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The 1989 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held in Phoenix, Arizona on June 4, 1989. It was the fifth race of the 1989 Formula One World Championship and the first United States Grand Prix to be held in Phoenix.

1989 United States Grand Prix
Race 5 of 16 in the 1989 Formula One World Championship
Phoenix Grand Prix Route - 1989, 1990.svg
Race details
Date June 4, 1989
Official name XXVI Iceberg United States Grand Prix
Location Phoenix street circuit
Phoenix, Arizona
Course Temporary street circuit
Course length 3.800 km (2.361 mi)
Distance 75 laps, 285.00 km (177.075 mi)
Weather Hot, sunny, 36C (97F) [1]
Attendance 31,441 [2]
Pole position
Driver McLaren-Honda
Time 1:30.108
Fastest lap
Driver Brazil Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda
Time 1:33.969 on lap 38
Podium
First McLaren-Honda
Second Williams-Renault
Third Arrows-Ford

ReportEdit

BackgroundEdit

In October 1988, city officials of Detroit Michigan refused to invest more money to bring the Detroit circuit up to new Formula 1 regulations, and an attempt to move the circuit to a new circuit on Belle Isle, an island in the middle of the Detroit River failed (although there was success for IndyCar's move to Belle Isle for 1992). This resulted in the cancellation of the Detroit race for the 1989 season. City officials in Phoenix, Arizona, were interested in hosting major sporting event to promote the dry desert city of Phoenix worldwide. A Formula 1 race came into play after a desperate attempt by Bernie Ecclestone not to lose the United States Grand Prix. On January 13, 1989 the Phoenix City Council approved a five-year contract with F1 to promote and run the race, with event date June 4. It was well known that Phoenix weather is very warm- around the 100's F (40 C) in June but no other slot was available because Phoenix got the race on a short notice.[3] On the Thursday before qualifying, Formula Atlantic, the support category for the weekend, had the first practice session on the new track before the Formula One cars hit the circuit for pre-qualifying at 8 o'clock on Friday morning. The Atlantic session saw a couple of problems. A manhole cover was lifted and the track surface at turn 9 at the end of the back straight (Washington Street) had begun to break up in the same way Detroit and Dallas had done in the past. Overnight, quick-dry cement was used to patch up the broken surface and while dusty and bumpy, the cement held for the remainder of the weekend.

QualifyingEdit

In qualifying on Friday, Ayrton Senna went progressively faster and faster, eventually posting a time 1.5 seconds ahead of McLaren team mate Alain Prost and the rest of the field. Senna's Friday time of 1:30.710 stood up through the second session and gave him his 34th career pole position, breaking Jim Clark's record of 33 which he had equalled in the previous race in Mexico.

The only American driver in the field, Phoenix native Eddie Cheever, qualified his Arrows-Ford in 17th place, some 3.1 seconds slower than pole man Senna.

Free practiceEdit

During the morning practice on Saturday, Prost spun backward into a wall and damaged the monocoque and gearbox. It was the first monocoque Prost had broken since joining the team in 1984. Prost then had to take Senna's spare car for the race. Alessandro Nannini crashed his Benetton heavily in the morning warm-up session and was forced to start the race not only in the spare car but also wearing a neck brace due to a very sore neck.[4]

RaceEdit

Prost got a jump on Senna at the start, but hit a bump in the straight, causing his wheels to spin and the engine to be cut momentarily by the rev limiter allowing Senna to pull ahead, but by the end of the first lap his lead was only 0.45 seconds. Nannini ran third followed by Nigel Mansell, Alex Caffi, Stefano Modena, Martin Brundle, Gerhard Berger, Andrea de Cesaris and Michele Alboreto. Nannini's neck could only take 10 laps of racing before he pulled into the pits to retire. He had been third until a spin on lap four dropped him to eighth and retired after not being able to hold his head up properly and complaining of dizziness. After 16 laps, Senna's lead over Prost was 4.25 seconds. He suddenly doubled that on the next lap when Prost's engine began overheating, forcing the Frenchman to back off for a few laps in a bid to get the water and oil temperatures back to normal. Despite Senna's seemingly commanding position, Prost remained confident of winning as he had seen that his McLaren was handling better than his team mate's. He reasoned that later in the race his only problem would be getting past.

