Daisaku Ikeda

Daisaku Ikeda (池田 大作, Ikeda Daisaku, born 2 January 1928) is a Japanese Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate.[2][3][4] He has served as the third president and then honorary president of the Soka Gakkai, the largest of Japan's new religious movements.[5] Ikeda is the founding president of the Soka Gakkai International (SGI), the world's largest Buddhist lay organization, which declares approximately 12 million practitioners in 192 countries and territories,[6] of whom more than 1.5 million reside outside of Japan as of 2012.[7]:269

Daisaku Ikeda
Daisaku Ikeda(May 2010)
President of Soka Gakkai International (SGI)
Assumed office
26 January 1975
Honorary President of Soka Gakkai
Assumed office
24 April 1979
Succeeded byPresident of Soka Gakkai
Hiroshi Hōjō (北条浩)
Einosuke Akiya
Minoru Harada
3rd President of Soka Gakkai
In office
3 May 1960 – 24 April 1979
Preceded byJōsei Toda
Acting President
Takashi Koizumi(小泉隆)
Succeeded byHiroshi Hōjō (北条浩)
Personal details
Born (1928-01-02) 2 January 1928 (age 92)
Ōta, Tokyo, Japanese Empire
Spouse(s)Kaneko Ikeda (池田香峯子)
  • Ichi Ikeda (mother)
  • Nenokichi Ikeda (father)
ResidenceJapan, Tokyo, Shinjuku-Ku, Shinanomachi (信濃町)
Alma materFuji Junior College (present-day Tokyo Fuji University)[1]

Ikeda was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1928, to a family of seaweed farmers. He survived the devastation of World War II as a teenager, which he said left an indelible mark on his life and fueled his quest to solve the fundamental causes of human conflict. At age 19, Ikeda began practicing Nichiren Buddhism and joined a youth group of the Soka Gakkai Buddhist association, which led to his lifelong work developing the global peace movement of SGI and founding dozens of institutions dedicated to fostering peace, culture and education.[8]:12[9] His accomplishments are honored internationally through several accolades. However, he aroused controversies for some decades in Japan, particularly concerning his political involvment.[10][11][12]

In the 1960s, Ikeda worked to reopen Japan's national relations with China and also to establish the Soka education network of humanistic schools from kindergartens through university level, while beginning to write what would become his multi-volume historical novel, The Human Revolution, about the Soka Gakkai's development during his mentor Josei Toda's tenure. In 1975, he established the Soka Gakkai International, and throughout the 1970s initiated a series of citizen diplomacy efforts through international educational and cultural exchanges for peace. Since the 1980s, he has increasingly called for nuclear disarmament.[8]:23–25, 167 Ikeda's vision for the SGI has been described by Olivier Urbain, then director of the Toda Peace Institute founded by Ikeda, as a "borderless Buddhist humanism that emphasizes free thinking and personal development based on respect for all life."[8]:26

By 2015, Ikeda had published more than 50 dialogues with scholars, peace activists and leading world figures. In his role as SGI president, Ikeda has visited 55 nations and spoken on subjects including peace, environment, economics, women's rights, interfaith dialogue and Buddhism and science. Every year on the anniversary of the SGI's founding, 26 January, Ikeda submits a peace proposal to the United Nations.[8]:12–13, 26[13]

Early life and backgroundEdit

Ikeda was born in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan, on 2 January 1928. Ikeda had four older brothers, two younger brothers, and a younger sister. His parents later adopted two more children, for a total of 10 children. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Ikeda family had successfully farmed nori, edible seaweed, in Tokyo Bay. By the turn of the twentieth century, the Ikeda family business was the largest producer of nori in Tokyo. However, after the devastation of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, the family's enterprise was left in ruins, and by the time Ikeda was born, his family was financially struggling.[8]:13

In 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted, and Ikeda's eldest brother, Kiichi, was drafted into military service. Within a few years, Ikeda's three other elder brothers were drafted as well.[14] In 1942, while all of his older brothers were overseas in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, Ikeda's father, Nenokichi, fell ill and was bedridden for two years. To help to support his family, at the age of 14, Ikeda began working in the Niigata Steelworks munitions factory as part of Japan's wartime youth labor corps.[15]:71

In May 1945, Ikeda's home was destroyed by fire during an Allied air raid, and his family was forced to move to the Ōmori area of Tokyo. In May 1947, after having received no word from his eldest brother, Kiichi, for several years, the Ikeda family, particularly his mother, was informed by the Japanese government that he had been killed in action in Burma (now Myanmar).[16][9]

In August 1947, at the age of 19, Ikeda was invited by an old friend to attend a Buddhist discussion meeting. It was there that he met Josei Toda, the second president of Japan's Soka Gakkai Buddhist organization. As a result of this encounter, Ikeda began practicing Nichiren Buddhism and joined the Soka Gakkai. He regarded Toda as his spiritual mentor and became a charter member of the group's youth division, later stating that Toda influenced him through "the profound compassion that characterized each of his interactions."[17]


Daisaku Ikeda at age 19

Shortly after the end of World War II, in January 1946, Ikeda gained employment with the Shobundo Printing Company in Tokyo. In March 1948, Ikeda graduated from Toyo Trade School and the following month entered the night school extension of Taisei Gakuin (present-day Tokyo Fuji University) where he majored in political science.[9] During this time, he worked as an editor of the children's magazine Shonen Nihon (Boy's Life Japan), which was published by one of Josei Toda's companies.[18][9] Over the next several years, between 1948 and 1953, Ikeda worked for various Toda-owned enterprises, including the Nihon Shogakkan publishing company, the Tokyo Construction Trust credit association, and the Okura Shoji trading company.[18][9]

Youth leadershipEdit

In 1953, at the age of 25, Ikeda was appointed as one of the Soka Gakkai's youth leaders. The following year, he was appointed as director of the Soka Gakkai's public relations bureau, and later became its chief of staff.[19]:85[18]:77

In April 1957, a group of young Soka Gakkai members in Osaka were arrested for allegedly distributing money, cigarettes and candies to support the political campaign of a local electoral candidate (who was also a Soka Gakkai member). Ikeda was later arrested and detained in jail for two weeks, charged with allegedly overseeing these activities. Ikeda's arrest came at a time when Soka Gakkai Buddhist candidates were achieving success at both national and local levels. With the growing influence of this liberal grassroots movement, factions of the conservative political establishment initiated a series of media attacks on the Soka Gakkai, culminating in Ikeda's arrest. After a lengthy court case that lasted until 1962, Ikeda was cleared of all charges.[20] The Soka Gakkai characterized this as a triumph over corrupt tyranny, which galvanized its movement.[3]

Soka Gakkai presidencyEdit

In May 1960, two years after Toda's death, Ikeda, then 32 years old, succeeded him as president of the Soka Gakkai. Soon after, Ikeda began to travel overseas to build connections between Soka Gakkai members living abroad and expand the movement globally.[21] This growth and development was, in Ikeda's words, "Toda's will for the future."[22] With his assumption of the Soka Gakkai presidency, Ikeda "continued the task begun by [Soka Gakkai founder] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi of fusing the ideas and principles of educational pragmatism with the elements of Buddhist doctrine."[2]

