List of Formula One polesitters

Formula One, abbreviated to F1, is the highest class of open-wheeled auto racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), motorsport's world governing body.[1] The "formula" in the name refers to a set of rules to which all participants and cars must conform. The F1 World Championship season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held usually on purpose-built circuits, and in a few cases on closed city streets.[2] The polesitter is the driver that has qualified for a Grand Prix in pole position, at the front of the starting grid.[3] Drivers are awarded points based on their position at the end of each race, and the driver who accumulates the most points over each calendar year is crowned that year's World Champion.[4] Out of the 1,028 completed Grands Prix (as of the 2020 Russian Grand Prix), the driver that has qualified on pole position has gone on to win the race 432 times.[5]

photo of Lewis Hamilton wearing a black Mercedes cap and shirt
Lewis Hamilton holds the record for the most career pole positions with 96.

Qualifying is traditionally contested on the Saturday of a Grand Prix weekend to determine the drivers' positions on the starting grid. Historically, there have been a number of different qualifying systems; previously, each driver was only allowed a single lap to set his qualifying time.[6] Drivers currently have to compete in three rounds before pole position is determined. The first round, known as Q1, is contested by twenty drivers in an 18-minute session, at the end of which the five slowest cars are eliminated. This is followed by Q2, a 15-minute session, where the slowest five are again eliminated. The remaining ten cars contest Q3, the final 12-minute session to determine their places on the grid and who will sit on pole position.[7]

Lewis Hamilton holds the record for the most pole positions, having qualified first on 96 occasions.[8] Michael Schumacher is second with 68 pole positions.[9] Ayrton Senna is third with 65 poles. Senna holds the record for the most consecutive pole positions; he qualified in first place eight Grands Prix in a row from the 1988 Spanish Grand Prix to the 1989 United States Grand Prix.[10] Sebastian Vettel is the youngest polesitter; he was 21 years, 72 days old when he qualified in first place for the 2008 Italian Grand Prix.[11] The oldest person to qualify in pole position was Nino Farina, who was 47 years, 79 days old when he was polesitter for the 1954 Argentine Grand Prix.[12] As of the 2020 Russian Grand Prix, 100 drivers have been on pole position in the 1,028 Grands Prix since the first World Championship race, the 1950 British Grand Prix.[13][14] Since 2014, the driver with the most pole positions in a season has been awarded the Pole Trophy.[15] The inaugural Pole Trophy was won by Nico Rosberg,[16] while Charles Leclerc was the most recent recipient of the award with 7 poles in 2019.[17]

By driverEdit

All figures correct as of the 2020 Russian Grand Prix

Key
* Driver has competed in the 2020 season
  Formula One World Champion
  Has competed in 2020 season and a Formula One World Champion
 
Progression of the record for most Formula One pole positions
 
Lewis Hamilton is a six-time world champion and holds the record for most pole positions, and for the most wins from pole.
 
Michael Schumacher has won the World Drivers' Championship a record seven times – twice with Benetton and five times with Ferrari.
 
Ayrton Senna was known for consistently high qualifying performance.
 
Sebastian Vettel achieved 44 of his pole position tally with Red Bull Racing, for whom he also won four consecutive titles.
 
Jim Clark held the record for most F1 pole positions for 22 years (1967–1989).
 
Juan Manuel Fangio is a five-time world champion, and holds the record for the highest percentage of pole positions (qualified on pole in 56% of races entered).
 
Max Verstappen is the most recent and 100th first-time F1 polesitter.
 
Lewis Hamilton raises Ayrton Senna's helmet, offered by the latter's family on surpassing the Brazilian driver's record tally of pole positions in 2017.


