, November 14, 1964, p3
  55. ^ Prosper Avril, From Glory to Disgrace: The Haitian Army, 1804–1994 (Universal-Publishers, 1999) pp167-168
  56. ^ Raymond A. Joseph, For Whom the Dogs Spy: Haiti: From the Duvalier Dictatorships to the Earthquake, Four Presidents, and Beyond (Skyhorse Publishing, 2015)
  57. ^ "Greenwood, Vaughn Orrin", in The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers, by Michael Newton (Infobase Publishing, 2006) p101
  58. ^ Zaky Shalom, Ben-Gurion's Political Struggles, 1963–1967: A Lion in Winter (Routledge, 2006) p65
  59. ^ Moshe Gat, Britain and the Conflict in the Middle East, 1964–1967: The Coming of the Six-Day War (Greenwood Publishing, 2003) p238
  60. ^ "Israeli Jets' Bombs, Guns Pound Syria— Each Side Says Other Started Battle", Chicago Tribune, November 14, 1964, p5
  61. ^ "Pettit Passes 20,000 But Hawks Are Passed", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 14, 1964, p6A
  62. ^ Patrick Tierney, Darkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon (W. W. Norton & Company, 2001) p 18
  63. ^ Kerry Segrave, America Brushes Up: The Use and Marketing of Toothpaste and Toothbrushes in the Twentieth Century (McFarland, 2009) p 173
  64. ^ "Executive Is Indicted for Failing Toothpaste Test", Corpus Christi (TX) Caller-Times, April 2, 1965, p 1
  65. ^ "Sudan President Forced Out", Chicago Tribune, November 16, 1964, p11
  66. ^ Tareq Y. Ismael, The Sudanese Communist Party: Ideology and Party Politics (Routledge, 2015)
  67. ^ John W. Garver, The Sino-American Alliance: Nationalist China and American Cold War Strategy in Asia (Routledge, 2015) p197
  68. ^ "28 ON PLANE LOST IN SNOW— Fear Liner Fell Near Las Vegas", Chicago Tribune, November 17, 1964, p1
  69. ^ "Ailing Puerto Rican Revolt Chief Pardoned", Los Angeles Times, November 16, 1964, p6
  70. ^ Pedro A. Malavet, America's Colony: The Political and Cultural Conflict Between the United States and Puerto Rico (New York University Press, 2004) p93
  71. ^ "3 Rise in New Russ Shakeup— Kozlov and Adzhubei Discarded", Chicago Tribune, November 17, 1964, p1
  72. ^ "African Leader, Aides Freed from Rhodesia Prison", Chicago Tribune, November 17, 1964, p2
  73. ^ Paul M. McGarr, The Cold War in South Asia: Britain, the United States and the Indian Subcontinent, 1945–1965 (Cambridge University Press, 2013) p272
  74. ^ Masahiro Igarashi, Associated Statehood in International Law (Kluwer Law International, 2002) p90
  75. ^ J.A. Chandler, Comparative Public Administration (Routledge, 2002)
  76. ^ Glenn T. Seaborg, A Scientist Speaks Out: A Personal Perspective on Science, Society and Change (World Scientific, 1996) p421
  77. ^ United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, Volume 17 (U.S. Department of State, 1968) p2311
  78. ^ E.R. Johnson, American Military Transport Aircraft Since 1925 (McFarland, 2013) p313
  79. ^ "Negroes Crack McComb, Miss., Race Barriers", Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1964, p16
  80. ^ "J. Oliver Emmerich and the McComb Enterprise-Journal", by David R. Davies, in The Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement (University. Press of Mississippi, 2001) pp132-133
  81. ^ Simeon Booker, Shocking the Conscience: A Reporter's Account of the Civil Rights Movement (University Press of Mississippi, 2013) p104
  82. ^ "Hoover Calls Rev. King Liar", Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1964, p1
  83. ^ Philip Auerswald, The Coming Prosperity: How Entrepreneurs Are Transforming the Global Economy (Oxford University Press, 2012)
  84. ^ Michael L. Gillette, Launching the War on Poverty: An Oral History (Oxford University Press, 2010) p428
  85. ^ "95 More U.S. Bases Slated for Closing", Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1964, p1
  86. ^ "List of Bases", Chicago Tribune, November 20, 1964, p2
  87. ^ "Vatican Absolves Jews Of Guild in Crucifixion", Detroit Free Press, November 21, 1964, p1
  88. ^ Cardinal Edward Idris Cassidy, Ecumenism and Interreligious Dialogue: Unitatis Redintegratio, Nostra Aetate (Paulist Press, 2005) p8
  89. ^ "31 Killed When Swedish Plane Hits Wire, Falls", Chicago Tribune, November 21, 1964, p1
  90. ^ "Canada Names Mountain After Kennedy", Chicago Tribune, November 21, 1964, p2
  91. ^ "A New Era Hailed on Festive Day— Verrazano Bridge Opened to Traffic", New York Times, November 22, 1964, p1
  92. ^ Gay Talese, The Bridge: The Building of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014)
  93. ^ Images of America: Staten Island Ferry (Arcadia Publishing, 2014) p21
  94. ^ "100,000 Cars Use Narrows Bridge", November 23, 1964, p1
  95. ^ "Pope Promulgates 3 Decrees", Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1964, p21
  96. ^ Ronald D. Witherup, The Word of God at Vatican II: Exploring Dei Verbum (Liturgical Press, 2014) p62
  97. ^ "Nicklaus Nips Palmer By $81.13 For Money Honors", Daily Independent Journal (San Rafael, California) November 23, 1964, p18
  98. ^ "Change in River Flow Creates 3d Cataract at Niagara Falls", Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1964, p1
  99. ^ "Cowra Japanese War Cemetery", by Ai Kobayashi and Bart Ziino, in Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with "Difficult Heritage", ed. by William Logan and Keir Reeves (Routledge, 2008) p105
  100. ^ "Town Creates New Church in 4-Way Merger— Action Is Regarded as History-Making", Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1964, p3
  101. ^ "44 Die as Jet Falters and Hits Roller", Chicago Tribune, November 24, 1964, p1
  102. ^ "Trans World Airlines", in Darkest Hours: A narrative encyclopedia of worldwide disasters from ancient times to the present, by Jay Robert Nash (Rowman & Littlefield, 1976) p562
  103. ^ Aviation Safety Network
  104. ^ "'Under God' Attack Fails", Chicago Tribune, November 24, 1964, p1
  105. ^ Vertrag zwischen der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland über die Bereinigung der Grenze im Abschnitt Konstanz–Neuhausen am Rheinfall (Treaty between the Swiss Confederation and the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the settlement of the border in the Konstanz-Neuhausen am Rheinfall section).