While the Soka Gakkai saw its most dramatic growth after World War II under Toda's leadership, Ikeda led the international growth of the Soka Gakkai and turned it into what is considered the largest, most diverse international lay Buddhist association in the world.[6][23] He reformed many of the organization's practices, including the aggressive conversion style (known as shakubuku) for which the group had become known in Japan, and improved the organization's public image, though it was sometimes still viewed with suspicion in Japan.[24][25][26][27][28]

By the 1970s, Ikeda's leadership had expanded the Soka Gakkai into an international lay Buddhist movement increasingly active in peace, cultural, and educational activities.[29]:371–72, 376In 1979, Ikeda resigned as president of the Soka Gakkai (in Japan), accepting responsibility for the organization's purported deviation from Nichiren Shōshū priesthood doctrine and the accompanying conflict.[30]:56 Hiroshi Hōjō succeeded Ikeda as Soka Gakkai president, and Ikeda was made honorary president of the Soka Gakkai in Japan.[30]:55 Ikeda continues to be revered as the Soka Gakkai's spiritual leader.[31]

Soka Gakkai International foundingEdit

On 26 January 1975, a world peace conference was held in Guam, where Soka Gakkai representatives from 51 countries created an umbrella organization for the growing network of members around the world. This became the Soka Gakkai International (SGI). Ikeda took a leading role in the global organization's development and became the founding president of the SGI. In his address to the assembly, Ikeda encouraged the representatives to dedicate themselves to altruistic action, stating "Please devote yourselves to planting seeds of peace throughout the world."[18]:128

The SGI was created in part as a new international peace movement, and its founding meeting was held in Guam in a symbolic gesture referencing Guam's history as the site of some of World War II's bloodiest battles, and proximity to Tinian Island, launching place of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.[32]

Philosophy and beliefsEdit

Ikeda's relationship with his mentor Jōsei Toda, and influence of Tsunesaburō Makiguchi's educational philosophy, shaped his emphasis on dialogue an education as fundamental to building trust between people and peace in society.[33][34] This world view is informed by his belief that Buddhism essentially offers a spiritual dimension "where faith and human dignity intersect to promote positive change in society."[35]:296 He interprets the Middle Way as a path between idealism and materialism, an orientation that places "public interest, practical policy, morality and ethics at the forefront so that people can find prosperity and happiness...."[36]:6 Thus his emphasis on linking individual agency and empowerment with society's attainment of peace and happiness, most notably made in his multi-volume The New Human Revolution, revolves around and gives expression to the Buddhist view of life's inherent dignity.

As a nichiren buddhist, he recites the title (daimoku) of the Lotus Sutra. In a 2008 interview, he said : "The ideal of Mahayana Buddhism is the realization of happiness for oneself and for others. Nowhere is this more completely set out than in the Lotus Sutra, which recognizes the Buddha-nature in all people—women and men, those with formal education and those without. It declares that all people, without regard to their class, origin, personal, cultural, or social background, can attain enlightenment. Our recitation of the title of the Lotus Sutra is a way of renewing our vow to live in accord with this ideal."[6]

Ikeda refers in several writings to the Nine Consciousness as an important conception for self-transformation, identifiying the ninth one, "amala-vijñāna", with the Buddha-nature. According to him, the "tranformation of the karma of one individual" can lead to the transformation of the entire society and humankind.[37]

In 2018, the book Philosophy and Human Revolution: Essays in Celebration of Daisaku Ikeda’s 90th Birthday was published by Cambridge Scholars Publishing and presents several "philosophical papers" dedicated to the work of Daisaku Ikeda.[38]

Political involvment and controversiesEdit

Ikeda's political involvment through the party Kōmeitō (also known as CGP) that he founded in the 1960s[39] have raised controversies for several decades.[11][40][41] Some critics blame his "far-reaching political ambitions"[12] and there were some charges claiming that Ikeda controlled the Komeito.[42]

In 1969 and 1970, there was a freedom of speech controversy about the intent to prevent the publication of Hirotatsu Fujiwara's polemical book I denounce Soka Gakkai that vehemently criticized Ikeda, Soka Gakkai and the Komeito.[43][44][15]:96 In his May 3, 1970 speech, addressing, among others, Soka Gakkai members, guests and news media, Ikeda responded to the controversy by: apologizing to the nation "for the trouble...the incident caused," affirming the Soka Gakkai's commitment to free speech and religious freedom, announcing a new policy of formal separation between the Soka Gakkai religious movement and Komeito, calling for both moderation in religious conversion practices and democratizing reforms in the Soka Gakkai, and envisioning a Buddhist-inspired humanism.[15]:97–98[45]:76–77 Despite the formal separation, however, some authors consider that there is still a "strong link"[46] and that the Komeito has remained the "political arm" of Soka Gakkai.[47][48] Others characterize the Komeito as "nominally independent", and attribute perpetuation of negative image of the organizations and of Ikeda, firstly, to weekly magazines and tabloid which "tend to ignore standards of substance and veracity", with reporting that is "often biased" ; secondly, to the publications of "disgruntled former administrators and leaders of the religion or party" which "may be motivated by bitter opposition to Komeito and Soka Gakkai, yet they nonetheless provide invaluable insights into the inner working of the organizations".[49]:3–7

In October 1982, Ikeda had to appear in court concerning three cases.[50] In 1989 two senior Komeito officals denounced Ikeda's "dictatorial control" over the party.[51]:58

Daniel Alfred Métraux, professor of Asian Studies, wrote in 1994 that Ikeda is "possibly one of the more controversial figures in Japan's modern history".[10] In 1996, a Los Angeles Times article dealt with controversial aspects of ikeda: "Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the nation’s largest religious organization, has been condemned and praised as a devil and an angel, a Hitler and a Gandhi, a despot and a democrat".[52]

According to the historian Lawrence Carter in 2003 : "Controversy is an inevitable partner of greatness. No one who challenges the established order is free of it. Gandhi had his detractors, as did Dr. King. Dr. Ikeda is no exception."[53]


Ikeda and the Soka Gakkai members had been excommunicated by the sixty-seventh High Priest Nikken Shonin of the Nichiren Shōshū on 28 November 1991.[54][55][56] In a scholarly historical comparison to the Protestant Reformation, a key conflict between "priestly and pragmatic forms of religion" has been to "adapt or fail" in response to "great change" in society, and in this area Ikeda is credited with democratic and other structurally modernizing reforms that both appealed favorably within the SGI membership organizations and expanded its institutional programs in the areas of peace, culture and education.[57]:82, 84, 85, 89, 93[18]:130, 131

