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Arrows Grand Prix International

Arrows Grand Prix International was a British Formula One team active from 1978 to 2002. For a period of time, it was also known as Footwork.

Arrows
Orange Arrows logo.png
Full name Arrows Grand Prix International
Base Milton Keynes, United Kingdom
(1977-1996)
Leafield, United Kingdom
(1997-2002)
Founder(s) Franco Ambrosio
Alan Rees
Jackie Oliver
Dave Wass
Tony Southgate
Noted staff Tom Walkinshaw
Heini Mader
Ross Brawn
Noted drivers Italy Riccardo Patrese
Australia Alan Jones
Belgium Thierry Boutsen
Austria Gerhard Berger
United Kingdom Derek Warwick
United States Eddie Cheever
United Kingdom Damon Hill
Netherlands Jos Verstappen
Formula One World Championship career
First entry 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix
Races entered 394 entries (382 starts)
Constructors'
Championships
0
Drivers'
Championships
0
Race victories 0 (Best finish: five 2nd places, last one at 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix)
Podiums 9
Points 164
Pole positions 1
Fastest laps 0
Final entry 2002 German Grand Prix

Contents

OriginsEdit

The Arrows Grand Prix International team was founded in Milton Keynes, England in 1977, by Italian businessman Franco Ambrosio, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass and Tony Southgate (from whose surnames' initials the team took its name) when they left the Shadow team.

Team sponsor Franco Ambrosio's initials were used in the name of Arrows' first car, the Arrows FA1. Shadow sued for copyright infringement, claiming that the FA1 was a copy of the Shadow DN9. Arrows designed a greatly revised car, the Arrows A1, in 52 days. It was shown the day after the High Court of Justice in London upheld Shadow's claim and banned the team from racing the FA1.

Ambrosio left the team in early 1978 when jailed in Italy for financial irregularities.

Arrows driver Riccardo Patrese scored points in the team's third race, the US West Grand Prix at Long Beach.

Racing historyEdit

Arrows Grand Prix InternationalEdit

For the team's first season in Formula One, the team had signed Swede Gunnar Nilsson to be their first driver. However, he would never get to drive the car, since he contracted a fatal case of testicular cancer and died later that year.

In September 1978, in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Patrese was involved in an accident which eventually claimed the life of Ronnie Peterson. Patrese was wrongly accused of causing the accident and then subsequently banned from racing at the following event (the United States Grand Prix) by his fellow drivers. In 1981, Patrese scored the team's only Formula One pole position in Long Beach, which he led until retiring with mechanical problems on lap 33 of 80. Arrows finished joint eighth in the Constructors' Championship that year.

In 1984 with BMW M12 turbo engines and sponsorship from cigarette company Barclay things got much better. That year they were ninth in the Constructors' Championship and eighth in 1985. At the 1985 San Marino Grand Prix, Thierry Boutsen finished third behind Alain Prost and Elio de Angelis. However, after the race, Prost was disqualified because his car was 2 kg underweight, giving Boutsen the second place. In 1987, BMW pulled out of Formula One and the engines were badged Megatron through a deal with Arrows major sponsor USF&G, but the British team had their best seasons yet, finishing sixth in 1987 and fifth in 1988 (the final year for turbocharged engines) thanks to frequent points finishes by drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick.

While 1987 and 1988 were Arrows' best years in F1, they were also the cause of frustration for the team and its drivers Warwick and Cheever. At the start of 1987 the sports ruling body (FIA) mandated that all turbo powered cars were to use a pop-off valve in order to restrict turbo boost. This was done not only to slow the cars down for safety reasons, but it was an effort to curb the rapidly rising costs of Formula One. The problem for Arrows was that the valve would regularly cut in lower than the set limit (4.0 bar in 1987, 2.5 bar in 1988). This meant that the Megatron engines were not producing their full power. It took the team's chief mechanic Heini Mader until just before the 1988 Italian Grand Prix at Monza (Round 12) to find the solution, which was simply moving the valve closer to the engine, something Honda and Ferrari engineers had long before discovered. Although Cheever and Warwick finished the race in 3rd and 4th respectively, it was too little too late as the turbo era ended after the 1988 season.

Warwick and Cheever stayed with the team for 1989 and drove the Ross Brawn designed Arrows A11, which was powered by the Ford DFR V8 engine. The team's best finish came at the United States Grand Prix in Cheever's home town of Phoenix. There, the American scored his final podium finish by finishing third. Ultimately, however, Cheever struggled in the A11 (which had to be specially modified early in the season so the tall American could fit in the car) and he actually failed to qualify at the British and Italian Grands Prix. Warwick's perennial bad luck also continued: a long pit stop during the opening race in Brazil cost him what many believed would have been his first win, while at Round 6 in the wet Canadian Grand Prix, Warwick briefly led, and was in second place when his Ford V8 blew. He had been regularly faster than those behind him (including eventual winner Thierry Boutsen, who drove a Williams-Renault), and could have won when race leader Ayrton Senna blew the Honda engine in his McLaren with only two laps remaining. After finishing fifth in 1988, Arrows dropped to seventh in 1989.

