February 1964

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February 7, 1964: The Beatles (John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr) arrive in America

The following events occurred in February 1964:

February 1, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • At least 70 people, most of them passengers on the Argentine Railways "Firefly Express" train, were killed in a head-on collision with a freight train. The express train was carrying 1,040 passengers who were returning to Buenos Aires from the vacation resort of Mar Del Plata. As it was approaching the station at Altamirano, 65 miles from Buenos Aires, the express crashed into a steam-hauled freight train. Both locomotives exploded, spreading burning diesel fuel over a wide area and setting the first three-passenger cars on fire. Rescue workers were unable to search for survivors for several hours because of the intensity of the blaze.[1][2][3] A police doctor, giving an estimate of 34 deaths, conceded that "There is no telling how many bodies burned up in the fire".[4]
  • The first commercial Boeing 727 flight was made as Eastern Airlines Flight 638 departed Miami at 8:30 a.m., on a flight to Washington D.C.'s Dulles Airport and a final arrival at Philadelphia.[5] United Air Lines would inaugurate its service on February 6, and American Airlines would follow on April 12.[6]
  • The Beatles vaulted to the #1 spot on the U.S. singles charts for the first time, with "I Want to Hold Your Hand", starting the British Invasion of the United States.
  • Died: J. Robert Atkinson, 76, blind American publisher and founder of the Braille Institute of America

February 2, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

Launch of Ranger 6
  • The Ranger 6 American lunar probe began its 900-mile descent to the Moon at 4:09 in the morning, Eastern time, but when the command came NASA ground control for its six television cameras to turn on, nothing happened. During its 14-minute drop to the lunar surface, the probe was supposed to take 3,000 pictures and relay them back to Earth before impact.[7] It crashed in the Mare Tranquillitatis at 09:24:33 [8] between the Pliny and Dionysius craters.[9]
  • The nude body of Hannah Tailford, a 30 year old prostitute, was found in the River Thames near the Hammersmith Bridge in London, ten days after she had last been seen at her home. Tailford was the first of six victims of a serial killer whose modus operandi would lead to the designation "Jack the Stripper".[10][11]
  • The U.S. Coast Guard seized four Cuban fishing boats in U.S. territorial waters near the Dry Tortugas and jailed the fishermen at Key West. In retaliation, Cuba would cut off the water supply to the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay.[12]
  • Fred Hastings, a 29-year old skydiver from Louisville, Kentucky, survived a 5,500 foot plunge to Earth despite the failure of his parachute. The lines of his main parachute became tangled with the canopy, and the emergency chute on his chest got tangled with the main chute. The reserve chute, however, caught enough air to slow his speed to 50 miles an hour, moments before he crashed into rain-soaked ground adjacent to the Freeman Municipal Airport in Seymour, Indiana.[13][14][15]
  • Born:

February 3, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • The New York City school boycott, also known as Freedom Day, described by one American author as "the largest civil rights demonstration in the nation's history" [16] began and involved more than 460,000 African-American and Puerto Rican students and 3,500 teachers, who refused to show up at the city's public schools, as a protest against alleged de facto racial segregation. The number represented at least one-third of the city's schoolchildren, and shut down predominantly black schools in Harlem and in Brooklyn.[17][18]
  • The North Vietnamese Air Force established its first jet fighter unit, Fighter Regiment No. 921, nicknamed the Sao Dao regiment. A few weeks later, the first North Vietnamese jet pilots, prepared to fly MiG-17s, began their training in the Soviet Union, and based their operations at the Noi Bai base near Hanoi.[19] North Vietnamese jet fighter units would be based in the People's Republic of China until August while their pilots underwent training.
  • The Warren Commission began its first hearings in the investigation of the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. The first of 93 witnesses whose testimony was taken by the Commission was Marina Oswald, the widow of accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, who appeared in a closed-door session.[20][21]
  • Ewald Peters, who had been the chief bodyguard for West German Chancellor Ludwig Erhard only four days earlier, hanged himself in his jail cell in Dortmund, where he was being held on suspicion of war crimes. Peters, who had been assigned to Nazi-occupied Ukraine during World War II, was arrested on January 31 after returning with Chancellor Erhard from a state visit to Italy.[22]

February 4, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

  • Yuri Nosenko, an officer of the Soviet spy agency, the KGB, defected to a representative of the American spy agency, the CIA, in Geneva. Instead of receiving favorable treatment, Nosenko instead would be imprisoned by the CIA for nearly four years in a CIA holding area near Clinton, Maryland, and interrogated regularly (and brutally) because the agency believed that he was a double agent. On October 27, 1967, Nosenko would be moved and confined in "a comfortable safehouse in the Washington area" and interrogation gave way to his being "interviewed under friendly, sympathetic conditions" by another office within the CIA. A 1970 internal CIA report would later conclude not only that Nosenko was a bona fide defector, but also that he was "the most valuable and economical defector this Agency has ever had".[23]
  • Police in the village of San Pablo District of the Canchis Province of Peru fired into a crowd of about 8,000 peasants who had protested at an open market, killing 19 people, mostly women. Afterward, government troops imprisoned about 200 agitators in the region.[24]
  • In a ceremony at the White House, the Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution was officially certified, 12 days after it had been ratified by the 38 states. Bernard L. Boutin, the Administrator of General Services signed the certificate as required by law, and U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signed as a witness to the amendment, which outlawed the poll tax in federal elections.[25][26]
  • General Motors introduced the Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser and the Buick Sport Wagon.
  • Died: Alfred Wiener, 78, German Jewish politician who had been General Secretary of the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith during the 1920s, before fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933.

