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Shadow Racing Cars

Shadow Racing Cars was a Formula One and sports car racing team, founded and initially based in the United States although later Formula One operations were run from the British base in Northampton.[1] The team held an American licence from 1973 to 1975 and a British licence from 1976 to 1980, thus becoming the first constructor to officially change its nationality.[2][3] Their only F1 victory, at the 1977 Austrian Grand Prix, was achieved as a British team.[4]

Shadow
UOP Shadow logo.png
Full nameShadow Racing Cars Inc.
BaseNorthampton, United Kingdom
Founder(s)United States Don Nichols
Noted staffUnited Kingdom Jackie Oliver
United Kingdom Alan Rees
Mexico Jo Ramírez
Noted driversFrance Jean-Pierre Jarier
Australia Alan Jones
United Kingdom Tom Pryce
United States Peter Revson
United States George Follmer
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1973 South African Grand Prix
Races entered112
Constructors'
Championships
0
Drivers'
Championships
0
Race victories1
Pole positions3
Fastest laps2
Final entry1980 French Grand Prix
A Shadow Mk.I Can-Am car

HistoryEdit

1968–1972: Early years in CanAm seriesEdit

The company was founded by Don Nichols in California[5] in 1968 as Advanced Vehicle Systems; the cars were called Shadows, designed by Trevor Harris and entered under the Shadow Racing Inc. banner. The first Shadows, the Mk.Is, were entered in the CanAm series with George Follmer and Vic Elford driving them. The Mk.1 featured an innovative design, using very small wheels for low drag and, although the car was quick, it was not the most reliable car in the field

The team became more competitive the following year, replacing the Harris car with a Peter Bryant design owing some elements to his Ti22 "titanium car" with Jackie Oliver also arriving from this effort and finishing eighth in the CanAm championship. The team also found some financial backing from Universal Oil Products (UOP).

Shadow came to dominate the shortened 1974 series, although by this point they were competing largely against privateers, the works McLaren and Porsche efforts having left the series.

1973–1974: Entry into Formula OneEdit

 
The Embassy Hill Shadow DN1 from 1973 being demonstrated at the 2008 Goodwood Festival of Speed

Towards the end of 1972, Nichols announced that he was entering his team into Formula One with UOP sponsored cars designed by Tony Southgate, who had designed the BRM that gave Jean-Pierre Beltoise victory at the Monaco Grand Prix the previous year.

The team debuted in Formula One at the 1973 South African Grand Prix with the Shadow DN1 chassis. Two cars were available for drivers Oliver and Follmer, as well as a private entry for Graham Hill who ran his car under the Embassy Hill banner.

For 1974, the team hired two of the most promising drivers of the time: American Peter Revson and Frenchman Jean-Pierre Jarier. During a practice run for the 1974 South African Grand Prix, Revson was killed by a suspension failure on his DN3. He was replaced by Tom Pryce.

1975–1977: Peak of successEdit

 
Matra-powered DN7 driven by Jean-Pierre Jarier as a one-off during the 1975 Austrian Grand Prix
 
The DN9 was copied by Arrows before a court order banned Arrows from racing their version, the FA/1

The new DN5 driven by Jarier gained pole position in the two first Grands Prix of the 1975 season but suffered mechanical failure in both races. The DN5 and most other Shadow Formula One cars used Ford Cosworth DFV engines, which produced around 490 bhp. However, later in 1975 another car was driven by Jarier, the DN7, and was fitted with a Matra V12 engine producing around 550 bhp. The wheelbase was substantially lengthened to accommodate the much larger and more expensive French powerplant, although due to budgetary issues, the Matra-powered DN7 was doomed as a one-off. Jarier's new teammate, Pryce, won the non-championship Race of Champions that same year. Pryce died in an accident involving a marshal at the 1977 South African Grand Prix. The marshal, Frederick Jansen Van Vuuren, had been running across the track to put out a small fire on the other Shadow car and Pryce was unable avoid the collision because he was un-sighted behind the March of Hans-Joachim Stuck. Before Pryce's car finally came to a stop it hit Jacques Laffite's Ligier resulting in both cars crashing into the barriers. Frederick's injuries were so severe it took a marshal's meeting to determine who Pryce had hit.

The team replaced Pryce with Alan Jones, who won the team's only Grand Prix at the Austrian Grand Prix the same year.