Footwork ArrowsEdit

Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi invested in Arrows in 1990 and the cars started displaying the Footwork logo prominently. The team was officially renamed Footwork in 1991, and secured a deal to race with Porsche engines, but the car was woefully noncompetitive and in 1992 they switched to a Ford V8, and then to Mugen engines. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ito pulled out before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team was changed back to Arrows. Jackie Oliver had retained control throughout the entire period.

TWR ArrowsEdit

 
At the 1997 British GP, Hill scored his first point for the Arrows team.

In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw bought the team, and in September Walkinshaw signed up World Champion Damon Hill and hired wealthy Brazilian Pedro Diniz to help pay for Hill's salary. The team nearly secured a maiden victory at the 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix, where Hill started in third position and passed Michael Schumacher to take first place. A component failure in the final laps of the race saw him finish second. In the following years Walkinshaw bought the rest of Oliver's shares.

As Hill left Arrows after 1997 season to race for Jordan, the team contracted Finnish driver Mika Salo to partner Diniz for the 1998 F1 season. The 1998 season marked a new era for Arrows, as the team decided to make its own engines and a V10 Arrows T2-F1 was made to power the cars for the team. It proved to be a difficult season, although both cars finished a respectable fourth and fifth at the eventful 1998 Monaco GP, and Diniz went on to score a single fifth place finish at the wet Belgian race. Arrows ended up finishing seventh in the Constructors' Championship, with a total of six points.

At the start of the 1999 Formula One season Malik Ado Ibrahim bought a 25% shareholding in the team, and his T-Minus brand appeared on the cars for most of the year. However, he too could not provide sufficient funding. The idea behind the T-Minus brand was that companies and corporations would purchase the rights to use the name and they would be permitted to use the brand to promote their products. Malik stated that he had intentions to use the brand in conjunction with Lamborghini but a deal never pulled through. An Arrows employee at the time stated 'The T-Minus brand has brought in absolutely no money over the year' and that 'It was simply a dream in the Prince's head and nothing materialised.'[1] The driver lineup also changed when the team brought in rookie Pedro de la Rosa and 1998 Tyrrell driver Toranosuke Takagi.

In the 2000 season, Jos Verstappen returned to Arrows, where he had driven in 1996 alongside teammate Pedro de la Rosa. The chassis was an Arrows A21 with a Supertec engine. The Supertec engine was not the most powerful, but was still very good, and had been developed further for the season. Allied to an excellent aerodynamic package and good rear end stability, it allowed the Arrows A21 to set the best straight line speeds consistently around the circuits. Generally, both Verstappen and de la Rosa were competitive within a close midfield. During the 2000 season, the Arrows team took part in a thirteen-part TV series named 'Racing Arrows', which followed the team and drivers throughout the year. It was shown on British TV channel ITV in 2001 during late-night slots.[2]

A switch to Asiatech V10s in 2001 and the loss of a lot of staff left the team rather weaker in 2001 when Tom Walkinshaw decided to replace de la Rosa with F1 debutant Enrique Bernoldi. The team struggled through the season and Verstappen scored the team's only point in Austria.

 
Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Enrique Bernoldi deliberately failed to qualify per instruction of the Arrows Grand Prix team at the 2002 French Grand Prix as the team's financial problems worsened.[3]

For 2002, Walkinshaw made a deal to use Cosworth V10 engines and retained Bernoldi (with support from Red Bull) but dropped Verstappen in favour of Heinz-Harald Frentzen, who became available when Prost Grand Prix closed down. This caused Verstappen successfully to sue for breach of contract. That year also saw a costly payout to Pedro Diniz after unsuccessfully suing the Brazilian, who had taken his funding to Sauber for 1999. The team faced a third litigation from Frentzen, who was contracted on a race-by-race basis and who had not yet been paid. Arrows ran out of money in the mid-season and did not appear at all the races at the end of the year, their drivers deliberately failing to qualify for the French Grand Prix.

Negotiations were undertaken throughout the season with potential investors to buy into the team or buy it outright, such as Craig Pollock (who twice made an offer for the team) and Dietrich Mateschitz.

The team went into liquidation at the end of the season, also forcing TWR to close.[4]

A consortium fronted by Phoenix Finance – run by Charles Nickerson, a friend of Walkinshaw – purchased part of the team's assets, specifically the engines, believing that together with their purchase of old Prost Grand Prix assets, it would gain them entrance for the 2003 season. However, their application was rejected by the FIA.

In their chequered history, Arrows set the unenviable record of 382 races without a win, although they collected nine podium finishes, including five second places.