February 5, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

  • India's chief delegate to the United Nations, Education Minister M. C. Chagla, told the UN Security Council that "I wish to make it clear on behalf of my Government that under no circumstances can we agree to the holding of a plebiscite in Kashmir," responding to charges by Pakistan Foreign Minister that India had backed out of its 1948 offer to hold elections so that the Kashmiri people could decide which nation they wished their region to be part of. "Plebiscite in Kashmir ruled out— Chagla", In 1965, the Indian would incorporate its claimed area into what would become the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[27] Since 1990, February 5 has been observed as "Kashmir Day" by the nation of Pakistan, and by Kashmiri nationalists in India.
  • Born: Laura Linney, American actress, in New York City.

February 6, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • The governments of the United Kingdom and France made simultaneous announcements in London and Paris that they had reached an agreement for construction of the first railway tunnel underneath the English Channel. The original plan for the proposed Channel Tunnel (which would open 30 years later, in 1994) was for a 33-mile-long (53 km) railroad tunnel running from Dover to Sangatte.[28]
  • At two minutes before 2:00 in the afternoon local time, Cuba cut off the normal water supply to the United States Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, in reprisal for the U.S. seizure the previous Sunday of four Cuban fishing boats (and the 36 fishermen on board) off the coast of Florida, by shutting off a freshwater pipeline from the Yateras River. Cuban Premier Fidel Castro told foreign correspondents that he would allow water to flow to the U.S. Navy base, which had been leased from Cuba for decades before Castro came to power, for one hour each day "out of deference to the families of American personnel on base". At the time, there were 10,500 U.S. residents on the 31 square mile base, 2,400 of whom were women and children.[29] Over the next ten months, U.S. Navy tankers would deliver fresh water to the Guantanamo base from Ocho Rios, Jamaica, and Port Everglades, Florida, while a desalinization plant could be constructed. On December 6, 1964, the base would be able to convert the ocean into potable water.[30]
  • Lieutenant Colonel Eugene Ebaya, 44, the Chief of Staff of the Army of the Congo and second in command to General Joseph Mobutu, was assassinated by a poison arrow shot by rebels in the Kwilu Province. Ebaya had been ambushed while in a convoy on the road between the provincial capital of Kikwit and the besieged town of Gungu.[31]
  • Died: Emilio Aguinaldo, 94, Filipino freedom fighter who led the insurgency against Spain, and later the United States, during their occupation of the Philippines in the late 19th century.

February 7, 1964 (Friday)Edit

February 8, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

Congressman Smith
  • U.S. Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia, a supporter of racial segregation, introduced an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to add a prohibition against employment discrimination based on gender, one of several attempts by Deep South members of Congress to stall passage of the bill. Smith's motives have been questioned, since he opened with a humorous speech about one of his constituents who had asked him to "remedy the shortage of men for women to marry", though he would say later that he believed that if the law passed, white women should have the same advantages that African American men and women would be given.[43] In any event, female members of Congress were irritated enough by the frivolous "Ladies' Afternoon in the House" debate among their male colleagues, that "the Virginia Congressman's tactical maneuver backfired", the amendment passed 168-133, and Title VII would end up becoming part of the law.[44][45]
  • Nine days after replacing Duong Van Minh as President of South Vietnam General Nguyen Khanh announced that he would assume the role of Prime Minister, and allow Minh to resume the presidency as a nominal head of state.[46] Minh would be removed from that post six months later, on August 16, and replaced again by Khanh.[47]
  • Princess Irene of the Netherlands, second in line to the Dutch throne (after Princess Beatrix, announced that she would renounce her claims to succession in order to marry Carlos de Borbon y Parma, a Roman Catholic and the son of the Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain.[48]
  • Born: German Gref, Russian economist and politician, in Panfilovo, Kazakh SSR (now Kazakhstan)
  • Died:
    • Boshirō Hosogaya, 75, former Imperial Japanese Navy admiral
    • Ernst Kretschmer, 75, German psychiatrist who first identified the persistent vegetative state known as Kretschmer's syndrome

February 9, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

  • The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show at 9:00 p.m. in New York City, marking their first live performance on American television.[49] According to an AP report, "[T]he 721 members of the audience — mostly young girls — kept up a steady stream of squeals, sighs and yells." [50] The show also featured Welsh stage actress "Two Ton Tessie" O'Shea in between the Beatles' two performances.[51] The A. C. Nielsen Company would report two weeks later that the CBS show "was seen on television sets in an estimated 23 million homes and by close to 70 million people." [52] (In December, Variety would quote the figure of a "73 million audience" [53]) The appearance became the catalyst for the mid-1960s "British Invasion" of American popular music.[54]
  • The 1964 Winter Olympics came to a close in Innsbruck, Austria. In the final event, held before the closing ceremony, Toralf Engan of Norway won the gold medal in final event, the 90 meter ski jump.[55] The night before the closing ceremony, Ute Gähler, a member of the women's luge team of East Germany, traveled 25 miles to Austria's border with West Germany, then crossed over and defected.[56]
  • The 1964 Australian Grand Prix was won in Melbourne by Australia's Jack Brabham. Up until the 37th of 64 laps at Sandown Park, the race had been close until New Zealand's Bruce McLaren had to drop out when his car threw a rod.[57]

