2023 Formula One World Championship

The 2023 FIA Formula One World Championship was a motor racing championship for Formula One cars, which was the 74th running of the Formula One World Championship. It was recognised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), the governing body of international motorsport, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. The championship was contested over twenty-two Grands Prix, which were held around the world. It began in March and ended in November.[1]

Max Verstappen won his third World Drivers' Championship, driving for Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT.
Sergio Pérez finished second, giving Red Bull Racing their first ever 1–2 in the World Drivers' Championship.
Lewis Hamilton finished third, driving for Mercedes.
Red Bull Racing won their sixth World Constructors' Championship.
Mercedes finished second in the World Constructors' Championship.
Ferrari was third in the World Constructors' Championship.

Drivers and teams competed for the titles of World Drivers' Champion and World Constructors' Champion respectively. The season was dominated by defending champion Max Verstappen, who cruised to his third consecutive Drivers' Championship title at the Qatar Grand Prix, winning a record 19 out of 22 Grands Prix held and finishing on the podium 21 times (also a record number for most podiums in a season) by the end of the championship.[2] His team, Red Bull Racing achieved their sixth Constructors' Championship title, the second consecutively, at the preceding Japanese Grand Prix.[3] Red Bull Racing won 21 out of 22 Grands Prix, breaking the team record for highest percentage of Grand Prix wins in a season at 95.45%,[4] beating McLaren's 1988 season. Verstappen also broke the record for the highest Grand Prix win percentage for drivers, with a win rate percentage of 86.36%, beating the previous record set by Alberto Ascari in 1952.[5]

Entries

The following constructors and drivers were under contract to compete in the 2023 World Championship.[6] All teams compete with tyres supplied by Pirelli.[7] Each team is required to enter at least two drivers, one for each of the two mandatory cars.[8]

Teams and drivers that competed in the 2023 World Championship
Entrant Constructor Chassis Power unit Race drivers
No. Driver name Rounds
  Alfa Romeo F1 Team Stake[a] Alfa Romeo-Ferrari C43[15] Ferrari 066/10 24
77
  Zhou Guanyu
  Valtteri Bottas
All
All
  Scuderia AlphaTauri AlphaTauri-Honda RBPT AT04[16] Honda RBPTH001 21
3
40
22
  Nyck de Vries
  Daniel Ricciardo[b]
  Liam Lawson
  Yuki Tsunoda
1–10
11–13, 18–22
13–17
All
  BWT Alpine F1 Team Alpine-Renault A523[18] Renault E-Tech RE23 10
31
  Pierre Gasly
  Esteban Ocon
All
All
  Aston Martin Aramco Cognizant F1 Team Aston Martin Aramco-Mercedes AMR23[19] Mercedes-AMG F1 M14 14
18
  Fernando Alonso
  Lance Stroll[c]
All
All
  Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari SF-23[21] Ferrari 066/10[22] 16
55
  Charles Leclerc
  Carlos Sainz Jr.
All
All
  MoneyGram Haas F1 Team Haas-Ferrari VF-23[23] Ferrari 066/10 20
27
  Kevin Magnussen
  Nico Hülkenberg
All
All
  McLaren F1 Team McLaren-Mercedes MCL60[24] Mercedes-AMG F1 M14[25] 4
81
  Lando Norris
  Oscar Piastri
All
All
  Mercedes-AMG Petronas F1 Team Mercedes F1 W14[26] Mercedes-AMG F1 M14 44
63
  Lewis Hamilton
  George Russell
All
All
  Oracle Red Bull Racing Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT RB19[27] Honda RBPTH001[28] 1
11
  Max Verstappen
  Sergio Pérez
All
All
  Williams Racing Williams-Mercedes FW45[29] Mercedes-AMG F1 M14[30] 2
23
  Logan Sargeant
  Alexander Albon
All
All
Sources:[31][32]

Free practice drivers

Across the season, each team had to field a driver in a free practice session who has not raced in more than two Grands Prix, on two occasions, once in each car.[33] The appearances of Oscar Piastri, Logan Sargeant and Nyck de Vries for their debuts at the Bahrain Grand Prix each counted as one of the mandatory sessions for McLaren-Mercedes, Williams-Mercedes and AlphaTauri-Honda RBPT, respectively.[34] Liam Lawson's debut at the Dutch Grand Prix did not count, as Nyck de Vries had already taken the mandatory free practice slot for that car.[35]

Drivers that took part in free practice sessions during the 2023 World Championship
Constructor No. Driver Rounds
Alfa Romeo-Ferrari 98   Théo Pourchaire 19, 22
AlphaTauri-Honda RBPT 41   Isack Hadjar 19
Alpine-Renault 61   Jack Doohan 19, 22
Aston Martin Aramco-Mercedes 34   Felipe Drugovich 14, 22
Ferrari 39   Robert Shwartzman 13, 22
Haas-Ferrari 50   Oliver Bearman 19, 22
McLaren-Mercedes 29   Patricio O'Ward 22
Mercedes 42   Frederik Vesti 19, 22
Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT 36
37
  Jake Dennis
  Isack Hadjar
22
22
Williams-Mercedes 45   Zak O'Sullivan 22
Source:[32]

Team changes

Honda returned as a named engine supplier to Red Bull Racing and AlphaTauri, with both teams' engines badged as Honda RBPT.[36] While Red Bull Powertrains had planned to take over assembly and maintenance of the engines from this season onward,[37] it was later agreed that Honda would continue its technical support of Red Bull Racing and AlphaTauri until the end of 2025.[38]

Driver changes

Oscar Piastri (left), Nyck de Vries (centre) and Logan Sargeant (right) made their debuts with McLaren, AlphaTauri and Williams, respectively.