Formula One polesitters[18]
Rank Driver Nationality Poles Entries Seasons active First pole Last pole
1 Lewis Hamilton    United Kingdom 96 260 2007 2007 Canadian Grand Prix 2020 Russian Grand Prix
2 Michael Schumacher    Germany 68 308 19912006
20102012
1994 Monaco Grand Prix 2006 French Grand Prix
3 Ayrton Senna    Brazil 65 162 19841994 1985 Portuguese Grand Prix 1994 San Marino Grand Prix
4 Sebastian Vettel    Germany 57 251 2007 2008 Italian Grand Prix 2019 Japanese Grand Prix
5 Jim Clark    United Kingdom 33 73 19601968 1962 Monaco Grand Prix 1968 South African Grand Prix
5 Alain Prost    France 33 202 19801991
1993
1981 German Grand Prix 1993 Japanese Grand Prix
7 Nigel Mansell    United Kingdom 32 191 19801992
19941995
1984 Dallas Grand Prix 1994 Australian Grand Prix
8 Nico Rosberg    Germany 30 206 20062016 2012 Chinese Grand Prix 2016 Japanese Grand Prix
9 Juan Manuel Fangio    Argentina 29 53 19501951
19531958
1950 Monaco Grand Prix 1958 Argentine Grand Prix
10 Mika Häkkinen    Finland 26 165 19912001 1997 Luxembourg Grand Prix 2000 Belgian Grand Prix
11 Niki Lauda    Austria 24 177 19711979
19821985
1974 South African Grand Prix 1978 South African Grand Prix
11 Nelson Piquet    Brazil 24 207 19781991 1980 United States Grand Prix West 1987 Spanish Grand Prix
13 Fernando Alonso    Spain 22 314 2001
20032018
2003 Malaysian Grand Prix 2012 German Grand Prix
14 Damon Hill    United Kingdom 20 122 19921999 1993 French Grand Prix 1996 Portuguese Grand Prix
15 Mario Andretti    United States 18 131 19681972
19741982
1968 United States Grand Prix 1982 Italian Grand Prix
15 René Arnoux   France 18 165 19781989 1979 Austrian Grand Prix 1983 British Grand Prix
15 Kimi Räikkönen    Finland 18 325 20012009
2012
2003 European Grand Prix 2018 Italian Grand Prix
18 Jackie Stewart    United Kingdom 17 100 19651973 1969 Monaco Grand Prix 1973 German Grand Prix
19 Stirling Moss   United Kingdom 16 67 19511961 1955 British Grand Prix 1961 Monaco Grand Prix
19 Felipe Massa   Brazil 16 272 2002
20042017
2006 Turkish Grand Prix 2014 Austrian Grand Prix
21 Alberto Ascari    Italy 14 33 19501955 1951 German Grand Prix 1954 Spanish Grand Prix
21 Ronnie Peterson   Sweden 14 123 19701978 1973 Brazilian Grand Prix 1978 Austrian Grand Prix
21 James Hunt    United Kingdom 14 93 19731979 1976 Brazilian Grand Prix 1977 United States Grand Prix
21 Rubens Barrichello   Brazil 14 326 19932011 1994 Belgian Grand Prix 2009 Brazilian Grand Prix
25 Jack Brabham    Australia 13 128 19551970 1959 British Grand Prix 1970 Spanish Grand Prix
25 Graham Hill    United Kingdom 13 179 19581975 1962 Belgian Grand Prix 1968 British Grand Prix
25 Jacky Ickx   Belgium 13 122 19671979 1968 German Grand Prix 1972 Italian Grand Prix
25 Jacques Villeneuve    Canada 13 165 19962006 1996 Australian Grand Prix 1997 European Grand Prix
25 Juan Pablo Montoya   Colombia 13 95 20012006 2001 German Grand Prix 2005 Belgian Grand Prix
25 Mark Webber   Australia 13 217 20022013 2009 German Grand Prix 2013 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix
25 Valtteri Bottas*   Finland 13 150 2013 2017 Bahrain Grand Prix 2020 70th Anniversary Grand Prix
32 Gerhard Berger   Austria 12 210 19841997 1987 Portuguese Grand Prix 1997 German Grand Prix