1978–1980: DeclineEdit

After the 1977 season Shadow entered into a sharp decline. Jones left to join Williams for 1978. In the same period a majority of their staff and their sponsor Franco Ambrosio left to form their own team, Arrows, taking the young Riccardo Patrese. Despite sponsorship from Villiger tobacco and the signing of experienced drivers Clay Regazzoni and Hans Stuck for the 1978 season, results were poor. In 1980 they were absorbed into Theodore Racing, but Shadow's first ground effect chassis was largely uncompetitive, only once qualifying a car in seven races. Sponsorship dried up and after the seventh of the year's 14 races Teddy Yip wound up the Shadow team.

Complete Formula One resultsEdit

Works team entriesEdit

(key) (Results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Name Chassis Engines Tyres Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Points WCC
1973   UOP Shadow Racing Team DN1 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR NED GER AUT ITA CAN USA 9 8th
  Jackie Oliver Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 11 3 15
  George Follmer 6 3 Ret DNS 14 Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 10 17 14
  Brian Redman DSQ
1974   UOP Shadow Racing Team DN1
DN3
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA ESP BEL MON SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA CAN USA 7 8th
  Peter Revson Ret Ret DNP
  Brian Redman 7 18 Ret
  Bertil Roos Ret
  Tom Pryce Ret Ret 8 6 Ret 10 Ret NC
  Jean-Pierre Jarier Ret Ret DNP NC 13 3 5 Ret 12 Ret 8 8 Ret Ret 10
1975   UOP Shadow Racing Team DN3
DN5
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA ESP MON BEL SWE NED FRA GBR GER AUT ITA USA 9.5 6th
  Tom Pryce 12 Ret 9 Ret Ret 6 Ret 6 Ret Ret 4 3 6 NC
  Jean-Pierre Jarier DNS Ret Ret 4 Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 14 Ret Ret
DN7 Matra MS73 3.0 V12 Ret Ret 0 NC
1976   Shadow Racing Team DN5
DN5B
DN8
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA JPN 10 8th
  Tom Pryce 3 7 Ret 8 10 7 9 8 4 8 Ret 4 8 11 Ret Ret
  Jean-Pierre Jarier Ret Ret 7 Ret 9 8 12 12 9 11 Ret 10 19 18 10 10
1977   Shadow Racing Team DN5B
DN8
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW ESP MON BEL SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN JPN 23 7th
  Tom Pryce NC Ret Ret
  Riccardo Patrese 9 Ret Ret Ret 10 13 Ret 10 6
  Jackie Oliver 9
  Arturo Merzario Ret
  Jean-Pierre Jarier 9
  Renzo Zorzi Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret
  Alan Jones Ret Ret 6 5 17 Ret 7 Ret 1 Ret 3 Ret 4 4
1978   Shadow Racing Team DN8
DN9
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN 6 11th
  Hans-Joachim Stuck 17 Ret DNQ DNS Ret Ret Ret 11 11 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret
  Clay Regazzoni 15 5 DNQ 10 DNQ Ret 15 5 Ret Ret DNQ NC DNQ NC 14 DNQ
1979   Samson Shadow Racing Team
  Interscope Shadow Racing Team
DN9 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 3 10th
  Jan Lammers Ret 14 Ret Ret 12 10 DNQ 18 11 10 Ret Ret DNQ 9 DNQ
  Elio de Angelis 7 12 Ret 7 Ret Ret DNQ 16 12 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 4
1980   Theodore Shadow
  Shadow Cars
DN11
DN12
Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 0 NC
  Stefan Johansson DNQ DNQ
  Geoff Lees 13 DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ
  David Kennedy DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ

Results of other Shadow carsEdit

(key) (Results in bold indicate pole position; results in italics indicate fastest lap.)

Year Entrant(s) Chassis Engine Tyres Driver(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1973 ARG BRA RSA ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR NED GER AUT ITA CAN USA
  Embassy Racing Shadow DN1 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Graham Hill Ret 9 Ret Ret 10 Ret NC 13 Ret 14 16 13
1976 BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA JPN
  Team P R Reilly Shadow DN3 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Mike Wilds DNQ
1978 ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN
  Interscope Racing Shadow DN9 Ford Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8 G   Danny Ongais DNPQ DNPQ

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Case History". Corktree.tripod.com. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  2. ^ "1973 United States Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "1978 United States Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ "1977 Austrian Grand Prix Entry list". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ "CanAm Specials: AVS Shadow". grandprixhistory.com. Retrieved 23 June 2018.