Sebastian Vettel retired at the end of the 2022 championship, ending his Formula One career after 16 seasons.[39] His place at Aston Martin was taken by Fernando Alonso, who left Alpine after two seasons.[40] His replacement was initially announced as the 2021 Formula 2 Champion and reserve driver, Oscar Piastri.[41] Shortly after the announcement, Piastri stated that he had not signed a contract for 2023 and that he would not be driving for Alpine.[42] The FIA Contract Recognition Board ruled that he did not have any contractual obligations to race for Alpine.[43] Pierre Gasly, who had a contract to drive for AlphaTauri, moved to Alpine, replacing Alonso.[44] Gasly was replaced by the 2020–21 Formula E and 2019 Formula 2 Champion Nyck de Vries.[45]

Daniel Ricciardo left McLaren after two seasons. Although he had a contract to drive for the team in 2023, it was terminated during the 2022 championship by mutual agreement.[46] Ricciardo's seat was filled by Piastri, who made his Formula One debut.[47] Nicholas Latifi left Williams after spending three seasons with the team.[48] His seat was filled by Logan Sargeant, who made his Formula One debut by graduating from Formula 2 and became the first American Formula One driver to compete since Alexander Rossi in 2015 with former team Marussia and the first to compete full-time since Scott Speed in 2006 with former team Toro Rosso.[49] Mick Schumacher left Haas after two seasons.[50] His seat was taken by Nico Hülkenberg, who last competed in Formula One as a full-time race driver in 2019 with former team Renault.[51]

Mid-season changes

Daniel Ricciardo (left) and debutant Liam Lawson (right) drove for AlphaTauri after Nyck de Vries' departure.

Nyck de Vries was relieved of his driving duties for AlphaTauri after underperforming in the first ten races of his rookie season.[52][53] His seat was filled by Daniel Ricciardo starting from the Hungarian Grand Prix. Ricciardo had raced with the team, which at the time was called Toro Rosso, in the 2012 and 2013 seasons.[54] However, during the Dutch Grand Prix, only his third race of the season, Ricciardo broke a metacarpal bone in his left hand in a crash during the second practice session. As a result, Red Bull Racing and AlphaTauri's reserve driver Liam Lawson made his Formula One debut at the race.[17] Lawson continued to substitute in for Ricciardo at the Italian, Singapore, Japanese and Qatar Grands Prix. Ricciardo returned for the United States Grand Prix.[55][56]

Calendar

The 2023 calendar comprised twenty-two Grands Prix. The Azerbaijan, Austrian, Belgian, Qatar, United States and São Paulo Grands Prix featured the sprint format.[57]

Round Grand Prix Circuit Race date
1 Bahrain Grand Prix   Bahrain International Circuit, Sakhir 5 March
2 Saudi Arabian Grand Prix   Jeddah Corniche Circuit, Jeddah 19 March
3 Australian Grand Prix   Albert Park Circuit, Melbourne 2 April
4 Azerbaijan Grand Prix   Baku City Circuit, Baku 30 April
5 Miami Grand Prix   Miami International Autodrome, Miami Gardens, Florida 7 May
6 Monaco Grand Prix   Circuit de Monaco, Monaco 28 May
7 Spanish Grand Prix   Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya, Montmeló 4 June
8 Canadian Grand Prix   Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, Montreal 18 June
9 Austrian Grand Prix   Red Bull Ring, Spielberg 2 July
10 British Grand Prix   Silverstone Circuit, Silverstone 9 July
11 Hungarian Grand Prix   Hungaroring, Mogyoród 23 July
12 Belgian Grand Prix   Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, Stavelot 30 July
13 Dutch Grand Prix   Circuit Zandvoort, Zandvoort 27 August
14 Italian Grand Prix   Monza Circuit, Monza 3 September
15 Singapore Grand Prix   Marina Bay Street Circuit, Singapore 17 September
16 Japanese Grand Prix   Suzuka International Racing Course, Suzuka 24 September
17 Qatar Grand Prix   Lusail International Circuit, Lusail 8 October
18 United States Grand Prix   Circuit of the Americas, Austin, Texas 22 October
19 Mexico City Grand Prix   Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez, Mexico City 29 October
20 São Paulo Grand Prix   Interlagos Circuit, São Paulo 5 November
21 Las Vegas Grand Prix   Las Vegas Strip Circuit, Paradise, Nevada 18 November
22 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix   Yas Marina Circuit, Abu Dhabi 26 November
Sources:[1][58]

Calendar expansion and changes

The Qatar Grand Prix returned to the calendar after last being held in 2021. The Grand Prix was initially planned to be moved to a new purpose-built circuit, but was instead retained at Lusail International Circuit, similarly to the Saudi Arabian Grand Prix, which was kept at Jeddah Corniche Circuit.[59][60][1] The Las Vegas Grand Prix made its debut, with the race held in November on a new street track across the Las Vegas Strip. The last Grand Prix held in Las Vegas was the 1982 Caesars Palace Grand Prix. Three races were held in the United States in the same season for the first time since 1982.[61][62]

The Russian Grand Prix was under contract to feature on the 2023 calendar. It was originally meant to switch its venue from the Sochi Autodrom to Igora Drive, in Novozhilovo, located about 54 kilometres (34 mi) from Saint Petersburg.[63] However, the contract was terminated in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[64] The French Grand Prix did not feature on the 2023 calendar, although the promoters of the Grand Prix stated that they would aim for a rotational race deal by sharing its slot with other Grands Prix.[65] The Chinese Grand Prix was initially due to be part of the calendar after last being held in 2019, but it was cancelled for the fourth consecutive year due to the ongoing difficulties presented by the COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[66] It was not replaced.[67] The Emilia Romagna Grand Prix, which was scheduled to take place on 21 May as the sixth round of the championship, was cancelled on 17 May due to flooding in the area.[58]

Regulation changes

Technical regulations

Reducing porpoising

Following large amounts of porpoising during 2022, the FIA introduced changes to the regulations to limit excessive porpoising. Floor edges were to be raised by 15 millimetres (0.59 in) and the throat of the diffuser was also to be raised by 10 millimetres (0.39 in). The diffuser edge stiffness was increased and an additional sensor was mandated to monitor the porpoising phenomenon more effectively.[68] Lateral floor deflection tests also became more stringent.[69]

Roll hoop design

Following Zhou Guanyu's crash at the 2022 British Grand Prix, a rounded top was now required on the roll hoop, which reduced the chance of it digging into the ground during an accident. Additionally, a change was made to ensure a minimum height for the point of application of the homologation test, and a new physical homologation test was introduced where the load pushes the roll hoop in the forward direction, in addition to the pre-existing tests in three other directions.[68][70]

Mirror size

The size of the side-mirrors was increased from 150 mm × 50 mm (5.9 in × 2.0 in) to 200 mm × 60 mm (7.9 in × 2.4 in) in an effort to improve rear visibility.[71][72]