32 David Coulthard   United Kingdom 12 247 19942008 1995 Argentine Grand Prix 2001 Monaco Grand Prix
34 Jochen Rindt    Austria 10 62 19641970 1968 French Grand Prix 1970 Austrian Grand Prix
35 John Surtees    United Kingdom 8 113 19601972 1960 Portuguese Grand Prix 1968 Italian Grand Prix
35 Riccardo Patrese   Italy 8 257 19771993 1981 United States Grand Prix West 1992 Hungarian Grand Prix
35 Jenson Button    United Kingdom 8 309 20002017 2004 San Marino Grand Prix 2012 Belgian Grand Prix
38 Jacques Laffite   France 7 180 19741986 1976 Italian Grand Prix 1981 Spanish Grand Prix
38 Charles Leclerc*   Monaco 7 52 2018 2019 Bahrain Grand Prix 2019 Mexican Grand Prix
40 Phil Hill    United States 6 51 19581964
1966
1960 Italian Grand Prix 1961 German Grand Prix
40 Carlos Reutemann   Argentina 6 146 19721982 1972 Argentine Grand Prix 1981 Caesars Palace Grand Prix
40 Emerson Fittipaldi    Brazil 6 149 19701980 1972 Monaco Grand Prix 1974 Canadian Grand Prix
40 Jean-Pierre Jabouille   France 6 55 19741975
19771981
1979 South African Grand Prix 1980 South African Grand Prix
40 Alan Jones    Australia 6 117 19751981
1983
19851986
1979 British Grand Prix 1980 German Grand Prix
40 Ralf Schumacher   Germany 6 182 19972007 2001 French Grand Prix 2005 Japanese Grand Prix
46 Nino Farina    Italy 5 36 19501955 1950 British Grand Prix 1954 Argentine Grand Prix
46 Chris Amon   New Zealand 5 108 19631976 1968 Spanish Grand Prix 1972 French Grand Prix
46 Clay Regazzoni    Switzerland 5 139 19701980 1970 Mexican Grand Prix 1976 United States Grand Prix West
46 Keke Rosberg    Finland 5 128 19781986 1982 British Grand Prix 1986 German Grand Prix
46 Patrick Tambay   France 5 123 19771979
19811986
1983 United States Grand Prix West 1984 French Grand Prix
51 Mike Hawthorn    United Kingdom 4 47 19521958 1958 Belgian Grand Prix 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix
51 Didier Pironi   France 4 72 19781982 1980 Monaco Grand Prix 1982 German Grand Prix
51 Giancarlo Fisichella   Italy 4 231 19962009 1998 Austrian Grand Prix 2009 Belgian Grand Prix
51 Jarno Trulli   Italy 4 256 19972011 2004 Monaco Grand Prix 2009 Bahrain Grand Prix
55 José Froilán González   Argentina 3 26 1950-1957
1960
1951 British Grand Prix 1955 Argentine Grand Prix
55 Tony Brooks   United Kingdom 3 39 19561961 1958 Monaco Grand Prix 1959 German Grand Prix
55 Dan Gurney   United States 3 87 19591968
1970
1962 German Grand Prix 1964 Belgian Grand Prix
55 Jean-Pierre Jarier   France 3 143 1971
19731983
1975 Argentine Grand Prix 1978 Canadian Grand Prix
55 Jody Scheckter    South Africa 3 113 19721980 1976 Swedish Grand Prix 1979 Monaco Grand Prix
55 Elio de Angelis   Italy 3 109 19791986 1983 European Grand Prix 1985 Canadian Grand Prix
55 Teo Fabi   Italy 3 71 1982
19841987
1985 German Grand Prix 1986 Italian Grand Prix
55 Daniel Ricciardo*   Australia 3 181 2011 2016 Monaco Grand Prix 2018 Mexican Grand Prix
63 Stuart Lewis-Evans   United Kingdom 2 14 19571958 1957 Italian Grand Prix 1958 Dutch Grand Prix
63 Jo Siffert    Switzerland 2 100 19621971 1968 Mexican Grand Prix 1971 Austrian Grand Prix
63 John Watson   United Kingdom 2 154 19731983
1985
1977 Monaco Grand Prix 1978 French Grand Prix
63 Gilles Villeneuve   Canada 2 68 19771982 1979 United States Grand Prix West 1981 San Marino Grand Prix