Thus Ikeda's leadership "globalized the Soka Gakkai and harnessed its energy to goals that suited new generations in different cultures"[58] and subsequently developed the SGI into a broad-based grassroots peace movement around the world. Ikeda is credited with having fostered among SGI members an ethos of social responsibility and a strong spirit of global citizenship.[59]'

Ikeda's thoughts and work on a "Buddhist-based humanism"[60] are situated within a broader tradition of East-West dialogue in search of humanistic ideals.[61] In his biography of historian Arnold J. Toynbee, William McNeill describes the aim of the Toynbee-Ikeda dialogues as a "convergence of East and West," positing the pragmatic significance of which would be realized by the "flourishing in the Western world" of the Soka Gakkai organization.[62]

Bilingual-bicultural education specialist Jason Goulah's research into transformative world language learning characterizes Ikeda's Buddhist-inspired refinement of Makiguchi's Soka education philosophy as an approach engendering a "world view of dialogic resistance" that responds to the limitations of a neoliberal world view of education.[63] More than 40 research institutes and initiatives affiliated with universities, including Shanghai Sanda University and DePaul University, formally study Ikeda's philosophy.[8]:12[64]


Central to Ikeda's activities, whether they be on an institutional level or as a private citizen, is his belief in "Buddhist principles ... rooted in our shared humanity, ... where faith and human dignity intersect to promote positive change in society."[65]:296 His view of a "Buddhist humanism," the fostering of mutual respect and dignity, emphasizes human agency to engage in dialogue.

Institutional engagementEdit

Ikeda greets international students at Soka University, March 1990

Ikeda has founded a number of institutions to promote education in all its forms, cultural exchange and the exchange of ideas on peacebuilding through dialogue. They include: Soka University in Tokyo, Japan, and Soka University of America in Aliso Viejo, California; Soka kindergarten, primary and secondary schools in Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Brazil and Singapore; the Victor Hugo House of Literature, in the Île-de-France region of France; the International Committee of Artists for Peace in the United States; the Min-On Concert Association in Japan; the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum in Japan; the Institute of Oriental Philosophy in Japan with offices in France, Hong Hong, India, Russia and the United Kingdom; the Toda Peace Institute in Japan and the United States; and the Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue in the United States.[66]

From 1990, Ikeda partnered with Rabbi Abraham Cooper and the Simon Wiesenthal Center to address anti-Semitic stereotypes in Japan. In a 2001 interview, Rabbi Cooper recalled: "The only partners we found to help us bring our concerns to the Japanese public were people from Soka University under the leadership of Daisaku Ikeda. If you ask me who our best friend in Japan is, who 'gets it,' it is Ikeda. He was actually our first visitor to the Museum of Tolerance." Their friendship led to the joint development of a Japanese-language Holocaust exhibition The Courage to Remember, which was seen by more than two million people in Japan between 1994 and 2007. In 2015, a new version of the exhibit opened in Tokyo focusing on the bravery of Anne Frank and Chiune Sugihara.[18]:178–181[67]

Ikeda was an original proponent of the Earth Charter Initiative, co-founded by Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ikeda has included details of the Charter in many of his annual peace proposals since 1997. The SGI has supported the Earth Charter with production of global exhibitions including Seeds of Change in 2002 that traveled to 27 nations and Seeds of Hope in 2010, correlating with the Earth Charter-related documentary film, A Quiet Revolution, which the SGI has donated to schools and educational programs around the world.[68][69]

Peace proposalsEdit

Since 26 January 1983, Ikeda has submitted annual peace proposals to the United Nations, addressing such areas as building a culture of peace, gender equality in education, empowerment of women, UN reform and universal human rights with a view on global civilization.[70]

Ikeda's proposals for nuclear disarmament and abolishing nuclear weapons submitted to the special session of the UN General Assembly in 1978, 1982 and 1988 built on his mentor Josei Toda's 1957 declaration condemning such weapons of mass destruction as "an absolute evil that threatens the people's right of existence."[71] Calling for human security and sustainability in his 2012 peace proposal, he advocated for a transition away from nuclear-powered energy.[72]In his 2015 peace proposal, he called on the international community for concerted multilateral action—"shared action"—for protecting human rights of displaced persons including refugees and migrants, ridding the world of nuclear weapons and constructing a global sustainable society.[73] In his 2019 peace proposal, he advocated for multilateral support toward the entry into force of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, renewed efforts based on Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty to de-escalate tensions, and an international framework to ban lethal autonomous weapons (LAWs).[74]

Citizen diplomacyEdit

Ikeda's work has been described by academics as citizen diplomacy for his contributions to diplomatic as well as intercultural ties between Japan and other countries, and more broadly between peoples of the world.[51]:126[75][76] Ikeda's dialogues with scholars, politicians, and cultural figures have increased awareness and support of humanitarian and peace activities, have facilitated deeper international relationships, and generated support for SGI-sponsored work on global issues including the environment and nuclear disarmament.[77][78]

Countries visited by SGI President Ikeda (in blue) outside of Japan (in red)

Academic researchers have suggested the body of literature chronicling Ikeda's diplomatic efforts and his more than 7,000 international dialogues[79] provide readers with a personalized global education and model of citizen diplomacy and, from a scholarly view, represent "a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy."[80][81][82][83]

First in 1967 then several times in 1970, Ikeda met with Austrian-Japanese politician and philosopher Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder of the Paneuropean Movement. Their discussions which focused on East-West relations and the future of peace work were serialized in the 'Sankei Shimbun' newspaper in 1971.[84][85] Between 1971 and 1974, Ikeda conducted multiple dialogues with Arnold J. Toynbee in London and Tokyo. The major topics of their meetings were published as the book Choose Life.[86] In 1974, Ikeda conducted a dialogue with French novelist and Minister of Cultural Affairs Andre Malraux.[87]

In September 1974, Ikeda visited the Soviet Union and met with Premier Alexei Kosygin. During their dialogue, Kosygin agreed with Ikeda, saying "We must abandon the very idea of war. It is meaningless. If we stop preparing for war and prepare instead for peace, we can produce food instead of armaments." He then asked Ikeda, "What is your basic ideology?" Ikeda replied, "I believe in peace, culture and education – the underlying basis of which is humanism." Kosygin said, "I have a high regard for those values. We need to realize them here in the Soviet Union as well."[88][89]:415[90]

The Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue located in Cambridge, USA

In January 1975, Ikeda met with Henry Kissinger, the United States Secretary of State, to "urge the de-escalation of nuclear tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union."[4] The same month Ikeda met with Secretary-General of the United Nations Kurt Waldheim. Ikeda presented Waldheim with a petition containing the signatures of 10,000,000 people calling for total nuclear abolition. The petition was organized by youth groups of the Soka Gakkai International and was inspired by Ikeda's longtime anti-nuclear efforts.[91]

Ikeda's meetings with Nelson Mandela in the 1990s led to a series of SGI-sponsored anti-apartheid lectures, a traveling exhibit, and multiple student exchange programs at the university level.[92]