Weight and fuel temperature

The allowed weight of cars was set to be decreased from 798 kilograms (1,759 lb) to 796 kg (1,755 lb). However, this plan was abandoned, mainly due to the introduction of heavier Pirelli tyres.[73] The allowed weight of power units was increased from 150 kg (331 lb) to 151 kg (333 lb). The minimum fuel temperature has been changed to 10 °C (50 °F), down from 20 °C (68 °F) in 2022, or 10 °C (18 °F) below ambient temperature when cars are operating outside designated garage areas.[74][75]

Slot gap separators on front wing

The FIA initially altered the wording of the aerodynamic regulations after Mercedes produced a front wing that exploited a potential loop-hole in the regulations. Mercedes introduced slot gap separators on their front wings at the 2022 United States Grand Prix, although they did not intend to run them at the event. Rival teams argued that the new front wing was illegal, while Mercedes argued that the regulations allowed slot-gap separators as they were "primarily" there for "mechanical, structural or measurement reasons", and therefore any secondary aerodynamic benefit would be allowed. The FIA ruled that the brackets were illegal at the following 2022 Mexico City Grand Prix. The wording of the regulation was altered so that the slot gap separator brackets must perform a structural role, and the sentence explaining that the primary purpose can not be aerodynamic has been removed. This rule change was intended to outlaw slot gap separators.[76] It had the opposite effect, legalising slot gap separators which provide structural support; what aerodynamic benefit they provide no longer bears on their legality. Ferrari launched their car, the SF-23 with the slot gap separators.[77]

Sporting regulations

With the intention of making tyre usage more sustainable in the future, Formula One trialed a reduction in allocated tyre sets from 13 to 11 at the Hungarian and Italian Grands Prix. It was due to be trialed at the Emilia Romagna Grand Prix before its cancellation. During qualifying for these races, teams were required to use hard tyres in Q1, mediums in Q2 and softs in Q3. Teams are usually free to choose the tyre compound that they run during qualifying.[78]

Pirelli announced a change to the available tyre compounds for 2023, as a new compound was inserted between the old C1 and C2 compounds. This change provided teams with more flexible strategy options after criticism towards the original C1 compound for a large drop in grip compared to the other tyres.[79] Additionally, following criticism over the raceability of its full wet tyre in previous seasons, Pirelli has produced a new full wet tyre in the hope of reducing the need for safety car and red flags in wet race conditions. The new full wet tyre debuted at the Monaco Grand Prix. The sport also aimed to trial wet weather-specific bodywork designed to improve visibility and reduce spray during 2023 with the aim of fully introducing it by the start of the 2024 championship at latest.[80][81]

There were only three days of pre-season testing, a reduction from 2022 when there were six days.[71] During the F1 Commission held in February 2023 it was decided to relax the restrictions on team radio communications.[82]

Sprint events

The sprint format was held at six Grands Prix in 2023, compared to three in 2021 and 2022.[83] During sprint weekends, teams are given a broader choice of parts that they are permitted to change under parc fermé conditions.[84]

A new weekend format for sprint events (as compared to that used in 2021 and 2022) consisted of a single practice session on Friday, followed by the qualifying session which determined the grid for the Sunday's Grand Prix. On Saturday, a new qualifying session called "sprint shootout", in place of the old second practice session, was run, determining the grid for the sprint. The Grand Prix took place on Sunday. The new sprint shootout qualifying was shorter than traditional qualifying: SQ1 was 12 minutes, SQ2 was 10 minutes, and SQ3 was 8 minutes long. New tyres were mandatory for each phase, with a single set of mediums for each of SQ1 and SQ2, and a single set of softs for SQ3.[85]

The tyre rules for sprint shootout were modified for the second sprint weekend of the season at the Austrian Grand Prix, enabling drivers and teams who made it through to SQ3 (the third segment of the sprint shootout) to use any set of soft tyres, whereas they were previously required to use a new set of soft tyres. The change was made after Lando Norris could not run in SQ3 at the Azerbaijan Grand Prix due to exhausting his allocation of soft tyres.[d][86]

Points awarded for shortened races

The 2022 sporting regulations only specified that races ended early by a red flag used a points system that gradually increased points awarded based on the completed race distance. This caused confusion at the 2022 Japanese Grand Prix, where full points were awarded despite less than 75% of the scheduled distance being completed, as the race ended under green flag conditions. The wording of the regulation has now been amended: all races where less than 75% of the race distance is completed will use the sliding scale system to determine the points awarded, regardless of whether they finish under red or green flag conditions. This rule change satisfied the original intention of the gradual scale points system when it was introduced in 2022.[87]

Restrictions on political gestures

The FIA's International Sporting Code (ISC)[e] was updated to include stricter controls on drivers and teams making "political, religious and personal statements". Article 12.2.1n was introduced stating that drivers and teams must receive the FIA's permission before conducting a political statement or protest and that any protest without permission would be considered a breach of the FIA's neutrality rules.[88][89] The FIA stated the update to the ISC was done to move it in line with the ethical principles of political neutrality laid out by the International Olympic Committee, which gave formal recognition to the FIA in 2013 through the Olympic Charter.[90] FIA President Mohammed Ben Sulayem stated that the rule change was made to ensure that the FIA's platform was not used to help fulfil drivers' "private personal agenda".[91]

Following concerns from drivers and teams on how these rules would affect freedom of expression and the ability of drivers and their teams to express views about what they believe to be a worthwhile cause, the FIA clarified in February 2023 that drivers would be prohibited on making political or religious statement on the following: politically sensitive persons living or dead, military or political conflicts, separatist movements, national governments, any statements referencing a key religious figure or any statement that could be deemed offensive to the religious beliefs of the hosting country. Stewards at each Grand Prix meeting will be required to adjudge whether a driver has breached FIA neutrality rules on a case-by-case basis. Drivers remain free to share their opinions regarding political or religious topics without facing potential sanctions on their personal social media platforms or in an official FIA press conference providing it is in response to a media question or outside of a race weekend. Any driver looking for a special exemption from the FIA to make a statement that may contravene the neutrality rules must notify the FIA four weeks in advance of an event.[92]

Relaxation of COVID-19 protocols

The FIA took further steps to relax COVID-19 safety protocols that were first introduced in 2020. This relaxation of restrictions included the removal of the need for proof of vaccination for those working in the paddock. The FIA previously dropped the requirements for mandatory face masking and COVID-testing in 2022.[93]