63 Michele Alboreto   Italy 2 215 19811994 1984 Belgian Grand Prix 1985 Brazilian Grand Prix
63 Jean Alesi   France 2 202 19892001 1994 Italian Grand Prix 1997 Italian Grand Prix
63 Heinz-Harald Frentzen   Germany 2 160 19942003 1997 Monaco Grand Prix 1999 European Grand Prix
63 Max Verstappen*   Netherlands 2 112 2015 2019 Hungarian Grand Prix 2019 Brazilian Grand Prix
71 Walt Faulkner   United States 1 6 19501951
19531955
1950 Indianapolis 500 1950 Indianapolis 500
71 Duke Nalon   United States 1 5 19511953 1951 Indianapolis 500 1951 Indianapolis 500
71 Fred Agabashian   United States 1 9 19501957 1952 Indianapolis 500 1952 Indianapolis 500
71 Bill Vukovich   United States 1 6 19511955 1953 Indianapolis 500 1953 Indianapolis 500
71 Jack McGrath   United States 1 6 19501955 1954 Indianapolis 500 1954 Indianapolis 500
71 Jerry Hoyt   United States 1 5 1950
19531955
1955 Indianapolis 500 1955 Indianapolis 500
71 Eugenio Castellotti   Italy 1 14 19551957 1955 Belgian Grand Prix 1955 Belgian Grand Prix
71 Pat Flaherty   United States 1 6 1950
19531956
1959
1956 Indianapolis 500 1956 Indianapolis 500
71 Pat O'Connor   United States 1 6 19541958 1957 Indianapolis 500 1957 Indianapolis 500
71 Dick Rathmann   United States 1 6 1950
19561960
1958 Indianapolis 500 1958 Indianapolis 500
71 Johnny Thomson   United States 1 8 19531960 1959 Indianapolis 500 1959 Indianapolis 500
71 Jo Bonnier   Sweden 1 108 19561971 1959 Dutch Grand Prix 1959 Dutch Grand Prix
71 Eddie Sachs   United States 1 7 19571960 1960 Indianapolis 500 1960 Indianapolis 500
71 Wolfgang von Trips   Germany 1 29 19561961 1961 Italian Grand Prix 1961 Italian Grand Prix
71 Lorenzo Bandini   Italy 1 42 19611967 1966 French Grand Prix 1966 French Grand Prix
71 Mike Parkes   United Kingdom 1 7 1959
19661967
1966 Italian Grand Prix 1966 Italian Grand Prix
71 Peter Revson   United States 1 32 1964
19711974
1972 Canadian Grand Prix 1972 Canadian Grand Prix
71 Denny Hulme    New Zealand 1 112 19651974 1973 South African Grand Prix 1973 South African Grand Prix
71 Patrick Depailler   France 1 95 1972
19741980
1974 Swedish Grand Prix 1974 Swedish Grand Prix
71 José Carlos Pace   Brazil 1 73 19721977 1975 South African Grand Prix 1975 South African Grand Prix
71 Vittorio Brambilla   Italy 1 79 19741980 1975 Swedish Grand Prix 1975 Swedish Grand Prix
71 Tom Pryce   United Kingdom 1 42 19741977 1975 British Grand Prix 1975 British Grand Prix
71 Bruno Giacomelli   Italy 1 82 19771983
1990
1980 United States Grand Prix 1980 United States Grand Prix
71 Andrea de Cesaris   Italy 1 214 19801994 1982 United States Grand Prix West 1982 United States Grand Prix West
71 Thierry Boutsen   Belgium 1 164 19831993 1990 Hungarian Grand Prix 1990 Hungarian Grand Prix
71 Nick Heidfeld   Germany 1 185 20002011 2005 European Grand Prix 2005 European Grand Prix
71 Robert Kubica   Poland 1 97 20062010
2019
2008 Bahrain Grand Prix 2008 Bahrain Grand Prix
71 Heikki Kovalainen   Finland 1 112 20072013 2008 British Grand Prix 2008 British Grand Prix
71 Nico Hülkenberg*   Germany 1 181 2010
20122020
2010 Brazilian Grand Prix 2010 Brazilian Grand Prix
71 Pastor Maldonado   Venezuela 1 96 20112015 2012 Spanish Grand Prix 2012 Spanish Grand Prix