The gap between the two McLarens varied as they worked their way through traffic, but on lap 29, Prost closed the gap when Senna suffered a misfire. The problem disappeared momentarily, with Senna doing his fastest lap of the race, but then returned, worse than before. Nigel Mansell would soon retire for the 4th time out of 5 races by lap 32 with the result of an alternator failure. On lap 34, with Prost only one second back, Senna waved his team mate past as they went down the back straight and then pitted at the end of the lap.

The Honda engine's electronic fuel injection system was acting up and after two pit stops to change the black box, battery and plugs, and with successive fastest laps in between, Senna retired on lap 44 with electrical problems (notably his 1st retirement of the season). Since joining McLaren at the start of 1988 it was his first ever retirement because of a Honda engine failure and the first failure of their V10 engine under race conditions. It was also only the second time in 21 races with McLaren that a Honda engine had failed, the first being when Prost's V6 turbo had blown up halfway through the 1988 Italian Grand Prix, the only race of the 1988 season that McLaren did not win.

Alex Caffi, who had started in sixth in his Pirelli shod Dallara-Ford, was up to second with Senna's retirement. A stop for new tires, after being passed by Berger (whose palms were still raw and sore from his Imola crash only six weeks before), dropped him back two more spots to fifth. As he tried to re-lap his team mate de Cesaris, however, de Cesaris turned in, forcing Caffi into the wall and out of the race. After the race de Cesaris said that he simply did not see Caffi and did not even know about putting him into the wall until after the race. De Cesaris continued on to an 8th-place finish. Berger's Ferrari suffered alternator failure (meaning no power to the revolutionary semi-automatic transmission) 9 laps after Caffi's retirement. Reporters tried to interview Berger but his mechanic closed the garage door; just before the garage door closed ESPN pit reporter John Bisignano saw Berger being splashed with water.

Throughout the race, Riccardo Patrese, Ivan Capelli and Eddie Cheever had been in close contact. When Capelli retired on lap 21 with a gearbox failure, Patrese and Cheever carried on the battle alone. After lap 51, the fight was for second place, with Patrese ahead. Despite a fuel pickup problem with his engine, Cheever mounted a challenge in the closing laps until his front brakes and one rear brake failed. He finished in third place.

As was predicted, the two-hour time limit was reached after 75 of the scheduled 81 laps, and Prost coasted to his only United States win (after not having won at Watkins Glen, Long Beach, Las Vegas, Detroit or Dallas), and increased his then all-time record victory total to 36 and his first win in a naturally aspirated car (his only other season in F1 without turbo power had been his rookie season with McLaren in 1980 when the team used the Cosworth DFV V8 engine). He also took the lead, by two points over Senna, in the Driver's Championship, which he eventually won. Patrese's runner-up placing was his second in a row. After struggling through practice, qualifying and warm up, and starting from 14th spot, Patrese and technical director Patrick Head had guessed at a setup and finally got it right for the race. Eddie Cheever's third place was the ninth and last podium finish of his F1 career. Christian Danner benefited from retirements ahead of him to take fourth place for Rial. It was his best career finish and matched the best ever finish for the team.

Post-raceEdit

Before the race there was a push to reduce the number of race laps from 81 to 70 due to the expected hot weather and after practice times had revealed the race would hit the two hour mark well before the scheduled number of laps had been reached: with the track almost the same length as the Adelaide Street Circuit used for the Australian Grand Prix, the prediction was that laps times would be around the 1:15 to 1:20 mark. Qualifying times, however, had been some 10–15 seconds slower than predicted. Ken Tyrrell was the only team boss who refused to sign the document which would have allowed the race length to be reduced. In the race, Jonathan Palmer lost a certain 4th place when his Tyrrell-Ford ran out of fuel on lap 69. Had the race been flagged after 70 laps, Palmer would have finished 4th having already been lapped by Prost instead of running out of fuel and being classified as 9th and last. The organizers were slightly disappointed with a crowd of 31,441 [2] turned out for the race on Sunday in 100 degrees Fahrenheit heat, having hoped for 40,000.