February 10, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • Eighty-two members of the Royal Australian Navy died when the destroyer HMAS Voyager was rammed and cut in half by the aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne. Voyager Captain Duncan H. Stevens went down with the ship; another 242 of the crew were rescued. The two ships had been conducting maneuvers 20 miles off the coast of Jervis Bay, when Voyager cut across the path of Melbourne at about 9:00 in the evening.[58][59] Chief Petty Officer Jonathan Rogers, who helped evacuate more than 50 sailors to safety before going down with the ship, would be awarded the George Cross posthumously for his heroism.[60] A little more than five years later, HMAS Melbourne would be involved in a similar collision cutting the American ship USS Frank E. Evans in two and killing 73 men.
  • The U.S. House of Representatives voted, 290-130, to approve the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the most comprehensive civil rights legislation in the United States since the Reconstruction Era. Voting in favor were 152 Democrats and 138 Republicans, while 96 Democrats and 34 Republicans, most of them from Southern states, were against.[61] The bill was expected to face a more difficult chance of passage in the U.S. Senate, but, after delays for votes on more than 100 amendments and a long filibuster, would pass there on June 10, 1964, by a margin of 71-29.[62]
  • The small West African nation of Sierra Leone became the first to issue the self-adhesive stamp for postage. The stamps that did not need to be licked, made in the shape of the country's boundaries and designed to be peeled off of a wax paper sheet, were issued in connection with the upcoming New York World's Fair [63] and were necessitated by that nation's humid climate, but "infuriated philatelists as the self-adhesive stamps were difficult to remove and save in mint condition".[64]
  • Born: Francesca Neri, Italian actress, in Trento.[65]
  • Died: Eugen Sänger, 58, Austrian aerospace engineer

February 11, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

February 12, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

  • President Johnson issued an Executive Order 11141 establishing a U.S. government policy against age discrimination in federal employment and against hiring contractors and subcontractors that practiced such discrimination.[74]
  • Two nights after performing on the Ed Sullivan Show, The Beatles performed at Carnegie Hall in front of a screaming crowd. An Associated Press reporter commented that "The Beatles... may actually have been playing and singing. The audience couldn't tell. All it heard most of the time was its own screaming." [75]
  • Police in Buffalo, New York, rescued a radio station worker who had inadvertently found himself the butt of jokes as "a prisoner... in a Chinese fortune cookie factory". Robert Grove had contracted with a bakery owned by Philip Leong to buy 150,000 cookies for a promotion, and was touring the factory when it closed early for the Chinese New Year celebration.[76]
  • Died:

February 13, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

February 14, 1964 (Friday)Edit

February 15, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • The United Kingdom and Cyprus requested urgent action by the United Nations Security Council to send UN peacekeeping troops to bring a halt to fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot minorities. The move came as warships from Turkey were preparing to invade the Mediterranean island republic.[81]
  • Voting began in the first elections for the new House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea were conducted under United Nations supervision, with more than 300 candidates "ranging from white planters and patrol officers to primitive natives" standing for the 54 legislative seats. The UN hired 10,000 guards in the Australian-administered territory to protect election officials from hostile tribes. Voting would continue until March 18 and the Assembly would open at Port Moresby on June 8.[82] On New Hanover Island, however, at a polling station in the villages of Ranmelek, the voters expressed their preference for President Lyndon Johnson of the United States; the "Johnson cult" would be seen days later at the villages of Meteran and Taskul, and at Nonovul in the Tigak Islands.[83]
  • Born: Chris Farley, American comedian and actor, in Madison, Wisconsin (died of drug overdose, 1997)
  • Died: William Snyder Webb, 82, American anthropologist, archaeologist and physicist.

February 16, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

February 17, 1964 (Monday)Edit

  • Gabon's president Leon M'ba was toppled by a military coup and his archrival, Jean-Hilaire Aubame, was installed in his place. M'ba, who had dissolved Parliament on January 21 and ordered new elections for February 23 with only his own party's candidates, announced his resignation after the 600-man Gabonese Army seized power, and was then placed under house arrest.[88][89][90]
  • In the case of Wesberry v. Sanders (376 US 1 1964), the Supreme Court of the United States ruled, 6-2, that congressional districts had to be approximately equal in population. The case arose from a challenge to the state of Georgia's failure to change its congressional districts since the 1930 U.S. census.[91]
  • U.S. Postmaster General John A. Gronouski ordered that all letter carriers be provided with pepper spray in order to cut down the incidence of dog bites. "While the dog-bite problem has often been treated more or less as a joke," he said, "it is no laughing matter for our carriers and their families." There had been 7,000 dog bites in 1963. The Post Office Department purchased 115,000 "spray bombs" containing 15% pepper extract, with orders that the spray was not to be shot into a dogs face.[92]
  • Gaibnasar Pallayev became Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Tajikistan.