  106. ^ "YANKS RESCUED IN CONGO! Paratroops Land, Seize Rebel Field", Chicago Tribune, November 24, 1964, p1
  107. ^ "Stanleyville (Kisangani) Hostage Rescue", in Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations, by Robert Anthony Waters Jr. (Scarecrow Press, 2009) p269
  108. ^ Peter Abbott, Modern African Wars (4): The Congo 1960–2002 (Bloomsbury, 2014) pp18-19
  109. ^ "Congo Executes 500 in 6 Weeks as Rebels", Chicago Tribune, January 10, 1965, p6
  110. ^ Robert A. Hall, Combat Battalion: The Eighth Battalion in Vietnam (Allen & Unwin, 2000) p1
  111. ^ Namrata Goswami, Indian National Security and Counter-Insurgency (Routledge, 2014)
  112. ^ "International Law and Water Scarcity in Africa", by C. O. Okidi, in The Scarcity of Water, Emerging Legal and Policy Responses, ed. by Edward Brans (Kluwer Law International, 1997) p171
  113. ^ Yafeng Xia, Negotiating with the Enemy: U.S.-China Talks during the Cold War, 1949–1972 (Indiana University Press, 2006) p124
  114. ^ "New-style Phone Box", Sydney Morning Herald, November 26, 1964, p1
  115. ^ Edward Mickolus, The Counterintelligence Chronology: Spying by and Against the United States from the 1700s through 2014 (McFarland, 2015)
  116. ^ "Pakistan", by Munzir Elahi and Anjum Zia, in Asian Communication Handbook 2008, ed. by Indrajit Banerjee and Stephen Logan (Asian Media Information and Communication Centre, 2008) p370
  117. ^ "LINER AND TANKER CRASH— Ship Sinking in Collision with Shalom", Chicago Tribune, November 26, 1964, p1
  118. ^ Bradley Sheard, Lost Voyages: Two Centuries of Shipwrecks in the Approaches to New York (Aqua Quest Publications, 1998)
  119. ^ William A. Rugh, American Encounters with Arabs: The "soft Power" of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East (Greenwood, 2006) p60
  120. ^ Ian Preston, A Political Chronology of Central, South and East Asia (Europa Publications, 2001) p29
  121. ^ "Her Swallows Stone and Dies", Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1964, p1
  122. ^ "Rocket Zips Toward Mars to Picture It", Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1964, p3
  123. ^ Arthur E. Smith, Mars: The Next Step (IOP Publishing, 1989) p15
  124. ^ The Ideology of the Extreme Right, by Cas Mudde (Manchester University Press, 2013)
  125. ^ Mustafa Kibaroğlu and Ayșegül Kibaroğlu, Global Security Watch--Turkey: A Reference Handbook (Greenwood, 2009) p180
  126. ^ Paul Simpson, Uli Hesse, Who Invented the Stepover? and Other Crucial Football Conundrums (Profile Books, 2013) p185
  127. ^ "Notre Dame Upset, 20-17, by Trojans", Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1964, p1
  128. ^ Melissa J. Wilde, Vatican II: A Sociological Analysis of Religious Change (Princeton University Press, 2007 p1
  129. ^ "English Mass Today Will Make History", Chicago Tribune, November 29, 1964, p3
  130. ^ "24 Killed in Stadium Stampede— Crowd Jams Exit in Rush to a Festival", Chicago Tribune, November 30, 1964, p1
  131. ^ "Rebels Down Plane, Kill 44 in Congo", Chicago Tribune, November 30, 1964, p1
  132. ^ "Nengapeta, Marie-Clémentine Anuarite", in Dictionary of African Biography, ed. by Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (Oxford University Press, 2012) p440
  133. ^ "Save 100 More behind Congo Rebels' Lines", Chicago Tribune, December 2, 1964, p1A-2
  134. ^ "Russian Spacecraft Joins Mariner 4 in Race to Mars", Chicago Tribune, December 1, 1964, p1
  135. ^ Nadine Barlow, Mars: An Introduction to its Interior, Surface and Atmosphere (Cambridge University Press, 2008) p15
  136. ^ "Pontiff Gives U.S. His Jeweled Crown", Chicago Tribune, December 1, 1964, p1
  137. ^ "1,000 Serenade Winston at 90", Chicago Tribune, November 30, 1964, p22