ClassificationEdit

Pre-qualifyingEdit

Pos No Driver Constructor Time Gap
1 7   Martin Brundle Brabham-Judd 1:32.293
2 21   Alex Caffi Dallara-Ford 1:32.992 +0.699
3 36   Stefan Johansson Onyx-Ford 1:33.768 +1.475
4 8   Stefano Modena Brabham-Judd 1:33.924 +1.631
5 18   Piercarlo Ghinzani Osella-Ford 1:34.281 +1.988
6 32   Pierre-Henri Raphanel Coloni-Ford 1.35.110 +2.817
7 33   Gregor Foitek Euro Brun-Judd 1:35.805 +3.512
8 17   Nicola Larini Osella-Ford 1:36.470 +4.177
9 41   Joachim Winkelhock AGS-Ford 1:36.498 +4.205
10 39   Volker Weidler Rial-Ford 1:36.583 +4.290
11 34   Bernd Schneider Zakspeed-Yamaha 1:36.610 +4.317
12 35   Aguri Suzuki Zakspeed-Yamaha 1:37.776 +5.483
13 37   Bertrand Gachot Onyx-Ford 1:45.530 +13.237

QualifyingEdit

Pos No Driver Constructor Q1 Q2 Gap
1 1   Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda 1:30.108 1:30.710
2 2   Alain Prost McLaren-Honda 1:31.620 1:31.517 +1.409
3 19   Alessandro Nannini Benetton-Ford 1:32.924 1:31.799 +1.691
4 27   Nigel Mansell Ferrari 1:31.927 1:33.383 +1.819
5 7   Martin Brundle Brabham-Judd 1:32.750 1:31.960 +1.852
6 21   Alex Caffi Dallara-Ford 1:32.819 1:32.160 +2.052
7 8   Stefano Modena Brabham-Judd 1:34.267 1:32.286 +2.178
8 28   Gerhard Berger Ferrari 1:33.697 1:32.364 +2.256
9 4   Michele Alboreto Tyrrell-Ford 1:33.377 1:32.491 +2.383
10 9   Derek Warwick Arrows-Ford 1:32.640 1:32.492 +2.384
11 16   Ivan Capelli March-Judd 1:36.136 1:32.493 +2.385
12 30   Philippe Alliot Lola-Lamborghini 1:34.721 1:32.562 +2.454
13 22   Andrea de Cesaris Dallara-Ford 1:33.061 1:32.649 +2.541
14 6   Riccardo Patrese Williams-Renault 1:34.523 1:32.795 +2.687
15 23   Pierluigi Martini Minardi-Ford 1:34.794 1:33.031 +2.923
16 5   Thierry Boutsen Williams-Renault 1:35.227 1:33.044 +2.936
17 10   Eddie Cheever Arrows-Ford 1:33.214 1:33.361 +3.106
18 15   Maurício Gugelmin March-Judd 1:35.236 1:33.324 +3.216
19 36   Stefan Johansson Onyx-Ford 1:34.637 1:33.370 +3.262
20 24   Luis Pérez-Sala Minardi-Ford 1:34.636 1:33.724 +3.616
21 3   Jonathan Palmer Tyrrell-Ford 1:34.748 1:33.741 +3.633
22 11   Nelson Piquet Lotus-Judd 1:33.745 1:33.804 +3.637
23 12   Satoru Nakajima Lotus-Judd 1:35.188 1:33.782 +3.674
24 40   Gabriele Tarquini AGS-Ford 1:34.455 1:33.790 +3.682
25 20   Johnny Herbert Benetton-Ford 1:35.377 1:33.806 +3.698
26 38   Christian Danner Rial-Ford 1:35.453 1:33.848 +3.740
27 26   Olivier Grouillard Ligier-Ford 1:35.124 1:34.153 +4.045
28 31   Roberto Moreno Coloni-Ford 2:10.795 1:34.352 +4.244
29 25   René Arnoux Ligier-Ford 1:35.823 1:34.798 +4.715
30 29   Yannick Dalmas Lola-Lamborghini 1:35.771 1:35.496 +5.388