Financial regulations

The budget cap was reduced to 135 million US dollars. It was originally set at US$140 million in 2022 before being increased to US$142.5 million to account for inflation.[71] It was initially agreed by the F1 Commission to increase the cost cap by US$1.2 million to account for additional costs caused by the increased number of races. The commission subsequently agreed to adjust to the level of future cost cap increases to US$1.8 million per race when a calendar is over twenty-one races to account for the greater costs of flyaway races compared to European races. Teams also agreed to give the FIA easier access to factories when cost cap audits are being carried out in order to more easily ensure that teams adhere to the cost cap. A winter shutdown of factories was introduced alongside the existing summer shutdown.[94]

Technical directive – "special project" divisions

Teams such as Mercedes, Red Bull Racing, and Aston Martin operated "applied technology" divisions which design for and consult on projects outside of Formula One. Since these projects were not related to the teams' Formula One operations, their expenditure fell outside of the cost cap regulations. Between the Canadian and Austrian Grands Prix, the FIA introduced a technical directive that prevented teams from transferring intellectual property from their "special project" divisions to their Formula One operations cost-free, closing a loophole.[95]

Season summary

Pre-season

There was one pre-season test, at the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir on 23–25 February.[1] Aston Martin driver Lance Stroll missed the test after suffering a "minor" cycling accident during training.[96] He was replaced by reserve driver Felipe Drugovich.[97]

Opening rounds

Red Bull Racing locked out the front row for the season opening Bahrain Grand Prix, with the two Ferraris on the second row. The much-improved Aston Martin of Fernando Alonso started in fifth.[98] Max Verstappen led nearly all the race comfortably, winning by eleven seconds ahead of his teammate Sergio Pérez. Charles Leclerc retired with a mechanical failure from third, with Alonso taking this spot, after a late race overtake on Carlos Sainz Jr. Lewis Hamilton finished fifth. Lance Stroll, still racing with a broken wrist and toe, finished sixth, ahead of the Mercedes of George Russell.[99]

At the Saudi Arabian Grand Prix, Pérez took pole position in qualifying. Pérez lost first position on the first lap to Alonso, but regained it on lap four. Verstappen, starting fifteenth on the grid, reached second by lap 25, and remained there for the rest of the race. Verstappen also recorded the fastest lap. Alonso rounded out the podium finishing third, with the Mercedes duo of Russell and Hamilton finishing in fourth and fifth respectively.[100]

At the Australian Grand Prix, Verstappen took pole position with Pérez starting from the pit lane. At the start of the race, Verstappen was overtaken by Russell and Hamilton. He regained the lead by lap 12 and led the race comfortably, as Russell retired on lap 18 due to a mechanical issue. Verstappen won the race, followed by Hamilton and then Alonso, with Pérez clocking the fastest lap. The Grand Prix broke the record for most red flags, with three.[101]

The Azerbaijan Grand Prix saw the season's first sprint event. Leclerc secured pole position ahead of Verstappen and Pérez respectively.[102] Additionally, Leclerc managed to secure pole position for the sprint with Pérez second and Verstappen third, despite Leclerc locking up and crashing out in turn 5 on his last lap.[103] Leclerc got a good start off the line to take the lead of the sprint until Pérez passed Leclerc on the main straight courtesy of the DRS; Pérez kept the lead until the end of the sprint. Verstappen finished in third; Russell fourth.[104] In the Grand Prix, polesitter Leclerc led the race until lap four. The DRS was enabled on lap three, with Verstappen utilising it to pass Leclerc into the first corner on the following lap. Pérez repeated the same move on lap six to take second place. As lap ten concluded, Verstappen went into the pit lane to switch tyres and lost the effective lead of the race, as the safety car came out. Pérez, Verstappen and Leclerc were the top three drivers for the rest of the race as Pérez took his second Azerbaijan Grand Prix victory. This was Leclerc and Ferrari's first podium finish of the season.[105]

At the Miami Grand Prix, Pérez secured pole position ahead of Alonso and Sainz; Verstappen started ninth after he was unable to set a time, compounded by Leclerc crashing out during the final stages of qualifying and bringing out a red flag. Haas' Kevin Magnussen was able to secure fourth position.[106] Verstappen made up several positions during the race and secured his second Miami Grand Prix victory ahead of Pérez and Alonso.[107]

Verstappen secured pole position at the Monaco Grand Prix, ahead of Alonso, Leclerc and Alpine's Esteban Ocon who were all on provisional pole at some point during Q3. Leclerc was penalised with a three-place grid penalty after impeding McLaren's Lando Norris in qualifying. Perez crashed in the first part of qualifying, and subsequently started 20th after failing to set a lap time.[108] The race was dry to start with rain later leading to the first runners to switch to the intermediate tyres on lap 51.[109] Verstappen secured his second Monaco Grand Prix victory, with Alonso finishing second, his best result of the season. Ocon scored his first podium since winning the 2021 Hungarian Grand Prix.[110]

Verstappen secured pole position at the Spanish Grand Prix, ahead of Sainz and Norris. Leclerc struggled in qualifying, only managing to qualify 19th, and started from the pit lane after the team elected to make changes to his set-up. Pérez also struggled in qualifying, qualifying 11th.[111] Verstappen cruised to a fifth victory of the season.[112] He led every lap and took the fastest lap of the race. Hamilton finished second ahead of teammate Russell in third, who took his first podium of the season, despite starting 12th. The double podium for the team moved Mercedes to second in the constructors' championship, above Aston Martin.[113]

Mid-season rounds

 
Eventual race winner Max Verstappen leading at the Austrian Grand Prix. It would be his fifth victory in a record-making streak of ten consecutive race wins.