February 18, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

  • France intervened in the coup in Gabon, 50 soldiers at the Libreville International Airport and then moving out to occupy strategic points.[93] The rebels responded by closing the airport but failed to establish obstacles. By 5:00 in the afternoon, less than 48 hours after the coup began, rebels in the Gabonese presidential palace surrendered to the French troops without incident.[94][89]
  • A powerful earthquake struck the central Azores in the North Atlantic Ocean, leading to orders for the evacuation of the 20,000 residents of Sao Jorge Island amid fears that the island could break apart and sink. All but three of the almost 2,000 houses in the village of Vila das Vejas were destroyed by a series of tremors.[95]
  • In a symbolic, but inconsequential punishment to stop nations from trading with the Communist government of Cuba, the United States halted foreign aid to the United Kingdom, France and Yugoslavia. American foreign aid to the UK was only slightly more than $5,000 at the time, while aid to France was $25,000 and Yugoslavia at $20,000.[96]
  • Born: Matt Dillon, American actor, in New Rochelle, New York
  • Died: Joseph-Armand Bombardier, 56 Canadian inventor best known for the snowmobile

February 19, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

February 20, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • Crown Prince Constantine was named as the regent to the Greek throne after his father, King Paul, signed a decree. King Paul was seriously ill with what was reported to be "stomach ulcers" that would require surgery.[99] In actuality, the King was terminally ill with stomach cancer, and would die two weeks later, on March 6.
  • Born: French Stewart (stage name for Milton French Stewart), American actor known for Third Rock From The Sun; in Albuquerque, New Mexico
  • Died: Verena Holmes, 74, English mechanical engineer and inventor, the first woman member elected to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (1924)

February 21, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • An attempt to assassinate Turkey's Prime Minister İsmet İnönü failed after the gunman missed three times despite being only 12 feet away from the premier. İnönü was sitting in his limousine in front of his office in Ankara when Mesut Suna fired at him with a revolver. Earlier in the day, Suna had visited the premier's office and asked for an appointment to discuss a private matter, and was told that İnönü was booked all day long. An hour later, when İnönü climbed into his car in order to go to the Meclis, Turkey's Parliament, Suma rushed out of the building entrance and began shooting before being overpowered by security guards.[100]
  • Died: Luis Martín-Santos, 39, Spanish psychiatrist and writer, was killed in a car accident.[101]

February 22, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • Claude Chayet began his duties as France's first diplomatic representative to the People's Republic of China. The chargé d'affaires, not officially an ambassador, crossed from Hong Kong at the Lo Wu Control Point and was greeted at the Huanggang Port.[102]
  • The General Assembly of the U.S. state of Georgia extended is term by 25 minutes after the scheduled February 21 midnight adjournment, in order to revise its ten U.S. congressional districts to comply with the Wesberry ruling earlier in the week. For the first time in its history, metropolitan Atlanta had two U.S. representatives. Approval came after rural legislators attempted filibusters and other stalling tactics, and passed the state House 113-69 and the state Senate, 35-7.[103]
  • Competitors in the 1964 World Speed Skating Championships in Helsinki got a surprise in the men's 500 meter event when ashes and soot caused at least five of the favorites "to tumble like tenpins". Olympic gold medalist Ants Antson was the first to fall down on the first turn of the track, and Nils Aaness, Fred Maier, Hermann Strutz, and Elio Locatelli fell at the same location, before race officials realized that sparks and debris from a nearby factory had blown on to the ice. Keiichi Suzuki of Japan was the event winner.[104]
  • Born:
    • Gigi Fernández, Puerto Rican/American professional tennis champion who won 14 Doubles titles in 14 Grand Slam tournaments between 1988 and 1997; in San Juan
    • William Tanui, Kenyan athlete and 1992 Olympic 800 meter gold medalist; in Terik
  • Died: Verrier Elwin, 61, English-born Indian anthropologist

February 23, 1964 (Sunday)Edit

February 24, 1964 (Monday)Edit

February 25, 1964 (Tuesday)Edit

February 26, 1964 (Wednesday)Edit

  • The Revenue Act of 1964 was signed into law as the largest tax cut in American history, reducing individual income taxes by an average of 20 percent over a two-year period with the goal of stimulating economic growth and investments, and reducing unemployment. The top tax rate (of 91% for any amount over $200,000) was reduced to 65%, and the lowest bracket (20% for all amounts up to $2,000) dropped to 14%, while the corporate tax rate dropped from 52% to 47%. Initially, the growth of gross domestic product would increase, investments would double to 13%, and unemployment would drop from 5.2% to 3.8% over two years; however, the federal budget deficit would increase dramatically as the amount of spending during the Vietnam War went up higher than the amount of federal revenue.[118] The signing came six hours after the U.S. Senate had approved the bill, 74-19, and a day after the House had approved it, 326-83 on Monday.[119]
  • Former American astronaut John Glenn slipped on a bathroom rug in his Columbus, Ohio, apartment and hit his head on the bathtub, injuring his left inner ear. The next day, he announced that he would postpone the start of his campaign for the Democratic Party nomination for U.S. Senator for Ohio.[120] A few days later, he would withdraw from the race completely.