Dialogues between Ikeda and Gorbachev, published in 2005 as Moral Lessons of the Twentieth Century, have been described as "[p]erhaps the best starting point from which to examine the search for a new historicity" of the twentieth century and inform the basis of a new humanism in the twenty-first century.[93]:212

Sino-Japanese relationsEdit

Ikeda made several visits to China and met with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1974, though Sino-Japanese tensions remained over the brutalities of war waged by the Japanese militarists.[94] The visits led to the establishment of cultural exchanges of art, dance and music between China and Japan and opened academic exchanges between Chinese educational institutions and Soka University.[92] Chinese media describe Ikeda as an early proponent of normalizing diplomatic relations between China and Japan in the 1970s, citing his 1968 proposal that drew condemnation by some and the interest of others including Zhou Enlai.[95][96] It was said that Zhou Enlai entrusted Ikeda with ensuring that "Sino-Japanese friendship would continue for generations to come."[97]

Since 1975, cultural exchanges have continued between the Min-On Concert Association, founded by Ikeda, and institutions including the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.[98][99] After Ikeda's 1984 visit to China and meetings with public figures including Chinese Communist Party Leader Hu Yaobang and Deng Yingchao, observers estimated that Ikeda's 1968 proposal moved Japanese public sentiment to support closer diplomatic ties with China and his cultivation of educational and cultural ties helped strengthen state relations.[100]


International awardsEdit

During a Turin Book Fair-hosted event concluding the 2018 five-day FIRMA-Faiths in Tune festival of religion, music and art, held in 2018 for the first time in Italy, an international jury presented a FIRMA award to Daisaku Ikeda "for his lifelong commitment to interreligious dialogue."[101][102] Other international awards received by Ikeda include:

International honorsEdit

In 1999, the Martin Luther King Jr. Chapel at Atlanta, Georgia-based Morehouse College established the Gandhi, King, Ikeda Institute for Ethics and Reconciliation as one of its programs to foster peace, nonviolence and reconciliation. In 2001, the Institute inaugurated the traveling exhibition Gandhi, King, Ikeda: A Legacy of Building Peace, to illustrate parallels in twentieth-century peace activism through the examples of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr, and Daisaku Ikeda; and the Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders Prize, to recognize individuals whose actions for peace transcend cultural, national and philosophical boundaries. In 2015, the Community Builders Prize went to Islamic scholar Fethullah Gülen.[120][121][122]

Reflecting pool at the Daisaku Ikeda Ecological Park visitor center in Londrina, Brazil

In 2000, the city of Londrina, Brazil honored Ikeda by naming a 300-acre nature reserve in his name. The Dr. Daisaku Ikeda Ecological Park is open to the public and its land, waterways, fauna and wildlife are protected by Brazil's Federal Conservation Law.[123]

In 2014, the City of Chicago named a section of Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago "Daisaku Ikeda Way," with the Chicago City Council measure passing unanimously, 49 to 0.[124]

The United States House of Representatives and individual states including Georgia, Missouri, and Illinois have passed resolutions honoring the service and dedication of Daisaku Ikeda as one "who has dedicated his entire life to building peace and promoting human rights through education and cultural exchange with deep conviction in the shared humanity of our entire global family." The state of Missouri praised Ikeda and his value of "education and culture as the prerequisites for the creation of true peace in which the dignity and fundamental rights of all people are respected."[125][126][127][128][129]

The Club of Rome named Ikeda an honorary member,[130] and Ikeda has received more than 760 honorary citizenships from cities and municipalities around the world.[8]:12[additional citation(s) needed]

At the International Day for Poets of Peace in February 2016, an initiative launched by the Mohammed bin Rashid World Peace Award, Daisaku Ikeda from Japan along with Kholoud Al Mulla from the UAE, K. Satchidanandan from India and Farouq Gouda from Egypt were named International Poets of Peace.[131] In presenting the honors, Shaikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan described the initiative as reinforcing "the idea that poetry, and literature in general, are a universal language that plays an important role in spreading the message of peace in the world," echoing the sentiments of Dr Hamad Al Shaikh Al Shaibani, chair of the World Peace Award's board of trustees, who cited the role of poets in "promoting a culture of hope and solidarity."[132]

Academic honorsEdit

In November 2010, citing his peacebuilding efforts and promotion of cultural exchange and humanist education, the University of Massachusetts Boston bestowed an honorary doctorate upon Ikeda, marking the 300th such title conferred by higher learning institutions in more than 50 countries, which Ikeda accepted, he said, on behalf of SGI members and in recognition of their contributions to peace, culture and education.[133] He received his first honorary doctorate in 1975 from Moscow State University.[134]

Personal lifeEdit

Ikeda lives in Tokyo with his wife, Kaneko Ikeda (née Kaneko Shiraki), whom he married on 3 May 1952. The couple had three sons, Hiromasa (vice president of Soka Gakkai),[227] Shirohisa (died 1984),[228] and Takahiro.[229]


Ikeda is a prolific writer, peace activist, and interpreter of Nichiren Buddhism.[230]:67 His interests in photography, art, philosophy, poetry and music are reflected in his published works. In his essay collections and dialogues with political, cultural, and educational figures he discusses, among other topics: the transformative value of religion, the universal sanctity of life,[231] social responsibility, and sustainable progress and development.

The 1976 publication of Choose Life: A Dialogue (in Japanese, Nijusseiki e no taiga) is the published record of dialogues and correspondences that began in 1971 between Ikeda and British historian Arnold J. Toynbee about the "convergence of East and West"[232] on contemporary as well as perennial topics ranging from the human condition to the role of religion and the future of human civilization. Toynbee's 12-volume A Study of History had been translated into Japanese, which along with his lecture tours and periodical articles about social, moral and religious issues gained him popularity in Japan. To an expat's letter critical of Toynbee's association with Ikeda and Soka Gakkai, Toynbee wrote back: "I agree with Soka Gakkai on religion as the most important thing in human life, and on opposition to militarism and war."[233] To another letter critical of Ikeda, Toynbee responded: "Mr. Ikeda's personality is strong and dynamic and such characters are often controversial. My own feeling for Mr. Ikeda is one of great respect and sympathy."[234] As of 2012, the book had been translated and published in twenty-six languages.[235]

Ikeda's children's stories are "widely read and acclaimed," according to The Hindu, which reported that an anime series of 14 of the stories was to be shown on the National Geographic Channel.[236][237] In the Philippines, DVD sets of 17 of the animated stories were donated by Anak TV to a large school, as part of a nationwide literacy effort.[238] "Hope and perseverance in times of difficulty" describes the theme that runs through such stories as The Cherry Tree and The Snow Country Prince.[239]

In 2003, Japan's largest English-language newspaper, The Japan Times, began carrying Ikeda's contributed commentaries on global issues including peacebuilding, nuclear disarmament, and compassion.[240] By 2015, The Japan Times had published 26 of them, 15 of which the newspaper also published in a bilingual Japanese-English book titled Embracing the Future.[241]