At the Canadian Grand Prix, Verstappen continued to dominate, securing pole position in rainy conditions ahead of the Haas of Nico Hülkenberg – Haas's second-highest qualifying position following Magnussen's pole position at the 2022 São Paulo Grand Prix; Hülkenberg was demoted to fifth following a penalty. Alonso achieved third; Verstappen's teammate Pérez continued to struggle during qualification, getting knocked out in the second segment of qualifying in twelfth position. Verstappen went on to win Red Bull Racing's 100th victory in Formula One ahead of Alonso and Hamilton.[114] Verstappen's 41st victory moved him to joint 5th on the all-time list, tied with Ayrton Senna.[115]

Verstappen also took pole at the Austrian Grand Prix, both for Sunday's Grand Prix and for Saturday's sprint. Verstappen fought with teammate Pérez on the opening lap of the sprint, with Pérez appearing to push Verstappen onto the grass on the run up to turn 3. Verstappen retained the lead though, and led every lap to take victory.[116] In the race, Verstappen led away from Leclerc and Sainz. Leclerc would briefly lead the race after opting to pit under a virtual safety car, whilst Verstappen did not. Leclerc became the first driver since Pérez at the Miami Grand Prix to lead a lap other than Verstappen, who quickly passed Leclerc to regain the lead. Verstappen took his fifth consecutive victory ahead of Leclerc, who scored his best finish of the season, and Pérez, who recovered from starting 15th.[117] A number of drivers fell foul of track limits penalties over the weekend, with 47 lap times being deleted in qualifying alone. During the race, the FIA reported that there were "well over 1,200 instances where a car was reported as potentially leaving the track", and a number of drivers were given time penalties for multiple breaches.[118]

The British Grand Prix saw an improvement from McLaren, who brought car updates to the event, as Lando Norris and Oscar Piastri qualified in second and third, respectively. Verstappen took his fifth consecutive pole position, whilst Pérez qualified 16th, failing to make it into the final part of qualifying for the fifth consecutive race.[119] Norris made the most of a good start and overtook Verstappen into the first corner. Verstappen re-passed Norris on lap 5 and held on to take his sixth consecutive Grand Prix victory, whilst Norris recorded his best finish of the season finishing second. Hamilton made the most of a safety car to jump Piastri and finish in third place, a record-extending 14th at one venue.[120] The race saw Red Bull Racing equal McLaren's record for the most consecutive victories with eleven.[121]

Hamilton took pole position at the Hungarian Grand Prix, his first since the 2021 Saudi Arabian Grand Prix. It marked his ninth pole position in Hungary, a record for most poles at a single circuit.[122] Hamilton lost out at the start to Verstappen, and was passed by the two McLarens. He managed to repass Piastri late in the race and finished fourth. Verstappen won to become the fifth driver to win seven races consecutively. Norris continued McLaren's resurgence, and took second. Pérez finished third, having started ninth. Verstappen's win also meant that Red Bull Racing set a new record for most consecutive victories for a constructor with twelve.[123]

The Belgian Grand Prix saw the return of the sprint format, with Verstappen being the fastest qualifier for both the Grand Prix and sprint race. He was given a five-place grid penalty for the Grand Prix for exceeding the allocated number of gearboxes, so Leclerc was promoted to pole. In the sprint, Verstappen took the victory after passing Piastri, who came home second. Alpine's Pierre Gasly finished third.[124] In the race, Pérez took the lead off Leclerc on lap 1. Verstappen took the lead of the race on lap 17, passing Pérez on the Kemmel straight. Verstappen then strolled to his eighth consecutive Grand Prix victory, ahead of teammate Pérez and Leclerc.[125]

At the Dutch Grand Prix, Daniel Ricciardo suffered a broken metacarpal bone in a crash while trying to avoid the McLaren of Piastri who had crashed ahead of him. As a result, Ricciardo withdrew from the weekend, being replaced by Red Bull Junior Team driver Liam Lawson.[126] Verstappen took pole for the third year running in Zandvoort, with Norris in second and Russell in third. Rain fell on the first lap, which saw drivers pit for inters in the early stages. As a result of the early change in tyres, Pérez led by lap 5, from the Alfa Romeo of Zhou Guanyu and Gasly. Verstappen undercut Pérez on the change back to dry-weather tyres on lap 13. From there, he kept the lead for the rest of the race. More rain fell in the closing stages, with multiple drivers being caught out by the tricky conditions at turn 1. Pérez went off, glancing the barrier and losing second place to Alonso. Zhou aquaplaned and crashed heavily into the barrier at turn 1, which brought out the red flag. At the restart, Norris and Russell collided, with the latter suffering a puncture. Verstappen led home Alonso, to equal Sebastian Vettel's record of nine consecutive race victories. Gasly took his first podium since the 2021 Azerbaijan Grand Prix after Pérez was given a five-second time penalty for speeding in the pit lane. Lawson finished 13th on debut, ahead of teammate Tsunoda, who was penalised due to a collision with George Russell.[127]

At the Italian Grand Prix, polesitter Carlos Sainz Jr. mounted a successful defense against a charging Max Verstappen for the lead, before making a mistake on lap 15, allowing Verstappen into the lead. Behind him, Verstappen's teammate Sergio Pérez was fighting George Russell for fourth place; Pérez won out as Russell dropped to sixth ahead of his teammate Lewis Hamilton. Both Mercedes drivers were suffering from penalties; Russell for an incident involving him and Esteban Ocon and Hamilton for a collision with Oscar Piastri that resulted in damage to the latter's front wing. Excluding pit stop lead changes, Verstappen kept the lead until the end of the race, winning his second consecutive Italian Grand Prix, breaking Sebastian Vettel's record for most consecutive wins with ten, and extending the record of most consecutive wins as a constructor for Red Bull Racing to fifteen. Sainz and Leclerc finished third and fourth, respectively.[128]

Closing rounds

 
The Singapore Grand Prix was the only Grand Prix of the 2023 season not to be won by Red Bull Racing. It was won by Carlos Sainz Jr. of Ferrari. (Pictured at the Austrian Grand Prix)

Sainz made it back-to-back pole positions at the Singapore Grand Prix, qualifying ahead of Russell and Leclerc. Red Bull Racing struggled all weekend, with both Verstappen and Pérez lining up eleventh and thirteenth, respectively.[129] This was the first time Red Bull Racing failed to make the final segment of qualifying since the 2018 Russian Grand Prix.[130] Sainz held the lead at the start, as Leclerc passed Russell at turn 1. A safety car was brought out after Logan Sargeant crashed his Williams, resulting in most of the cars pitting. Leclerc had to be held longer in the pits to allow other cars to pass, seeing him drop to fifth. Sainz would hold off the pressure from both Russell and Norris to take his second Formula One victory. Norris and Hamilton joined him on the podium, as Russell crashed out on the final lap. Sainz's win was the first for Ferrari since the 2022 Austrian Grand Prix,[131] and ended Verstappen's run of ten consecutive wins since the Miami Grand Prix and Red Bull Racing's streak of fifteen wins since the 2022 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix.[132]