February 27, 1964 (Thursday)Edit

  • The government of Sudan ordered all Christian foreign missionaries to leave the country. Nearly all of the Protestant and Catholic evangelists, who were concentrated in the more religiously diverse south, would leave within three weeks.[121][122]
  • Joseph Francis Bryan, Jr. committed the first of five kidnappings (four of them murders) of young boys over a two-month period. The first victim was 7-year old John Robinson, who disappeared while riding his bicycle in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. Bryan would be arrested on April 28, in the parking lot of a mall in New Orleans, with an 8-year-old boy who had been vanished from his home in Humboldt, Tennessee a few days earlier.[123]
  • After the United States Secret Service received a tip of a plot to assassinate President Johnson during his two-day visit to Florida, "security measures rarely if ever seen in peacetime" were implemented to prevent the threat that a Cuban pilot on a suicide mission would attempt to crash an airplane into the President's Boeing 707 jet, Air Force One. Rather than flying into Miami on his official aircraft, the President landed at West Palm Beach, Florida on one of three "executive transport jets" operated by the U.S. Air Force, with two identical planes making the journey so it would not be clear which one he was on. Upon landing, he boarded a helicopter that had been stripped of "all markings that might have identified the craft" as a presidential vehicle, and flew the 67 miles to Miami, landing without prior notice to the press.[124][125]
  • The government of the city of Pisa asked the Ministry of Public Works of Italy to intervene to keep the Leaning Tower of Pisa from toppling over. The proposal, recommended after a study by architect Enzo Vannucci, was to tilt the 184-foot-tall (56 m) tower back slightly from its lean of "almost 11 feet from true perpendicular" by raising it six feet, constructing a new concrete base for it to stand upon, and then lowering it, at a cost of more than one million dollars. "No one wants to straighten the tower," an AP report noted, since "Tourists wouldn't flock here to see a straight leaning tower." [126]
  • The fifth edition (and first since 1951) of The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English was released with an initial printing of 400,000 copies. Among the new words it had added were "beatnik", rat race" (spelled "rat-race"), the now forgotten "admass" (referring to a demographic of people "influenced by mass methods of publicity") and "ton-up boy" (a youth who has driven a motorcycle at more than 100 miles per hour).[127]
  • Violinist Efrem Zimbalist performed his last public concert, after 52 years of renowned appearances worldwide, then retired at the age of 73.[128]
  • Died:
    • Anna Julia Cooper, 106, African-American educator and historian. Born as a slave in North Carolina, she would obtain a Ph.D. in history from the Sorbonne in Paris in 1924
    • Orry-Kelly, 66, Australian-born costume designer and three time Academy Award winner

February 28, 1964 (Friday)Edit

  • President Johnson, who had succeeded to the American presidency three months earlier upon the death of John F. Kennedy, began his campaign to win the office in the 1964 election. Speaking to 3,000 Florida Democrats at a fundraising dinner in Miami Beach, Florida, Johnson emphasized his commitment to civil rights and remarked that "full participation in our society can no longer be reserved to men of one color", adding that his administration would push for equal rights "until we have eliminated the last barrier of intolerance." [129]
  • The Dow Jones Industrial Average passed the 800 mark for the first time, rising to 800.14 in the last hour of trading to close at 800.14 points.[130]
  • Born: Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, Uzbekistani cyclist, in Tashkent
  • Died:
    • Gus Lesnevich, 49, American boxer and former world light heavyweight champion from 1941 to 1948, died of a heart attack in his doctor's office.
    • Timmy Mayer, 26, American racing driver, was killed in a practice session at Longford, Tasmania, in Australia, when he lost control of his custom-built Cooper T70 at 120 mph, became airborne, and hit a tree next to the course. Mayer had been preparing for the eighth and final race in the inaugural Tasman Series.[131]

February 29, 1964 (Saturday)Edit

  • British Eagle International Airlines Flight 802, flying from London to Innsbruck, Austria, crashed into the 8,700-foot-high (2,700 m) Glungezer mountain in the Central Eastern Alps, killing all 75 passengers and eight crew. Most of the passengers on the Bristol Britannia propeller-driven plane were on their way to a weekend skiing trip.[132] An investigation would determine that the pilot had descended to 8,500 feet in an attempt to penetrate through heavy cloud cover as the approach was made to Innsbruck.[133]
  • U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announced that the United States had developed a jet airplane (the A-11), capable of sustained flight at more than 2,000 miles per hour (3,200 km/h) and of altitudes of more than 70,000 feet (21,000 m).[134] The revelation of the existence of the Lockheed A-12 (which had first flown in 1962) was made after Republican challenger Barry Goldwater had said in speeches that Democrats had neglected the defense of the United States.[135]
  • The March 29, 1962 agreement to create the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO), with Australia, Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and West Germany working together on a space program, came into effect.[136]
  • Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq became Prime Minister (later the Chief Minister) of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, and would remain in office until his death on December 12, 1971.[137]
  • Born: James Ogilvy, British magazine publisher and member of British royalty as the first son of Queen Elizabeth II's cousin, Princess Alexandra.