The Human RevolutionEdit

Ikeda's most well-known publication is the novel The Human Revolution (Ningen Kakumei), which was serialized in the Soka Gakkai's daily newspaper, the Seikyo Shimbun. Its book publication in English includes a foreword by British philosopher and historian Arnold J. Toynbee and has been translated into English, Chinese, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Korean and Dutch editions.[242] In the preface to The Human Revolution, the author describes the book as a "novelized biography of my mentor, Josei Toda."[243]:vii The author's official website describes the book as an "historical novel [that] portrays the development of the Soka Gakkai in Japan, from its rebirth in the post-World War II era to the last years of its second president, Josei Toda."[244] In the preface to the 2004 edition, the author stated the narrative was edited to bring it in line with recent developments in the history of Nichiren Buddhism, and that he hoped "such revisions will help readers to better appreciate the original message of the book."[243]:x

Often described as a roman à clef, this autobiographical work "fosters an interpretation of Ikeda as being an exemplary disciple to his own mentor, Toda Josei," and offers "a model of the mentor-disciple relationship that is empowering" and portrays "the virtues of discipleship." This dramatic narrative helps readers "identify with him as someone not very different from themselves," presents "the mentor-disciple relationship as an attractive one that can enormously benefit the disciple," and "holds the promise for Gakkai members that they too can achieve greatness in the mentor-disciple relationship, which in turn helps them see the self-conception of disciple as one of strength." Chilson concludes that: "With the self-conception of a disciple, Gakkai members are more likely to strive to achieve goals articulated by their mentor, Ikeda, that transcend their own self interests, such as the expansion of the Gakkai’s membership, and the promotion of culture, education, and world peace."[230]:66, 68, 70, 76