Verstappen returned to pole at Suzuka for the Japanese Grand Prix, qualifying ahead of Piastri and Norris. Verstappen cruised to his 13th win of the season, with Norris finishing second, and Piastri scoring his maiden Grand Prix podium. Pérez retired from the race after clashing with both Hamilton and the Haas of Kevin Magnussen, though briefly rejoined the race to serve a five-second time penalty for the clash with Magnussen. Verstappen's win saw Red Bull Racing clinch the World Constructors' Championship for this season, the team's sixth title overall, and the second title in a row.[133]

The Qatar Grand Prix saw an opportunity for Verstappen to win the title by finishing sixth in the sprint. Verstappen took pole position for the race, while Oscar Piastri took the sprint pole. Piastri battled with George Russell, who lost tyre grip and subsequently lost positions by the end of the sprint. Piastri went on to win his first race, and McLaren's first sprint victory, finishing ahead of Verstappen and Norris. Meanwhile, Esteban Ocon, Pérez and Nico Hülkenberg were involved in an incident on lap 11 which saw all three retire with collision damage. Charles Leclerc and Lance Stroll fell foul of track limits, and Liam Lawson and Logan Sargeant spun themselves into retirement – leading to three safety car periods. During the sprint, Verstappen, who started third ahead of the McLarens, secured his third consecutive Drivers' Championship after Pérez failed to score following his accident.[134] Before the start of the Grand Prix, Carlos Sainz Jr. experienced a fuel leak in his car, and was therefore unable to take the start. On lap 1, Lewis Hamilton collided with his teammate Russell, forcing him to retire. The race was dominated by Verstappen in extremely hot weather, which caught out numerous drivers, including Logan Sargeant, who retired early due to heat exhaustion, Esteban Ocon, who vomited in his car twice but managed to finish the race in seventh, and Lance Stroll, who stated he briefly passed out and experienced blurry vision.[135][136][137][138] Piastri and Norris rounded off the podium once more, with McLaren setting a new record for the fastest pit stop, clocking in at 1.80 seconds. This beat the previous record set by Red Bull Racing at the 2019 Brazilian Grand Prix with 1.82.[139]

The United States Grand Prix marked back-to-back sprint events, with Verstappen qualifying on pole for the sprint and winning comfortably ahead of Hamilton and Leclerc. Leclerc qualified on pole for the Grand Prix, after Verstappen's time was deleted for track limits. Norris passed Leclerc for the lead on lap one. However, a risky gamble[by whom?][opinion] into turn 12 caught Leclerc off-guard, allowing Verstappen to pass him. Leclerc was left out on older tyres with Verstappen and Hamilton having a tyre advantage. In response to Verstappen's hard compound, McLaren had Norris pit for hards, with Verstappen overcoming his brake issue to achieve his 50th career win, ahead of Hamilton and Norris, who were closing in on him.[140] Post-race scrutineering determined that Hamilton and Leclerc's skid blocks were excessively worn, disqualifying them; this promoted Sainz to the podium and Logan Sargeant to his first career point, at his home race.[141]

Charles Leclerc took his fourth pole position at the Mexico City Grand Prix, ahead of teammate Sainz.[142] Verstappen took the lead at the start, while teammate Pérez collided with Leclerc at turn 1, ending Pérez's race. A red flag was brought out on lap 34 to repair the barriers at turn 9 where Magnussen crashed his Haas heavily. Verstappen held onto the lead at the restart and would go on to take his 16th win of the season, breaking his own record for the most wins in a season. Hamilton and Leclerc joined him on the podium.[143]

The São Paulo Grand Prix saw the final sprint of the season. Norris took pole for the sprint race with Verstappen winning comfortably ahead of Norris and Pérez. Verstappen qualified on pole for the Grand Prix, ahead of Leclerc and Stroll.[144] Leclerc crashed on the formation lap due to a hydraulic failure, and did not start the race. At the start, Verstappen held onto the lead ahead Norris and Hamilton, whilst at the back, the Williams of Alexander Albon collided with both Haas cars, crashing into the barriers at turn 1 along with Magnussen, this resulted in a red flag. Verstappen and Norris held their position at the restart, whilst Alonso passed Hamilton for third place. Norris was able to briefly challenge Verstappen for the lead, before Verstappen pulled away. He led the rest of the race comfortably, taking his 17th win of the season ahead of Norris. Alonso and Pérez fought intensely in the closing stages, and Alonso took his first podium in six races to finish third. He beat Pérez by 0.053 seconds.[145]

 
In his first year driving for Aston Martin, Fernando Alonso achieved his best season since 2013 by finishing 4th in the Drivers' Championship with 206 points and 8 podium finishes.

The Las Vegas Grand Prix marked a return to the location after 41 years; the last time a race was held in Las Vegas was the Caesars Palace Grand Prix in 1982. The first Las Vegas Grand Prix saw Las Vegas Strip was repurposed into a temporary street circuit, the Las Vegas Strip Circuit. Early runs on track in first practice were curtailed when Carlos Sainz Jr.'s car struck a loose metal cover, severely damaging his car.[146] He had to take a new engine component, resulting in a ten-place grid penalty for the race.[147] Charles Leclerc took pole position ahead of teammate Sainz and Verstappen, who would eventually win the race ahead of Leclerc and Sergio Pérez.[148] During the race, a virtual safety car period was observed, along with two safety car periods: Lando Norris bottomed out on lap four and crashed heavily in an incident which saw him getting transferred to the University Medical Center for precautionary checks, and George Russell struck Verstappen, which left debris on track. The leader of the race changed hands multiple times; while Verstappen led a majority of the race, Leclerc and Pérez squabbled for first place on multiple occasions. Leclerc would pass Pérez for second on the final lap. Despite losing the position at the end, Pérez secured second place in the Drivers' Championship, and Verstappen's win meant Red Bull broke the record for most wins by a single constructor in a season. Esteban Ocon recovered from sixteenth place to finish fourth, and Lance Stroll recovered from nineteenth to finish in fifth.[149]

The season came to a close with the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix a week later. All three qualification sessions were topped by Max Verstappen, who would take the pole position ahead of Charles Leclerc and Oscar Piastri. Verstappen led a majority of the Grand Prix, excluding in the pit stop phase where Leclerc and Yuki Tsunoda led. A penalty for Sergio Pérez for contact with Lando Norris and Carlos Sainz Jr. leading to him being listed in eighteenth, along with both their drivers securing points with George Russell's third and Lewis Hamilton's ninth-place finishes, allowed Mercedes to retain second place ahead of Ferrari by three points.[150]