By nationalityEdit

All figures correct as of the 2020 Russian Grand Prix

Formula One polesitters by country[18]
Country Poles Driver(s)
  United Kingdom 282 17
  Germany 166 8
  Brazil 126 6
  France 79 9
  Finland 63 5
  Italy 48 13
  Austria 46 3
  United States 39 15
  Argentina 38 3
  Australia 35 4
  Spain 22 1
  Canada 15 2
  Sweden 15 2
  Belgium 14 2
  Colombia 13 1
   Switzerland 7 2
  Monaco 7 1
  New Zealand 6 2
  South Africa 3 1
  Netherlands 2 1
  Venezuela 1 1
  Poland 1 1

Most pole positions per seasonEdit

All figures correct as of the 2020 Russian Grand Prix

Key
Driver has competed in the 2020 season
Bold Won the World Championship in the same year
Year Driver(s) Constructor(s) Poles Races Ref.
1950   Juan Manuel Fangio   Alfa Romeo 4 7
1951   Juan Manuel Fangio   Alfa Romeo 4 8
1952   Alberto Ascari   Ferrari 5 8
1953   Alberto Ascari   Ferrari 6 9 [19]
1954   Juan Manuel Fangio   Maserati,   Mercedes 5 9
1955   Juan Manuel Fangio   Mercedes 3 7
1956   Juan Manuel Fangio   Ferrari 6 8 [19]
1957   Juan Manuel Fangio   Maserati 4 8
1958   Mike Hawthorn   Ferrari 4 11
1959   Stirling Moss   Cooper-Climax 4 9
1960   Stirling Moss   Cooper-Climax 4 10
1961   Phil Hill   Ferrari 5 8
1962   Jim Clark   Lotus-Climax 6 9 [19]
1963   Jim Clark   Lotus-Climax 7 10 [19]
1964   Jim Clark   Lotus-Climax 5 10
1965   Jim Clark   Lotus-Climax 6 10 [19]
1966   Jack Brabham   Brabham-Repco 3 9
1967   Jim Clark   Lotus-Ford 6 11 [19]
1968   Chris Amon   Ferrari 3 12
1969   Jochen Rindt   Lotus-Ford 5 11
1970   Jackie Stewart   Tyrrell-Ford 4 13
  Jacky Ickx   Ferrari
1971   Jackie Stewart   Tyrrell-Ford 6 11 [19]
1972   Jacky Ickx   Ferrari 4 12
1973   Ronnie Peterson   Lotus-Ford 9 15 [19]
1974   Niki Lauda   Ferrari 9 15 [19]
1975   Niki Lauda   Ferrari 9 14 [19]
1976   James Hunt   McLaren-Ford 8 16 [19]
1977   Mario Andretti   Lotus-Ford 7 17 [19]
1978   Mario Andretti   Lotus-Ford 8 16 [19]
1979   Jean-Pierre Jabouille   Renault 4 15
  Jacques Laffite   Ligier-Ford
1980   René Arnoux   Renault 3 14
  Alan Jones   Williams-Ford
1981   Nelson Piquet   Brabham-Ford 4 15
  René Arnoux   Renault
1982   Alain Prost   Renault 5 16
  René Arnoux
1983   René Arnoux   Ferrari 4 15
  Patrick Tambay   Ferrari
1984   Nelson Piquet   Brabham-BMW 9 16 [19]
1985   Ayrton Senna   Lotus-Renault 7 16 [19]
1986   Ayrton Senna   Lotus-Renault 8 16 [19]
1987   Nigel Mansell   Williams-Honda 8 16 [19]
1988   Ayrton Senna   McLaren-Honda 13 16 [19]
1989   Ayrton Senna   McLaren-Honda 13 16 [19]
1990   Ayrton Senna   McLaren-Honda 10 16 [19]
1991   Ayrton Senna   McLaren-Honda 8 16 [19]
1992   Nigel Mansell   Williams-Renault 14 16 [19]
1993   Alain Prost   Williams-Renault 13 16 [19]
1994   Michael Schumacher   Benetton-Ford 6 16 [19]
1995   Damon Hill   Williams-Renault 7 17 [19]
1996   Damon Hill   Williams-Renault 9 16 [19]
1997   Jacques Villeneuve   Williams-Renault 10 17 [19]
1998   Mika Häkkinen   McLaren-Mercedes 9 16 [19]
1999   Mika Häkkinen   McLaren-Mercedes 11 16 [19]
2000   Michael Schumacher   Ferrari 9 17 [19]
2001   Michael Schumacher   Ferrari 11 17 [19]
2002   Michael Schumacher   Ferrari 7 17 [19]
  Juan Pablo Montoya   Williams-BMW
2003   Michael Schumacher   Ferrari 5 16
2004   Michael Schumacher   Ferrari 8 18 [19]
2005   Fernando Alonso   Renault 6 19 [19]
2006   Fernando Alonso   Renault 6 18 [19]
2007   Lewis Hamilton   McLaren-Mercedes 6 17 [19]
  Felipe Massa   Ferrari [19]
2008   Lewis Hamilton   McLaren-Mercedes 7 18 [19]
2009   Jenson Button   Brawn-Mercedes 4 17
  Sebastian Vettel   Red Bull-Renault
  Lewis Hamilton   McLaren-Mercedes
2010   Sebastian Vettel   Red Bull-Renault 10 19 [19]
2011   Sebastian Vettel   Red Bull-Renault 15 19 [19]
2012   Lewis Hamilton   McLaren-Mercedes 7 20 [19]
2013   Sebastian Vettel   Red Bull-Renault 9 19 [19]
2014   Nico Rosberg   Mercedes 11 19 [19]
2015   Lewis Hamilton   Mercedes 11 19 [19]
2016   Lewis Hamilton   Mercedes 12 21 [19]
2017   Lewis Hamilton   Mercedes 11 20 [19]
2018   Lewis Hamilton   Mercedes 11 21 [19]
2019   Charles Leclerc   Ferrari 7 21 [20][21]
2020   Lewis Hamilton   Mercedes 8* 10*