Further use of Arrows chassisEdit

The chassis and its intellectual property rights were later bought by Paul Stoddart, the then-head of the Minardi team, as a potential replacement for his own team's chassis. The new Super Aguri F1 team bought the 2002 cars and ran them (with some modifications) as the SA05 during the first races of the 2006 season. One of these cars was said to have been on display at Melbourne airport before being acquired by Super Aguri. After being returned to the factory to be updated to comply with the 2006 regulations, the car was taken back to Melbourne for the Australian Grand Prix. An update still based on the same chassis was designated the SA06 and made its debut at the 2006 German Grand Prix. The SA05 and SA06 did not score a single point in the 2006 season.

Racing recordEdit

Year Name Car Engine Tyres No. Drivers Points WCC
Arrows
1978   Arrows Racing Team FA1
A1
Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Riccardo Patrese
  Rolf Stommelen
11 10th
1979   Warsteiner Arrows Racing Team A1
A2
Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Riccardo Patrese
  Jochen Mass
5 9th
1980   Warsteiner Arrows Racing Team A3 Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Riccardo Patrese
  Jochen Mass
  Mike Thackwell
  Manfred Winkelhock
11 7th
1981   Ragno Arrows Beta Racing Team A3 Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 M
P
  Riccardo Patrese
  Siegfried Stohr
  Jacques Villeneuve Sr.
10 8th
1982   Arrows Racing Team A4
A5
Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 P   Brian Henton
  Marc Surer
  Mauro Baldi
5 10th
1983   Arrows Racing Team A6 Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Marc Surer
  Chico Serra
  Alan Jones
  Thierry Boutsen
4 10th
1984   Barclay Nordica Arrows A6
A7
Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8
BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t
G   Thierry Boutsen
  Marc Surer
3
3
10th
11th
1985   Barclay Arrows BMW A8 BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t G   Gerhard Berger
  Thierry Boutsen
14 8th
1986   Barclay Arrows BMW A8
A9
BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t G   Marc Surer
  Christian Danner
  Thierry Boutsen
1 10th
1987   USF&G Arrows Megatron A10 Megatron M12/13 1.5 L4t G   Derek Warwick
  Eddie Cheever
11 6th
1988   USF&G Arrows Megatron A10B Megatron M12/13 1.5 L4t G   Derek Warwick
  Eddie Cheever
23 5th
1989   Arrows Grand Prix International A11 Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8 G   Derek Warwick
  Martin Donnelly
  Eddie Cheever
13 7th
1990   Footwork Arrows Racing A11
A11B
Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8 G   Michele Alboreto
  Bernd Schneider
  Alex Caffi
2 9th
Footwork
1991   Footwork Grand Prix International A11C
FA12
FA12C
Porsche 3512 3.5 V12
Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8
G   Alex Caffi
  Stefan Johansson
  Michele Alboreto
0
0
NC
NC
1992   Footwork Mugen Honda FA13 Mugen-Honda MF-351H 3.5 V10 G   Michele Alboreto
  Aguri Suzuki
6 7th
1993   Footwork Mugen Honda FA13B
FA14
Mugen-Honda MF-351HB 3.5 V10 G   Derek Warwick
  Aguri Suzuki
4 9th
1994   Footwork Ford FA15 Ford HBE7/8 3.5 V8 G   Christian Fittipaldi
  Gianni Morbidelli
9 9th
1995   Footwork Hart FA16 Hart 830 3.0 V8 G   Gianni Morbidelli
  Max Papis
  Taki Inoue
5 8th
1996   Footwork Hart FA17 Hart 830 3.0 V8 G   Ricardo Rosset
  Jos Verstappen
1 9th
Arrows
1997   Danka Arrows Yamaha A18 Yamaha OX11A 3.0 V10 B   Damon Hill
  Pedro Diniz
9 8th
1998   Danka Zepter Arrows A19 Arrows T2-F1 3.0 V10 B   Pedro Diniz
  Mika Salo
6 7th
1999   Repsol Arrows A20 Arrows T2-F1 3.0 V10 B   Pedro de la Rosa
  Toranosuke Takagi
1 9th
2000   Arrows F1 Team A21 Supertec FB02 3.0 V10 B   Pedro de la Rosa
  Jos Verstappen
7 7th
2001   Orange Arrows Asiatech A22 Asiatech 001 3.0 V10 B   Jos Verstappen
  Enrique Bernoldi
1 10th
2002   Orange Arrows A23 Cosworth CR-3 3.0 V10 B   Heinz-Harald Frentzen
  Enrique Bernoldi
2 11th

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Risky Business: The TWR Arrows Years 1996-2002". F1 Rejects. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2015. 
  2. ^ "Martin Sharp". Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 
  3. ^ "ARROWS deliberately failed to qualify in France". moto123.com. Retrieved 22 February 2016. 
  4. ^ "Risky Business The TWR Arrows Years 1996–2002". www.f1rejects.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-06. 

External linksEdit