Results and standings

Grands Prix

Round Grand Prix[f] Pole position Fastest lap Winning driver Winning constructor Report
1   Bahrain Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Zhou Guanyu   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
2   Saudi Arabian Grand Prix   Sergio Pérez   Max Verstappen   Sergio Pérez   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
3   Australian Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Sergio Pérez   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
4   Azerbaijan Grand Prix   Charles Leclerc   George Russell   Sergio Pérez   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
5   Miami Grand Prix   Sergio Pérez   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
6   Monaco Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Lewis Hamilton   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
7   Spanish Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
8   Canadian Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Sergio Pérez   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
9   Austrian Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
10   British Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
11   Hungarian Grand Prix   Lewis Hamilton   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
12   Belgian Grand Prix   Charles Leclerc[g]   Lewis Hamilton   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
13   Dutch Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Fernando Alonso   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
14   Italian Grand Prix   Carlos Sainz Jr.   Oscar Piastri   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
15   Singapore Grand Prix   Carlos Sainz Jr.   Lewis Hamilton   Carlos Sainz Jr.   Ferrari Report
16   Japanese Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
17   Qatar Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
18   United States Grand Prix   Charles Leclerc   Yuki Tsunoda   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
19   Mexico City Grand Prix   Charles Leclerc   Lewis Hamilton   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
20   São Paulo Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Lando Norris   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
21   Las Vegas Grand Prix   Charles Leclerc   Oscar Piastri   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
22   Abu Dhabi Grand Prix   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Max Verstappen   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT Report
Sources:[1][58]

Scoring system

Points were awarded to the top ten classified drivers, the driver who set the fastest lap during the Grand Prix (only if one of the top ten), and the top eight of the sprint.[57][h] In the case of a tie on points, a countback system was used where the driver with the most Grand Prix wins is ranked higher. If the number of wins is identical, then the number of second places is considered, and so on. Points were awarded using the following system:

Position  1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th   6th   7th   8th   9th   10th  FL
Race 25 18 15 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1
Sprint[f] 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

World Drivers' Championship standings

Pos. Driver BHR
 
SAU
 
AUS
 
AZE
 
MIA
 
MON
 
ESP
 
CAN
 
AUT
 
GBR
 
HUN
 
BEL
 
NED
 
ITA
 
SIN
 
JPN
 
QAT
 
USA
 
MXC
 
SAP
 
LVG
 
ABU
 
Points
1   Max Verstappen 1P 2F 1P 23 1F 1P 1PF 1P 1P 1 F 1PF 1F 11 1P 1 5 1PF 1P 2 F 11 1 1P 1 1 1PF 575
2   Sergio Pérez 2 1P 5F 11 2P 16 4 6F 32 6 3 2 4 2 8 Ret 10 45 Ret 43 3 4 285
3   Lewis Hamilton 5 5 2 67 6 4F 2 3 8 3 4P 47 F 6 6 3F 5 Ret5 DSQ2 2F 87 7 9 234
4   Fernando Alonso 3 3 3 46 3 2 7 2 55 7 9 5 2F 9 15 8 68 Ret Ret 3 9 7 206
5   Charles Leclerc Ret 7 Ret 3P 2 7 6 11 4 2 9 7 3P 5 Ret 4 4 4 5 DSQP 3 3P DNS5 2P 2 206
6   Lando Norris 17 17 6 9 17 9 17 13 4 2 2 76 7 8 2 2 33 24 5 22 F Ret 5 205
7   Carlos Sainz Jr. 4 6 12 55 5 8 5 5 63 10 8 Ret4 5 3P 1P 6 DNS6 36 4 68 6 18† 200
8   George Russell 7 4 Ret 84 F 4 5 3 Ret 78 5 6 68 17 5 16† 7 44 58 6 Ret4 8 3 175
9   Oscar Piastri Ret 15 8 11 19 10 13 11 16 4 5 Ret2 9 12F 7 3 21 Ret 8 14 10F 6 97
10   Lance Stroll 6 Ret 4 78 12 Ret 6 9 94 14 10 9 11 16 WD Ret 11 7 17† 5 5 10 74
11   Pierre Gasly 9 9 13† 14 8 7 10 12 10 18† Ret 113 3 15 6 10 12 67 11 7 11 13 62
12   Esteban Ocon Ret 8 14† 15 9 3 8 8 147 Ret Ret 8 10 Ret Ret 9 7 Ret 10 10 4 12 58
13   Alexander Albon 10 Ret Ret 12 14 14 16 7 11 8 11 14 8 7 11 Ret 137 9 9 Ret 12 14 27
14   Yuki Tsunoda 11 11 10 10 11 15 12 14 19 16 15 10 15 DNS Ret 12 15 8F 12 96 18† 8 17
15   Valtteri Bottas 8 18 11 18 13 11 19 10 15 12 12 12 14 10 Ret Ret 8 12 15 Ret 17 19 10
16   Nico Hülkenberg 15 12 7 17 15 17 15 15 Ret6 13 14 18 12 17 13 14 16 11 13 12 19† 15 9
17   Daniel Ricciardo 13 16 WD 15 7 13 14 11 6
18   Zhou Guanyu 16F 13 9 Ret 16 13 9 16 12 15 16 13 Ret 14 12 13 9 13 14 Ret 15 17 6
19   Kevin Magnussen 13 10 17† 13 10 19† 18 17 18 Ret 17 15 16 18 10 15 14 14 Ret Ret 13 20 3
20   Liam Lawson 13 11 9 11 17 2
21   Logan Sargeant 12 16 16† 16 20 18 20 Ret 13 11 18† 17 Ret 13 14 Ret Ret 10 16† 11 16 16 1
22   Nyck de Vries 14 14 15† Ret 18 12 14 18 17 17 0
Pos. Driver BHR
 
SAU
 
AUS
 
AZE
 
MIA
 
MON
 
ESP
 
CAN
 
AUT
 
GBR
 
HUN
 
BEL
 
NED
 
ITA
 
SIN
 
JPN
 
QAT
 
USA
 
MXC
 
SAP
 
LVG
 
ABU
 
Points
Source:[153]
Key
Colour Result
Gold Winner
Silver Second place
Bronze Third place
Green Other points position
Blue Other classified position
Not classified, finished (NC)
Purple Not classified, retired (Ret)
Red Did not qualify (DNQ)
Black Disqualified (DSQ)
White Did not start (DNS)
Race cancelled (C)
Blank Did not practice (DNP)
Excluded (EX)
Did not arrive (DNA)
Withdrawn (WD)
Did not enter (empty cell)
Annotation Meaning
P Pole position
F Fastest lap
Superscript
number
Points-scoring position
in sprint


Notes:

  • † – Driver did not finish the Grand Prix, but was classified as he completed more than 90% of the race distance.