Selected works by IkedaEdit

  • A Dialogue Between East and West: Looking to a Human Revolution (Echoes and Reflections: The Selected Works of Daisaku Ikeda) with Ricardo Diez-Hochleitner, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-600-2 (Hardback), ISBN 978-1-84511-600-2 (Paperback)
  • A Lifelong Quest for Peace with Linus Pauling (May 2000), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1st edition, ISBN 978-0-86720-278-6 (Hardback), ISBN 0-86720-277-7 (Paperback); London and New York: I. B. Tauris, Reprint edition 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-889-1
  • A Passage to Peace: Global Solutions from East and West with Nur Yalman, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84511-922-5 (Hardback), ISBN 978-1-84511-923-2 (Paperback)
  • A Quest for Global Peace: Rotblat and Ikeda on War, Ethics, and the Nuclear Threat with Joseph Rotblat, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2006; ISBN 978-1-84511-279-0
  • A Youthful Diary: One Man's Journey from the Beginning of Faith to Worldwide Leadership for Peace, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2006; ISBN 978-1-932911-19-0
  • America Will Be!: Conversations on Hope, Freedom, and Democracy, with Vincent Harding, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogue Path Press, 2013; ISBN 978-1-887917-10-0
  • Before It Is Too Late with Aurelio Peccei, (1985), Kodansha America, 1st edition, ISBN 978-0-87011-700-8; London and New York: I. B. Tauris Reprint edition, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-888-4
  • Buddhism: A Way of Values with Lokesh Chandra, New Delhi: Eternal Ganges Press, 2009; ISBN 978-81-907191-2-4
  • Buddhism: the First Millennium, (1977), Kodansha International, ISBN 978-0-87011-321-5 (Hardback); Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, Reprint edition, 2009; ISBN 978-0-9779245-3-0
  • Choose Hope: Your Role in Waging Peace in the Nuclear Age with David Krieger, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2002; ISBN 0-9674697-6-7
  • Choose Life: A Dialogue with Arnold J. Toynbee, Richard L. Gage (Editor), (1976), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-215258-9; London and New York: I. B. Tauris, Reprint edition, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-595-1
  • Choose Peace: A Dialogue Between Johan Galtung and Daisaku Ikeda with Johan Galtung, London: Pluto Press, 1999; ISBN 978-0-7453-1040-4
  • Compassionate Light in Asia with Jin Yong, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2013; ISBN 978-1-84885-198-6
  • Courage to Dream: On Rights, Values and Freedom with Vincent Harding, London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 2015; ISBN 978-1-78453-475-2
  • Creating Waldens: An East-West Conversation on the American Renaissance with Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogue Path Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-887917-07-0
  • Dawn After Dark with René Huyghe, (1991), Weatherhill, ISBN 978-0-8348-0238-4; London and New York: I. B. Tauris, Reprint edition, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-596-8
  • Dialogue of World Citizens with Norman Cousins, (tentative translation from Japanese), Sekai shimin no taiwa, 世界市民の対話, Paperback edition, Tokyo, Japan: Seikyo Shimbunsha, 2000; ISBN 978-4-412-01077-2
  • Discussions on Youth, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2010; ISBN 978-1-932911-93-0
  • Embracing the Future, Tokyo: The Japan Times, 2008; ISBN 978-4-7890-1316-1
  • Fighting for Peace, Berkeley, California: Creative Arts Book Company, 2004; ISBN 0-88739-618-6
  • For the Sake of Peace: A Buddhist Perspective for the 21st Century, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2001; ISBN 978-0-9674697-2-0
  • Glass Children and Other Essays, Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1979; ISBN 0-87011-375-5
  • Global Civilization: A Buddhist-Islamic Dialogue With Majid Tehranian, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008; ISBN 978-1-86064-810-6
  • Human Rights in the 21st Century with Austregesilo de Athayde, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84511-988-1
  • Human Values in a Changing World: A Dialogue on the Social Role of Religion, with Bryan Wilson. Reprint edition. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-597-5
  • Humanity at the Crossroads: An Intercultural Dialogue with Karan Singh, New Delhi: Oxford University Press India, 1988; ISBN 978-0-19-562215-7
  • Into Full Flower: Making Peace Cultures Happen with Elise Boulding, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogue Path Press, 2010; ISBN 978-1-887917-08-7
  • Journey of Life: Selected Poems of Daisaku Ikeda, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2014; ISBN 978-1-78076-969-1
  • Kanta and the Deer (children's book), New York: Weatherhill, 1997; ISBN 978-0-8348-0406-7
  • 'La fuerza de la Esperanza; Reflexiones sobre la paz y los derechos humanos en el tercer milenio' (dialogue between Argentine Nobel Peace laureate Dr. Adolfo Pérez Esquivel and Daisaku Ikeda), Buenos Aires: Emecé Editores, 2011; ISBN 978-950-04-3412-6
  • Life: An Enigma, a Precious Jewel, 1st edition, New York: Kodansha America, 1982; ISBN 978-0-87011-433-5
  • Moral Lessons of the Twentieth Century: Gorbachev and Ikeda on Buddhism and Communism with Mikhail Gorbachev, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005; ISBN 978-1-84511-773-3
  • My Recollections, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 1980; ISBN 978-0-915678-10-5
  • New Horizons in Eastern Humanism Buddhism, Confucianism and the Quest for Global Peace with Tu Weiming, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2011; ISBN 978-1-84885-593-9
  • Ode to the Grand Spirit: A dialogue Ode to the Grand Spirit: A Dialogue (Echoes and Reflections), with Chingiz Aitmatov, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84511-987-4
  • On Being Human: Where Ethics, Medicine, and Spirituality Converge with René Simard and Guy Bourgeault, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2003; ISBN 0-9723267-1-5
  • On Peace, Life and Philosophy with Henry Kissinger (tentative translation from Japanese), Heiwa to jinsei to tetsugaku o kataru,「平和」と「人生」と「哲学」を語る, Tokyo, Japan: Ushio Shuppansha, 1987; ISBN 978-4-267-01164-1
  • One by One: The World is Yours to Change, Sonoma, California: Dunhill Publishing; Paper/DVD edition, 2004; ISBN 978-1-931501-01-9
  • Over the Deep Blue Sea (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993, ISBN 978-0-679-84184-5
  • Planetary Citizenship: Your Values, Beliefs and Actions Can Shape A Sustainable World with Hazel Henderson, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2004; ISBN 0-9723267-2-3/ISBN 978-0-9723267-2-8
  • Rendezvous with nature: songs of peace / photographs by Daisaku Ikeda, Shizen to no taiwa: heiwa no shi, 自然との対話 平和の詩, Tokyo: Soka Gakkai, 2005; OCLC Number: 73228297
  • Revolutions to Green the Environment, to Grow the Human Heart: A Dialogue Between M.S. Swaminathan, Leader of the Ever-Green Revolution and Daisaku Ikeda, Proponent of the Human Revolution, Madras, India: East West Books, 2005; ISBN 978-81-88661-34-3
  • Search for a New Humanity: A Dialogue with Josef Derbolav, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2008; ISBN 978-1-84511-598-2
  • Soka Education: A Buddhist Vision for Teachers, Students and Parents, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2001; ISBN 0-9674697-4-0
  • Songs from My Heart, (1978), Weatherhill, ISBN 0-8348-0398-4, New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, Reprint edition 1997; ISBN 0-8348-0398-4
  • Space and Eternal Life with Chandra Wickramasinghe, Newburyport, Massachusetts: Journeyman Press, 1998; ISBN 1-85172-060-X
  • The Cherry Tree (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1992; ISBN 978-0-679-82669-9
  • The Flower of Chinese Buddhism, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2009; ISBN 978-0-9779245-4-7
  • The Human Revolution (The Human Revolution, #1–12), abridged two-book set, Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2008; ISBN 0-915678-77-2
  • The Inner Philosopher: Conversations on Philosophy's Transformative Power with Lou Marinoff, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Dialogue Path Press, 2012; ISBN 978-1-887917-09-4
  • The Living Buddha: An Interpretive Biography, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0-9779245-2-3
  • The New Human Revolution (an ongoing series) (30+ Volumes, this is an ongoing series), Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 1995–; partial list of ISBN Vol.1 978-0-915678-33-4, Vol.2 978-0-915678-34-1, Vol.3 978-0-915678-35-8, Vol.4 978-0-915678-36-5, Vol.5 978-0-915678-37-2, Vol.6 978-0-915678-38-9, Vol.7 978-0-915678-39-6, Vol.8 978-0-915678-40-2, Vol.9 978-0-915678-41-9, Vol.10 978-0-915678-42-6, Vol.11 978-0-915678-43-3, Vol.12 978-0-915678-44-0, Vol.13 978-0-915678-45-7, Vol.14 978-0-915678-46-4, Vol.15 978-0-915678-47-1, Vol.16 978-0-915678-48-8, Vol.17 978-0-915678-49-5, Vol.18 978-0-915678-50-1, Vol.19 978-0-915678-51-8, Vol.20 978-0-915678-52-5, Vol.21 978-0-915678-53-2, Vol.22 978-0-915678-54-9, Vol.23 978-0-915678-55-6, Vol.24 978-0-915678-56-3
  • The Persistence of Religion: Comparative Perspectives on Modern Spirituality with Harvey Cox, London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009; ISBN 978-1-84885-195-5 (Paperback), ISBN 978-1-84885-194-8 (Hardback)
  • The Princess and the Moon (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1992; ISBN 978-0-679-83620-9
  • The Snow Country Prince (children's book), Brian Wildsmith (Illustrator), New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991; ISBN 978-0-679-91965-0
  • The Way of Youth: Buddhist Common Sense for Handling Life's Questions (with a foreword by Duncan Sheik), Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-9674697-0-6
  • The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra (6 volumes), Santa Monica, California: World Tribune Press, 2000 (vols 1 & 2), 2001 (vol 3), 2002 (vol 4), 2003 (vols 5 & 6); ISBN 0-915678-69-1 (vol 1), 0-915678-70-5 (vol 2), 0-9-15678-71-3 (vol 3), 0-915678-72-1 (vol 4), 0-915678-73-X (vol 5), 0-915678-74-8 (vol 6)
  • Dialogue for a Greater Century of Humanism with John Kenneth Galbraith (in Japanese: 人間主義の大世紀を―わが人生を飾れ) Tokyo, Japan: Ushio Shuppansha, 2005; ISBN 978-4-267-01730-8
  • Unlocking the Mysteries of Birth and Death: A Buddhist View of Life, 2nd edition, Santa Monica, California: Middleway Press, 2004; ISBN 978-0-9723267-0-4
  • "Fireflies Glow" published by Madhuban, India