  1. ^ "Heavy Toll Feared in Fiery Train Crash", Chicago Tribune, February 2, 1964, p3
  2. ^ "Argentina's Train Crash Toll Hits 70", AP report in Ogden (UT) Standard-Examiner, February 3, 1964, p1
  3. ^ "Numerosas víctimas produjo un choque de trenes en Altamirano Accidentes Ferroviarios" - (Parte XI) (in Spanish) Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Edgar A. Haine, Railroad Wrecks (Cornwall Books, 1993) p144
  5. ^ "Baby Boeing Makes Good", Arizona Republic (Phoenix), February 2, 1964, p5
  6. ^ R.E.G. Davies, Airlines of the Jet Age: A History (Smithsonian Institution, 2016)
  7. ^ "Plan 7th Ranger Shot Despite Camera Flop", Chicago Tribune, February 3, 1964, p1
  8. ^ Jean-Claude Pecker, UTC Experimental Astronomy (Springer, 2012) p10
  9. ^ Ernest H. Cherrington, Exploring the Moon Through Binoculars and Small Telescopes (Courier Corporation, 2013)
  10. ^ Nigel Cawthorne, The Mammoth Book of Killers at Large (Little, Brown Book Group, 2011)
  11. ^ Alan Moss, Scotland Yard's History of Crime in 100 Objects (The History Press, 2015)
  12. ^ William M. LeoGrande, Peter Kornbluh, Back Channel to Cuba: The Hidden History of Negotiations between Washington and Havana (University of North Carolina Press, 2015) p91
  13. ^ "Falls a Mile with His Chute Disabled, Lives", Chicago Tribune, February 3, 1964, p1
  14. ^ "Jumper Falls 5,500 Feet And Survives", Courier-Journal (Louisville, KY), February 3, 1964, p1
  15. ^ "Fall Came Fast, Recovery Steady", Courier-Journal (Louisville, KY), July 9, 1964, p2-1
  16. ^ R. Drew Smith, From Every Mountainside: Black Churches and the Broad Terrain of Civil Rights (SUNY Press, 2013) p147
  17. ^ Jonna Perrillo, Uncivil Rights: Teachers, Unions, and Race in the Battle for School Equity (University of Chicago Press, 2012) p116
  18. ^ "Boycott Cripples City Schools; Absences 360,000 Above Normal; Negroes and Puerto Ricans Unite", New York Times, February 4, 1964, p1
  19. ^ Roger Boniface, MIGs Over North Vietnam: The Vietnam People's Air Force in Combat, 1965-75 (Stackpole Books, 2010) p xviii
  20. ^ "Marina Oswald Questioned By Warren Commission", AP report in Dixon (IL) Evening Telegraph, February 3, 1964, p1
  21. ^ "Kennedy Quiz Group Hears Oswald Widow", Chicago Tribune, February 4, 1964, p3-9
  22. ^ "Accused Bonn Security Chief Hangs Himself— Death Closes Probe of Genocide Charge", Chicago Tribune, February 3, 1964, p18
  23. ^ The Central Intelligence Agency: An Encyclopedia of Covert Ops, Intelligence Gathering, and Spies, Jan Goldman, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2015) pp543-544
  24. ^ Howard Handelman, Struggle in the Andes: Peasant Political Mobilization in Peru (University of Texas Press, 2014) p120
  25. ^ "Poll Tax Ban in Effect", Chicago Tribune, February 5, 1964, p4
  26. ^ The Constitution of the United States of America as Amended: Unratified Amendments, Analytical Index (Government Printing Office, 2007) p24
  27. ^ The Indian Express (Chennai), February 6, 1964, p1
  28. ^ "Channel Tunnel OK'd by Britain, France— Railway Link Cost Put at 448 Million", Chicago Tribune, February 7, 1964, p4
  29. ^ "GUANTANAMO WATER CUT!— Cuba Makes Demand U.S. Free 36 Men", Chicago Tribune, February 7, 1964, p1
  30. ^ The Presidential Recordings of Lyndon B. Johnson: Towards the Great Society, February 1, 1964 - May 31, 1964, David Shreve and Robert David Johnson, eds. (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p615
  31. ^ "Congo Army Chief Slain in Kwilu Trap", Chicago Tribune, February 7, 1964, p4
  32. ^ Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997) pp98-100
  33. ^ Erik Goldstein, Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816 to 1991 (Routledge, 2005) p116
  34. ^ "Youlou, Fubert", in An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996, by John E. Jessup (Greenwood, 1998) p819
  35. ^ "Beckwith Mistrial Declared", Lincoln (NE) Evening Journal, February 7, 1964, p1
  36. ^ "Jury in Evers Case Gives Up; It's Mistrial", Chicago Tribune, February 8, 1964, p5
  37. ^ "Teen-agers Go Wild As Beatles Arrive", San Mateo (CA) Times, February 7, 1964, p1
  38. ^ "3,000 Fans Greet British Beatles", New York Times, February 8, 1964, p25
  39. ^ "Beatles Wing In; Welcomed by 4,000 Teens", Chicago Tribune, February 8, 1964, p13
  40. ^ Fritz Gubler, Waldorf Hysteria: Hotel Manners, Misbehaviour & Minibars (Great, Grand & Famous Pty. Ltd., 2008) p39
  41. ^ "Golden Hawks Disbanded", Ottawa Journal, February 7, 1964, p2
  42. ^ "Network Choppers Hone Axes", Rochester (NY) Democrat and Chronicle, February 8, 1964, p6
  43. ^ "Women as Leaders to Achieve Equal Rights in the Workplace", by Carolyn B. Maloney, Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook (SAGE, 2010) p274
  44. ^ "Legislation: An Aid in Eliminating Sex Bias in Education in the United States", in Women Cross-Culturally: Change and Challenge (Mouton Publishers, 1975) p340
  45. ^ "Rights Bill Has 'Women Trouble'", Indianapolis Star, February 9, 1964, p1
  46. ^ "Khanh, Nguyen", in An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996, by John E. Jessup (Greenwood Publishing, 1998) p391