World Constructors' Championship standings

Pos. Constructor BHR
 
SAU
 
AUS
 
AZE
 
MIA
 
MON
 
ESP
 
CAN
 
AUT
 
GBR
 
HUN
 
BEL
 
NED
 
ITA
 
SIN
 
JPN
 
QAT
 
USA
 
MXC
 
SAP
 
LVG
 
ABU
 
Points
1   Red Bull Racing-Honda RBPT 1P 1P 1P 11 1F 1P 1PF 1P 1P 1 F 1PF 1F 11 1P 1 5 1PF 1P 2 F 11 1 1P 1 1 1PF 860
2 2F 5F 23 2P 16 4 6F 32 6 3 2 4 2 8 Ret 10 45 Ret 43 3 4
2   Mercedes 5 4 2 67 4 4F 2 3 78 3 4P 47 F 6 5 3F 5 44 58 2F 87 7 3 409
7 5 Ret 84 F 6 5 3 Ret 8 5 6 68 17 6 16† 7 Ret5 DSQ2 6 Ret4 8 9
3   Ferrari 4 6 12 3P 2 5 6 5 4 2 9 7 3P 5 5 3P 1P 4 5 36 3P 68 2P 2 406
Ret 7 Ret 55 7 8 11 5 63 10 8 Ret4 Ret 4 4 6 DNS6 DSQP 3 4 DNS5 6 18†
4   McLaren-Mercedes 17 15 6 9 17 9 13 11 4 2 2 76 7 8 2 2 21 24 5 22 F 10F 5 302
Ret 17 8 11 19 10 17 13 16 4 5 Ret2 9 12F 7 3 33 Ret 8 14 Ret 6
5   Aston Martin Aramco-Mercedes 3 3 3 46 3 2 6 2 55 7 9 5 2F 9 15 8 68 7 17† 3 5 7 280
6 Ret 4 78 12 Ret 7 9 94 14 10 9 11 16 WD Ret 11 Ret Ret 5 9 10
6   Alpine-Renault 9 8 13† 14 8 3 8 8 10 18† Ret 8 3 15 6 9 7 67 10 7 4 12 120
Ret 9 14† 15 9 7 10 12 147 Ret Ret 113 10 Ret Ret 10 12 Ret 11 10 11 13
7   Williams-Mercedes 10 16 16† 12 14 14 16 7 11 8 11 14 8 7 11 Ret 137 9 9 11 12 14 28
12 Ret Ret 16 20 18 20 Ret 13 11 18† 17 Ret 13 14 Ret Ret 10 16† Ret 16 16
8   AlphaTauri-Honda RBPT 11 11 10 10 11 12 12 14 17 16 13 10 13 11 9 11 15 8F 7 96 14 8 25
14 14 15† Ret 18 15 14 18 19 17 15 16 15 DNS Ret 12 17 15 12 13 18† 11
9   Alfa Romeo-Ferrari 8 13 9 18 13 11 9 10 12 12 12 12 14 10 12 13 8 12 14 Ret 15 17 16
16F 18 11 Ret 16 13 19 16 15 15 16 13 Ret 14 Ret Ret 9 13 15 Ret 17 19
10   Haas-Ferrari 13 10 7 13 10 17 15 15 18 13 14 15 12 17 10 14 14 11 13 12 13 15 12
15 12 17† 17 15 19† 18 17 Ret6 Ret 17 18 16 18 13 15 16 14 Ret Ret 19† 20
Pos. Constructor BHR
 
SAU
 
AUS
 
AZE
 
MIA
 
MON
 
ESP
 
CAN
 
AUT
 
GBR
 
HUN
 
BEL
 
NED
 
ITA
 
SIN
 
JPN
 
QAT
 
USA
 
MXC
 
SAP
 
LVG
 
ABU
 
Points
Source:[153]
Key
Colour Result
Gold Winner
Silver Second place
Bronze Third place
Green Other points position
Blue Other classified position
Not classified, finished (NC)
Purple Not classified, retired (Ret)
Red Did not qualify (DNQ)
Black Disqualified (DSQ)
White Did not start (DNS)
Race cancelled (C)
Blank Did not practice (DNP)
Excluded (EX)
Did not arrive (DNA)
Withdrawn (WD)
Did not enter (empty cell)
Annotation Meaning
P Pole position
F Fastest lap
Superscript
number
Points-scoring position
in sprint


Notes:

  • † – Driver did not finish the Grand Prix, but was classified as he completed more than 90% of the race distance.
  • Rows are not related to the drivers: within each constructor, individual Grand Prix standings are sorted purely based on the final classification in the race (not by total points scored in the event, which includes points awarded for fastest lap and sprint).

Notes

  1. ^ Alfa Romeo's sponsorship arrangement was with Stake, whose co-founders were backers of Kick. Alfa Romeo initially entered round 2 as "Alfa Romeo F1 Team Kick",[9] before the publication of a second entry list that showed the entrant as "Alfa Romeo F1 Team Stake".[10] Alfa Romeo entered rounds 3, 7, 12 and 17 as "Alfa Romeo F1 Team Kick".[11][12][13][14]
  2. ^ Daniel Ricciardo was entered into the Dutch Grand Prix, but later withdrew after breaking a metacarpal bone in his left hand in a crash during the second practice session.[17]
  3. ^ Lance Stroll was entered into the Singapore Grand Prix, but later withdrew after crashing in qualifying.[20]
  4. ^ Theoretically, Lando Norris could have run intermediate or full wet tyres during the dry SQ3 session.[86]
  5. ^ The International Sporting Code (ISC) applies to all FIA sanctioned events, not just Formula One.
  6. ^ a b The Azerbaijan, Austrian, Belgian, Qatar, United States and São Paulo Grands Prix featured the sprint format.[57]
  7. ^ Max Verstappen set the fastest time in qualifying, but he received a five-place grid penalty for a new gearbox driveline.[151] Charles Leclerc was promoted to pole position in his place.[152]
  8. ^ In the event of a race ending prematurely, the number of points paying positions may have been reduced, depending on how much of the race had been completed.

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External links