RaceEdit

Pos No Driver Constructor Laps Time/retired Grid Points
1 2   Alain Prost McLaren-Honda 75 2:01:33.133 2 9
2 6   Riccardo Patrese Williams-Renault 75 + 39.696 14 6
3 10   Eddie Cheever Arrows-Ford 75 + 43.210 17 4
4 38   Christian Danner Rial-Ford 74 + 1 Lap 26 3
5 20   Johnny Herbert Benetton-Ford 74 + 1 Lap 25 2
6 5   Thierry Boutsen Williams-Renault 74 + 1 Lap 16 1
7 40   Gabriele Tarquini AGS-Ford 73 Engine 24  
8 22   Andrea de Cesaris Dallara-Ford 70 + 5 Laps 13  
9 3   Jonathan Palmer Tyrrell-Ford 69 Out of fuel 21  
Ret 28   Gerhard Berger Ferrari 61 Alternator 8  
Ret 21   Alex Caffi Dallara-Ford 52 Collision 6  
Ret 11   Nelson Piquet Lotus-Judd 52 Spun Off 22  
Ret 36   Stefan Johansson Onyx-Ford 50 Suspension 19  
Ret 24   Luis Pérez-Sala Minardi-Ford 46 Engine 20  
Ret 1   Ayrton Senna McLaren-Honda 44 Electrical 1  
Ret 7   Martin Brundle Brabham-Judd 43 Brakes 5  
Ret 8   Stefano Modena Brabham-Judd 37 Brakes 7  
Ret 27   Nigel Mansell Ferrari 31 Alternator 4  
Ret 23   Pierluigi Martini Minardi-Ford 26 Engine 15  
Ret 12   Satoru Nakajima Lotus-Judd 24 Throttle 23  
Ret 16   Ivan Capelli March-Judd 22 Transmission 11  
DSQ 15   Maurício Gugelmin March-Judd 20 Additional brake fluid 18  
Ret 4   Michele Alboreto Tyrrell-Ford 17 Gearbox 9  
Ret 19   Alessandro Nannini Benetton-Ford 10 Physical 3  
Ret 9   Derek Warwick Arrows-Ford 7 Collision 10  
Ret 30   Philippe Alliot Lola-Lamborghini 3 Spun Off 12  
DNQ 26   Olivier Grouillard Ligier-Ford        
DNQ 31   Roberto Moreno Coloni-Ford        
DNQ 25   René Arnoux Ligier-Ford        
DNQ 29   Yannick Dalmas Lola-Lamborghini        
DNPQ 18   Piercarlo Ghinzani Osella-Ford        
DNPQ 32   Pierre-Henri Raphanel Coloni-Ford        
DNPQ 33   Gregor Foitek Euro Brun-Judd        
DNPQ 17   Nicola Larini Osella-Ford        
DNPQ 41   Joachim Winkelhock AGS-Ford        
DNPQ 39   Volker Weidler Rial-Ford        
DNPQ 35   Aguri Suzuki Zakspeed-Yamaha        
DNPQ 34   Bernd Schneider Zakspeed-Yamaha        
DNPQ 37   Bertrand Gachot Onyx-Ford        
Source:[5]

Championship standings after the raceEdit

  • Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings.

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Historical Weather For 1989 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA". WeatherSpark. Retrieved 2015-12-24.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b Hot, slow Phoenix race flops, Press news services The Pittsburgh Press June 5, 1989
  3. ^ Siano, Joseph (January 30, 1989). "Grand Prix Moves to Phoenix". nytimes.com. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  4. ^ Rob Walker, Road & Track page 82, September 1989 edition
  5. ^ "1989 United States Grand Prix". formula1.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b "United States 1989 - Championship • STATS F1". www.statsf1.com. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  7. ^ "United States Grand Prix – A sense of relief". motorsportmagazine.com. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2016.

Further readingEdit