  1. ^ "Daisaku Ikeda Profile". Soka University. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b Dayle Bethel (1974). "The Political Ideology of Ikeda Daisaku, President of Soka Gakkai". International Education. 3 (2).
  3. ^ a b Jason Goulah; Takao Ito (2012). "Daisaku Ikeda's Curriculum of Soka Education: Creating Value Through Dialogue, Global Citizenship, and 'Human Education' in the Mentor-Disciple Relationship". Curriculum Inquiry. 42 (1).
  4. ^ a b Editors (3 February 2015). "No More Nukes". Tricycle. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Daniel Métraux (2013). "Soka Gakkai International: Japanese Buddhism on a Global Scale". Virginia Review of Asian Studies.
  6. ^ a b c Clark Strand (Winter 2008). "Faith in Revolution". Tricycle. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  7. ^ McLaughlin, Levi (2012). "Soka Gakkai in Japan". In Prohl, Inken; Nelson, John (eds.). Handbook of Contemporary Japanese Religions. Brill. pp. 269–308. ISBN 978-90-04-23436-9. Today, the group has a self-declared membership of 8.27 million households in Japan and more than 1.5 million adherents in 192 countries abroad under its overseas umbrella organization Soka Gakkai International, or SGI. Recent scholarship challenges theses figures and points to a figure in the neighborhood of two percent of the Japanese population.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Olivier Urbain (2010). Daisaku Ikeda's Philosophy of Peace. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-304-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e Timeline of Ikeda's life, daisakuikeda.org. Accessed 6 November 2013
  10. ^ a b Métraux 1994, page 147, chapter "Ikeda Daisaku: religious savior or diabolical dictator?".
  11. ^ a b Japan Studies Review, Volumes 2 à 4. University of North Florida. 1998. p. 43. The actual role of Soka Gakkai's spiritual leader Ikeda Daisaku has been a matter of some controversy in Japanese politics for several decades. As the self-proclaimed founder and avid supporter of the Komeito, he potentially wields considerable influence in the political world. Some journalists and conservative politicians as former Komeito president Takeiri Yoshikatsu have claimed that Ikeda plays an active role in Komeito affairs
  12. ^ a b Lewis, James R.; Jesper Aagaard, Petersen (2005). Controversial New Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-19-515683-6. Ikeda has been a controversial figure in Japan [...]. His critics accuse him of far-reaching political ambitions, and the tabloid press has played up unsubstantiated reports of sexual and financial scandals. Prefiguring the split with Nichiren Shoshu in 1991, Ikeda resigned as president of Soka Gakkai in 1979, in a attempt to repair the already strained relationship with the Shoshu monks over his power and the personality cult built around him.
  13. ^ "Daisaku Ikeda CV". daisakuikeda.org. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
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  16. ^ M. LaVora Perry (2010). PeaceBuilders—Daisaku Ikeda & Josei Toda, Buddhist Leaders. Fortune Child Books. ISBN 978-0-9771113-1-2.
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  18. ^ a b c d e f Seager, Richard Hughes. Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2006.
  19. ^ Kisala, Robert (2000). Prophets of peace: Pacifism and cultural identity in Japan's new religions. Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2267-5.
  20. ^ "SŌKA GAKKAI". Virginia Commonwealth University. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  21. ^ Ronan Alves Pereira (2008). "The transplantation of Soka Gakkai to Brazil: building "the closest organization to the heart of Ikeda-Sensei"". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies.
  22. ^ Daisaku Ikeda. The New Human Revolution. 1. World Tribune Press.
  23. ^ Daniel Métraux (2013). "Soka Gakkai International: The Global Expansion of a Japanese Buddhist Movement". Religion Compass.
  24. ^ Choy, Lee Khoon (1995). Japan, between myth and reality. Singapore [u.a.]: World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-1865-6.
  25. ^ Lewis, James R. (2003). Legitimating new religions ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3324-7.
  26. ^ Fujiwara, Hirotatsu (1970). I Denounce Soka Gakkai. Tokyo: Nisshin Hodo. ISBN 91-1-013550-2.
  27. ^ Furukawa, Toshiaki (2000). Karuto to shite no Sōka Gakkai = Ikeda Daisaku (Shohan. ed.). Tokyo: Daisan Shokan. ISBN 978-4-8074-0017-1.
  28. ^ Yanatori, Mitsuyoshi (1977). Sōka Gakkai (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kokusho Kankōkai.
  29. ^ Queen, Christopher S. and Sallie B. King, eds. (1996). Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2844-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  30. ^ a b Métraux, Daniel (March 1980). "Why Did Ikeda Quit?". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 7 (1): 55–61. Retrieved 4 June 2020. Ikeda quit because the Nichiren Shoshu saw him as an obvious threat to its existence. Ikeda and the Soka Gakkai had grown so big and powerful that it threatened to devour its parent. The Nichiren Shoshu priesthood felt that it was on the verge of being overwhelmed. It had to reassert its authority to make its presence felt, and Ikeda’s resignation is the clear end-result of this drive.
  31. ^ Metraux, Daniel A. (1 November 1999). "Japan's Search for Political Stability: The LDP-New Komeito Alliance". Asian Survey. 39 (6): 926–939. doi:10.2307/3021146. ISSN 0004-4687. Although Ikeda formally resigned his position as president of the Soka Gakkai in 1979, he is still revered as the movement's spiritual leader and spokesman
  32. ^ Ramesh Jaura. "SPECIAL REPORT: Peace Impulses from Okinawa". Global Perspectives. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  33. ^ Valdez, Maria Luisa A. (June 2014). "Teachings on Peace of the 14th Dalai Lama and Selected Literary Philosophers: Implications for Global Peace Education". Asia-Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2 (3): 90, 92. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  34. ^ Goulah, Jason (8 April 2016). Daisaku Ikeda, Language and Education. Routledge. p. 106-107. ISBN 978-1-134-91485-2.
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  41. ^ Seager, Richard Hughes (16 March 2006). Encountering the Dharma: Daisaku Ikeda, Soka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism. University of California Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-520-93904-2. Makiguchi, Toda, and Ikeda have been deeply political, each in different circumstances and distinct ways, which has no doubt contributed to the many controversies in the Soka Gakkai's history
  42. ^ Curtis, Gerald (27 August 1999). The Logic of Japanese Politics: Leaders, Institutions, and the Limits of Change. Columbia University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-231-50254-2. The Komeito, for its part, found itself in the position of having to defend itself against charges that Ikeda controlled the party.
  43. ^ Hrebenar, Ronald J. (9 July 2019). The Japanese Party System: From One-party Rule To Coalition Government. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-000-30274-5.
  44. ^ Baffelli, Erica (5 February 2016). Media and New Religions in Japan. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-135-11783-2.
  45. ^ McLaughlin, Levi (2014). "Chapter 3: Electioneering as Religious Practice: A History of Soka Gakkai's Political Activities to 1970". In Ehrhardt, George; Klein, Axel; McLaughlin, Levi; Reed, Steven R (eds.). Komeito: Politics and Religion in Japan. Institute of East AsianStudies. pp. 51–82. ISBN 978-1-55729-111-0.
  46. ^ Arnason, Johann P. (23 April 2014). Religion and Politics: European and Global Perspectives. Edinburgh University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7486-9174-6. The strong link between Soka Gakkai and Komeito (since 1998, Shin Komeito or New Komeito) however still remains and the support for candidates by the religious group continues.
  47. ^ Corduan, Winfried (22 October 2012). Neighboring Faiths: A Christian Introduction to World Religions. InterVarsity Press. p. 479. ISBN 978-0-8308-3970-4. The Komeito severed its organizational ties to SG in 1970, but has nonetheless remaind the political arm of Sokka Gakkai in Japan