* Season still in progress.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "About FIA". Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  2. ^ Hughes & Tremayne 2002, pp. 82–83
  3. ^ "Glossary". Formula One. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  4. ^ "2020 Formula One Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). 7 April 2020. p. 3–4. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Wins by grid position". StatsF1. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Deciding the grid – A history of F1 qualifying formats". Formula One. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Practice and qualifying". Formula One. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  8. ^ Baldwin, Alan (4 March 2020). "Factbox: Some of the records in Lewis Hamilton's sights". Reuters. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  9. ^ "Lewis Hamilton's sixth F1 world title: the stats". BBC Sport. 3 November 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  10. ^ Lynch, Steven (22 June 2012). "The winning formula – Ask Steven". ESPN. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  11. ^ "'There are a lot of emotions' - Leclerc delighted with maiden F1 pole". Formula One. 30 March 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  12. ^ Lynch, Steven (29 March 2013). "Team treachery – Ask Steven". ESPN. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  13. ^ "Pole positions – By number". StatsF1. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  14. ^ "British GP is secure: Ecclestone". BBC Sport. 20 June 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  15. ^ "FIA introduce penalty points system and pole position trophy for F1 in 2014". Motorsport.com. Motorsport Network. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  16. ^ Benson, Andrew (8 November 2014). "Nico Rosberg snatches pole from Lewis Hamilton in Brazilian GP". BBC Sport. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Leclerc clinches 2019 pole position prize – despite being fourth fastest". Formula One. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  18. ^ a b Diepraam, Mattijs (1 December 2019). "Pole positions in World Championship events". 6th Gear. Forix. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au "Pole Positions In a Year". StatsF1. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  20. ^ "Leclerc clinches 2019 pole position prize – despite being fourth fastest". formula1.com. Formula One World Championship Limited. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Pole positions 2019". statsf1.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.

BibliographyEdit

  • Hughes, Mark; Tremayne, David (2002). The Concise Encyclopedia of Formula 1. Parragon. ISBN 0-75258-766-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External linksEdit