  47. ^ "South Vietnam", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p828
  48. ^ "Princess Irene to Wed Prince— Spurns Throne for Exile with Spaniard", Chicago Tribune, February 9, 1964, p1
  49. ^ "Beatles Visit Ed Sullivan Show", Indianapolis Star, February 9, 1964, TV Week section, p3
  50. ^ "Beatles Take 2nd Billing In Sullivan's Video Show— Britons Warble, But Girls Out-Yell Them", AP report in Arizona Daily Star (Tucson AZ), February 10, 1964, p3
  51. ^ "Beatles Wow Sullivan's Television Show Fans", Arizona Republic (Phoenix AZ), February 10, 1964, p3
  52. ^ "70 Million Watched Beatles Debut On Ed Sullivan's Show", by Cynthia Lowry, AP report in Santa Cruz (CA) Sentinel), February 25, 1964, p8
  53. ^ UPI report in The Independent-Journal (San Rafael CA), December 10, 1964, p53
  54. ^ Mitchell K. Hall, The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and the Rise of American Youth Culture (Routledge, 2014) p69
  55. ^ "Engan Takes Ski Jump as Olympics End", Chicago Tribune, February 10, 1964, p3-1
  56. ^ "Olympian Defects to W. Germany", Chicago Tribune, February 10, 1964, p1
  57. ^ "Brabham Wins After Retirement of Rival", by Trevor Davis, The Age (Melbourne), February 10, 1964, p18
  58. ^ "HOPE FADES FOR 85 MISSING MEN", The Age (Melbourne), February 12, 1964, p1
  59. ^ "Aussie Ships Ram; 1 Sinks; 85 Men Lost", Chicago Tribune, February 11, 1964, p1
  60. ^ Michael Ashcroft, George Cross Heroes: Incredible True Stories of Bravery Beyond the Battlefield (Headline Books, 2012)
  61. ^ "HOUSE PASSES RIGHTS BILL— Votes 290 to 130 for Strongest Measure Since Civil War Era", Chicago Tribune, February 11, 1964, p1
  62. ^ "Civil Rights Act of 1964", in Encyclopedia of Leadership (SAGE Publications, 2004) p191
  63. ^ Exploring the Fascinating World of Stamps Archived 2016-10-22 at the Wayback Machine (South African Post Office, 2016) p14
  64. ^ "Stanley Gibbons: 10 essential philatelic facts", by Scott Campbell, The Daily Telegraph (London), March 28, 2014
  65. ^ Francesca Neri Biography (1964-)
  66. ^ Advertisement, Salt Lake Tribune, February 10, 1964, pB5
  67. ^ "Jepko, Herb", by Joseph G. Buchman, in Encyclopedia of Radio (Routledge, 2004) pp1289-1290
  68. ^ "Banks Get Kennedy Half-Dollars", Pittsburgh Press, March 24, 1964, p1
  69. ^ Arlyn Sieber, The Instant Coin Collector: Everything You Need to Know to Get Started Now (Krause Publications, 2013) p81
  70. ^ "First Kennedy Coins Made", Philadelphia Inquirer, February 12, 1964, p1
  71. ^ Hamlet Bareh, Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Nagaland (Mittal Publications, 2001) p57
  72. ^ "Washington's Teenagers Turn Out Squealing As Zany Beatles Arrive", Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), February 12, 1964, p13
  73. ^ "New Battle Kills 50 in Cyprus Port", Chicago Tribune, February 14, 1964, p1
  74. ^ Lawrence A. Frolik, Aging and the Law: An Interdisciplinary Reader (Temple University Press, 1999) p56
  75. ^ "Beatles' Teen Fans Scream Through Concert", Chicago Tribune, February 13, 1964, p2
  76. ^ "Help! He's a China Fortune Cookie Captive", Chicago Tribune, February 13, 1964, p2
  77. ^ "Heyde, Werner", in Who's Who in Nazi Germany (Routledge, 2001) p107
  78. ^ "Mass Killer for Hitler Is Found Hanged", Chicago Tribune, February 14, 1964, p2
  79. ^ "Hubbs, Cub Star, Lost in Plane", Chicago Tribune, February 15, 1964, p1
  80. ^ "Local Government (East Midlands) HC Deb 09 March 1964 vol 691 cc170-211". Hansard. 1964-03-09. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
  81. ^ Michael J. Butler, International Conflict Management (Routledge, 2009) p67
  82. ^ "Natives Cast Votes Today in New Guinea", Chicago Tribune, February 15, 1964, p18
  83. ^ Dorothy K. Billings, Cargo Cult as Theater: Political Performance in the Pacific (Lexington Books, 2002) p86
  84. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook, p830 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  85. ^ Papandreou's Center Union Wins in Greece", Chicago Tribune, February 17, 1964, p5
  86. ^ István Toperczer, MiG-17 and MiG-19 Units of the Vietnam War (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012) p9
  87. ^ The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Competition, Asa Briggs, ed. (Oxford University Press, 1995) p420
  88. ^ "Army Takes Over in Gabon; No Shots Fired", Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1964, p14
  89. ^ a b "Gabon", in Heads of States and Governments: A Worldwide Encyclopedia of Over 2,300 Leaders, 1945 through 1992, by Harris M. Lentz (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994) p299
  90. ^ "The Three Pillars of Power in Gabon: Ethnicity, Family, and France", byJames F. Barnes, in Nation Building, State Building, and Economic Development: Case Studies and Comparisons (Routledge, 2015) p255
  91. ^ "Outlaw Unequal House Districts— Population Vital Basis, Court Holds", Chicago Tribune, February 18, 1964, p1
  92. ^ "Postmen Get New Weapon in Dog War: Pepper Spray", Chicago Tribune, February 18, 1964, p1