  48. ^ Palmer, A. (6 December 2012). Buddhist Politics: Japan’s Clean Government Party. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-94-010-2996-4. As this party is observed in greater depth, one soon realizes that the separation of Komeito from Soka Gakkai is merely a facade, and even today, the Clean Government Party can hardly be called more than the "political arm" of Soka Gakkai
  49. ^ Eherhardt, George; Klein, Axel; Mclaughlin, Levi; Reed, Steven R (May 2015). "Chapter 1: Kōmeitō: The Most Understudied Party of Japanese Politics". In Eherhardt, George; Klein, Axel; McLaughlin, Levi; Reed, Steven R (eds.). Kōmeitō: Politics and Religion in Japan. Institute of East Asian Studies. pp. 3–25. ISBN 978-1-55729-162-2.
  50. ^ Hrebenar, Ronald J. (9 July 2019). The Japanese Party System: From One-party Rule To Coalition Government. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-000-30274-5. October 1982 was an especially bad month for Soka Gakkai leader Ikeda Daisaku, who appeared in court three times to deny having affairs with Komeito Dietmembers, to testify the Yamazaki blackmail case, and to acknowledge that Soka Gakkai members had wiretapped the house of JCP leader Miyamoto Kenji.
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  84. ^ Teranashi, Hirotomo (2013). Urbain, Olivier (ed.). Daisaku Ikeda and Dialogue for Peace. I.B. Tauris. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-85773-413-6. However, his meetings with Count Coudenhove-Kalergi that took place in 1967 and 1970 were of a different nature. These meetings covered subjects such as a comparison of the cultures of East and West and discussions on the future direction the world ought to take. This may be considered Ikeda's first full-fledged exchange of views with the international intelligentsia.
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  134. ^ a b V. I. Truhin, Dean of the Faculty of Physics, MSU (2006). "С выставки художественных фотографий Дайсаку Икеда" [From the Exhibition of Daisaku Ikeda's Art Photos] (in Russian). Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University. Retrieved 10 July 2019. Более 200 университетов и учебных институтов присвоили ему звание почётного профессора и доктора наук, в том числе Московский государственный университет им. Это событие происходило в начале мая 1975 года. [More than 200 universities and educational institutions awarded him the title of honorary professor and doctor of science, including Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov. This event took place in early May 1975.]CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  135. ^ "Filósofo Daisaku Ikeda es nombrado doctor honoris causa por la UNMSM" [Philosopher Daisaku Ikeda is named doctor honoris causa by UNMSM]. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (in Spanish). 22 August 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2019. ...Daisaku Ikeda, promotor de actividades globales por la paz, la cultura y la educación, quien recibió la distinción de Doctor Honoris Causa de la UNMSM, por su destacada labor en favor de la educación y la paz entre los pueblos. ...El rector Orestes Cachay Boza, quien presidió el acto protocolar, se encargó de otorgar dicha distinción, que será posteriormente entregada al flamante honoris causa, quien, además, en 1981, fue nombrado como profesor honorario de esta cuatricentenaria universidad en un evento celebrado en el campus de la emblemática Escuela Soka de Tokio, en Kodaira (Japón), durante el rectorado del doctor Gastón Pons Muzzo.
  136. ^ "Filósofo Daisaku Ikeda es nombrado doctor honoris causa por la UNMSM" [Philosopher Daisaku Ikeda is named honorary doctor by UNMSM] (in Spanish). National University of San Marcos. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2019. En 1981, es nombrado profesor honorario de la UNMSM y, en 1984, volvió a visitar esta universidad para hacer la mencionada donación de libros. [In 1981, he was appointed honorary professor of the UNMSM and, in 1984, he returned to visit this university to make the aforementioned donation of books.]
  137. ^ Djourova, Axinia D (n.d.). "Dialogue: A Way of Attaining Truth" (PDF). Institute of Oriental Philosophy. p. 2. Retrieved 8 August 2019. During his visit to Bulgaria in May 1981, President Ikeda was conferred an honorary doctorate by Sofia University.
  138. ^ Zhou, Yuqi (2 December 2013). "复旦大学池田大作思想研究中心成立" [Fudan University Ikeda Daisaku Thought Research Center was established]. Fudan University (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 July 2019. 1984年,池田先生再一次访问复旦大学,以“人才创造历史”为题做演讲,被授予复旦大学名誉教授称号。 [In 1984, Mr. Ikeda once again visited Fudan University and gave a speech titled Value Creation History and was awarded the title of Honorary Professor of Fudan University.]
  139. ^ El Nacional (10 February 2017). "Presidente organización budista internacional califica a RD como la Joya del Caribe" [International Buddhist organization president qualifies in RD as the Jewel of the Caribbean]. El Nacional (Santo Domingo) (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 July 2019. Durante su visita a la República en el 1987, el doctor DaisakuIkeda recibió diferentes distinciones del país, como la Orden Heráldica de Cristóbal Colón, en el Grado de Gran Cruz; Ciudadano Distinguido y la Llave de la Ciudad de Santo Domingo; y el Profesorado Honorario de la Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD). [During his visit to the Republic in 1987, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda received different distinctions from the country, such as the Heraldic Order of Christopher Columbus, in the Grand Cross Degree; Distinguished Citizen and the Key of the City of Santo Domingo; and the Honorary Teaching Staff of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD).]
  140. ^ "Mención de Honor Sarmiento a la Labor del Professor Daisaku Ikeda" [Mention of Sarmiento Honor in the Work of Professor Daisaku Ikeda]. Senado Argentina (in Spanish). 22 August 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2019. Daisaku Ikeda, quien en 1993 ya había sido galardonado por el Congreso Nacional, cuenta con casi un centenar de distinciones otorgadas por instituciones de nuestro país. Entre ellas, pueden destacarse: la Orden de Mayo al Mérito en el Grado de Gran Cruz", y los títulos de "Visitante Ilustre de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires" y "Honoris Causa de la Universidad de Buenos Aires". [Daisaku Ikeda, who in 1993 had already been awarded by the National Congress, has almost a hundred distinctions granted by institutions in our country. Among them, we can highlight: the Order of May for Merit in the Degree of Great Cross", and the titles of "Illustrious Visitor of the City of Buenos Aires" and "Honoris Causa of the University of Buenos Aires".]
  141. ^ "UG y Universidad Soka, 25 años unidas por el compromiso con una educación humanista" [UG and Soka University, 25 years united by the commitment to a humanist education]. Universidad de Guanajuato (in Spanish). 18 May 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2019. De igual forma, destacó la labor del Presidente fundador de la Universidad Soka, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, a quien la UG reconoció con el grado de Doctor Honoris Causa en 1990, por sus aportaciones a la paz mundial, al entendimiento entre naciones, así como a la literatura y al arte fotográfico. [Similarly, he highlighted the work of the founding President of the Soka University, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, whom the UG recognized with the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa in 1990, for his contributions to world peace, to understanding between nations, as well as to literature and photographic art.]
  142. ^ Tian Yesheng, Editor (17 December 2012). "台湾创价学会向我校捐赠图书" [Taiwan Soka Gakkai donates books to our school]. WuHan University (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 August 2019. 1990 年 11 月,武汉大学为池田大作颁发了名誉教授称号.... [In November 1990, Wuhan University awarded the honorary professor title to Daisaku Ikeda....]
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External linksEdit

Official Daisaku Ikeda websitesEdit

Related websites

Preceded by
Jōsei Toda
Acting President
Takashi Koizumi(小泉隆)
  3rd President of Soka Gakkai
3 May 1960 – 24 April 1979
Succeeded by
Hiroshi Hōjō (北条浩)