  93. ^ Grundy, Kenneth W. (October 1968), "On Machiavelli and the Mercenaries", The Journal of Modern African Studies, 6 (3): 295–310, doi:10.1017/S0022278X00017420, JSTOR 159300 (subscription required)
  94. ^ "French Troops Seize Gabon", Chicago Tribune, February 20, 1964, p12
  95. ^ "20,000 Flee Azores Quake", Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1964, p1
  96. ^ "U.S. Cuts Off Aid to 3 Nations for Sales to Cuba", Chicago Tribune, February 19, 1964, p1
  97. ^ Stephen Millward, Changing Times: Music and Politics In 1964 (Troubador Publishing, 2012) p109
  98. ^ "Lebanon", in The Middle East and North Africa 2004 (Europa Publications, 2003) p711
  99. ^ "Greek Crown Prince Is Named Regent", Chicago Tribune, February 21, 1964, p10
  100. ^ "3 Bullets Miss Premier Inonu", Chicago Tribune, February 22, 1964, p5
  101. ^ Spain is Culture: Luis Martín Santos
  102. ^ "First French Envoy Arrives in Red China", Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1964, p10
  103. ^ "Atlanta Is Given Two Seats in Congress", Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1964, p3-18
  104. ^ "Sparks Fly! Ice Officials See Light", Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1964, p2-5
  105. ^ Mark Dollery, Jensen V8: The Complete Story of the American-Powered Cars (Crowood, 2016)
  106. ^ "Petty Winner in 500-Miler in Dayton", Chicago Tribune, February 24, 1964, p3-2
  107. ^ Lorenz M. Lüthi, The Sino-Soviet Split: Cold War in the Communist World (Princeton University Press, 2008) p276
  108. ^ "The origins of EBV Research: Discovery and Characterization of the Virus", by M. Anthony Epstein, in Epstein-Barr Virus, Erle S. Robertson (Horizon Scientific Press, 2005) p6
  109. ^ "Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV): Infectious Mononucleosis and Other Nonmalignant EBV-Associated Diseases", in Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, Richard A. Kaslow, et al., eds. (Springer, 2014) p868
  110. ^ The Presidential Recordings: Lyndon B. Johnson, (Volume V: Towards the Great Society, February 1, 1964 - May 31, 1964) (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p754
  111. ^ "CLAY CHAMP! TKO's LISTON— Sonny Fails to Answer Bell in 7th", Chicago Tribune, February 26, 1964, p1
  112. ^ "Crash of Jet Liner Probed; 58 Killed", Chicago Tribune, February 26, 1964, p3
  113. ^ Edgar A. Haine, Disaster in the Air (Cornwall Books, 2000) pp155-156
  114. ^ Lasers for Ischemic Heart Disease: Update on Alternatives for the Treatment of Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease (Springer, 2001) p5
  115. ^ "The History of Myocardial Revascularization Before the Advent of Cardiopulmonary Bypass", in Dawn and Evolution of Cardiac Procedures: Research Avenues in Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology (Springer, 2012) p74
  116. ^ "Pearson Rule Barely Wins in House Vote", Chicago Tribune, February 26, 1964, p16
  117. ^ William J. Burns, Economic Aid and American Policy toward Egypt, 1955-1981 (SUNY Press, 1985) p154
  118. ^ Giuseppe La Barca, International Trade in the 1970s: The US, the EC and the Growing Pressure of Protectionism (Bloomsbury, 2013) pp6-7
  119. ^ Irving Bernstein, Guns or Butter : The Presidency of Lyndon Johnson: The Presidency of Lyndon Johnson (Oxford University Press, 1996) p37
  120. ^ "Glenn's Injury Delays Opening of His Campaign", Chicago Tribune, February 27, 1964, p9
  121. ^ "The Transformation of Anglican Missionary Heritage in Sudan", by Andrew C. Wheeler, in The Oxford Handbook of Anglican Studies (Oxford University Press, 2015) p249
  122. ^ "Sudan", in Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set, Kevin Shillington, ed. (Routledge, 2013) p1498
  123. ^ "Bryan, Joseph Francis, Jr.", in The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings, by Michael Newton (Infobase Publishing, 2002) pp42-43
  124. ^ "Attack 'Feared' On Johnson Plane— Cuban Kamikaze Try Had Been Reported", Pittsburgh Press, February 29, 1964, p1
  125. ^ "REPORT PLOT ON JOHNSON— Hear Cuba Flyer Planned to Ram President's Jet", Chicago Tribune, February 29, 1964, p1
  126. ^ "Leaning Tower of Pisa Needs $1 Million Tilt", Los Angeles Times, February 28, 1964, p2
  127. ^ "Oxford Dictionary Digs Latest Jive", Chicago Tribune, February 28, 1964, p6
  128. ^ Roy Malan, Efrem Zimbalist: A Life (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2004) p283
  129. ^ "LBJ Opens Election Campaign with Plea for Civil Rights", Tucson (AZ) Daily Citizen, February 28, 1964, p1
  130. ^ "Dow Jones Average Tops 800", Arizona Republic (Phoenix), February 29, 1964, p1
  131. ^ "Driver Killed In 120 m.p.h. Track Crash", Sydney Morning Herald, February 29, 1964, p1
  132. ^ "HUNT PLANE LOST WITH 83— British Craft Down on Hop to Innsbruck", Chicago Tribune, March 1, 1964, p1
  133. ^ David Gero, Aviation Disasters: The World's Major Civil Airliner Crashes Since 1950 (The History Press, 2009)
  134. ^ "U.S. Bares Super-Plane", Chicago Tribune, March 1, 1964, p1
  135. ^ Paul F. Crickmore, SR-71 Blackbird (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016) p84
  136. ^ Brian Harvey, Europe's Space Programme: To Ariane and Beyond (Springer, 2003) p41
  137. ^ World Statesmen: Kashmir