Open main menu

Foreign relations of North Korea

Diplomatic relations of North Korea

The foreign relations of North Korea – officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) – have been shaped by its conflict with capitalist countries like South Korea and its historical ties with world communism. Both the government of North Korea and the government of South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea) claim to be the government of the whole of Korea. The Korean War in the 1950s failed to resolve the issue, leaving North Korea locked in a military confrontation with South Korea and the United States Forces Korea across the Demilitarized Zone.

At the start of the Cold War, North Korea only had diplomatic recognition by Communist countries. Over the following decades, it established relations with developing countries and joined the Non-Aligned Movement. When the Eastern Bloc collapsed in the years 1989–1991, North Korea made efforts to improve its diplomatic relations with developed capitalist countries. At the same time, there were international efforts to resolve the confrontation on the Korean peninsula (known as the Korean conflict).

When North Korea acquired nuclear weapons after the demise of the Soviet Union, its main economic backer, resolving the crisis became a more important issue to much of the international community.[1] North Korea is considered a rogue state, and is not signatory to the Non-proliferation treaty (NPT)—in fact, it was formerly an acceder to the treaty, which it had violated, but withdrew in 2003 after banishing the International Atomic Energy Agency.[2] Its nuclear program is seen as part of North Korea's strategy of "nuclear coercion",[1] which analysts have posed in terms of North Korea's regime survival.[note 1]

In 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un made a sudden peace overture towards South Korea and the United States. This led to the first face-to-face discussion between the State Chairman of North Korea and a sitting President of the United States.[3] This is known as the 2018 Korean peace process.

Principles and practiceEdit

The Constitution of North Korea establishes the country's foreign policy. While Article 2 of the constitution describes the country as a "revolutionary state," Article 9 says that the country will work to achieve Korean reunification, maintain state sovereignty and political independence, and "national unity."[4][5]

Many articles specifically outline the country's foreign policy. Article 15 says that the country will "protect the democratic national rights of Korean compatriots overseas and their legitimate rights and interests as recognized by international law" and Article 17 explicates the basic ideals of the country's foreign policy:[5]

  • Basic ideals of their foreign policy are "independence, peace and friendship"[5]
  • Establishment of political, economic, cultural, and diplomatic relations with "friendly countries" on the principles of "complete equality, independence, mutual respect, non-interference in each other’s affairs and mutual benefit."[5]
  • Unifying with "peoples of the world who defend their independence"[5]
  • Actively supporting and encouraging "struggle of all people who oppose all forms of aggression and interference and fight for their countries' independence and national and class emancipation."[5]

Other parts of the constitution explicate other foreign policies. Article 36 says that foreign trade by the DPRK will be conducted "by state organs, enterprises, and social, cooperative organizations" while the country will "develop foreign trade on the principles of complete equality and mutual benefit." Article 37 adds that the country will encourage "institutions, enterprises and organizations in the country to conduct equity or contractual joint ventures with foreign corporations and individuals, and to establish and operate enterprises of various kinds in special economic zones." Furthermore, Article 38 says that the DPRK will implement a protectionist tariff policy "to protect the independent national economy" while Article 59 says the country's armed forces will "carry out the military-first revolutionary line." In terms of other foreign policy, Article 80 says that the country will grant asylum to foreign nationals who have been persecuted "for struggling for peace and democracy, national independence and socialism or for the freedom of scientific and cultural pursuits."[5]

Ultimately, however, as explicated in Articles 100–103 and 109, the chairman of the National Defense Commission (NDC) is the supreme leader of the country, with a term that is the same as members of the Supreme People's Assembly or SPA (five years), as is established in article 90, directing the country's armed forces, and guiding overall state affairs, but is not determined by him alone since he is still accountable to the SPA.[5] Rather, the NDC chairman works to defend the state from external actors. Currently, Kim Jong-un, is the Chairman of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK), State Chairman of North Korea, and holder of numerous other leadership positions. The Constitution also delineates, in article 117, that the President of SPA Presidium, which can convene this assembly, represents the state and receives "credentials and letters of recall from envoys accredited by other countries." Additionally, the cabinet of the DPRK has the authority to "conclude treaties with foreign countries and conduct external affairs" as noted in Article 125.[5]

North Korea is one of the few countries in which the giving of presents still plays a significant role in diplomatic protocol, with Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reporting from time to time the country's leader received a floral basket or other gift from a foreign leader or organization.[6][7] During a 2000 visit to Pyongyang, US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright gave North Korean leader Kim Jong-il a basketball signed by Michael Jordan, as he took an interest in NBA basketball.[8] During the 2000 inter-Korean summit, Kim Jong-il made a gift of two Pungsan dogs (associated with the North) to South Korean president Kim Dae-jung. In return, Kim Dae-jung gave two Jindo dogs (associated with the South) to Kim Jong-il.[9][10] At their Pyongyang summit in 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un gave two Pungsan dogs to South Korean President, Moon Jae-in.[11]

North Korea takes its defense seriously, confronting countries they see as threatening their sovereignty, and restricts the activities of foreign diplomats.[12][13]

HistoryEdit

 
Juche Tower, Pyongyang

After 1945, the Soviet Union supplied the economic and military aid that enabled North Korea to mount its invasion of South Korea in 1950. Soviet aid and influence continued at a high level during the Korean war. This was only the beginning of North Korea as governed by the faction which had its roots in an anti-Japanese Korean nationalist movement based in Manchuria and China, with Kim Il-sung participating in this movement and later forming the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK).

The assistance of Chinese troops, after 1950, during the war and their presence in the country until 1958 gave China some degree of influence in North Korea.[14]

In 1961, North Korea concluded formal mutual security treaties with the Soviet Union and China, which have not been formally ended. In the case of China, Kim Il-sung and Chou En-Lai signed the Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty, whereby Communist China pledged to immediately render military and other assistance by all means to its ally against any outside attack.[15] The treaty says, in short that:

THE Chairman of the People's Republic of China and the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, determined, in accordance with Marxism–Leninism and the principle of proletarian internationalism and on the basis of mutual respect for state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and mutual assistance and support, to make every effort to further strengthen and develop the fraternal relations of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance between the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, to jointly guard the security of the two peoples, and to safeguard and consolidate the peace of Asia and the world...[Article II:]The Contracting Parties will continue to make every effort to safeguard the peace of Asia and the world and the security of all peoples...[Article II:] In the event of one of the Contracting Parties being subjected to the armed attack by any state or several states jointly and thus being involved in a state of war, the other Contracting Party shall immediately render military and other assistance by all means at its disposal...[Article V:] The Contracting Parties, on the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and in the spirit of friendly co-operation, will continue to render each other every possible economic and technical aid in the cause of socialist construction of the two countries and will continue to consolidate and develop economic, cultural, and scientific and technical co-operation between the two countries...[Article VI:] The Contracting Parties hold that the unification of Korea must be realized along peaceful and democratic lines and that such a solution accords exactly with the national interests of the Korean people and the aim of preserving peace in the Far East.[15]

This treaty was prolonged twice, in 1981 and 2001, with a validity until 2021.

For most of the Cold War, North Korea avoided taking sides in the Sino-Soviet split, but was originally only recognized by countries in the Communist Bloc until 1958 when Algeria recognized it.[16]

East Germany was an important source of economic cooperation for North Korea. The East German leader, Erich Honecker, who visited in 1977, was one of Kim Il-sung's closest foreign friends.[17] In 1986, the two countries signed an agreement on military co-operation.[18] Kim was also close to maverick Communist leaders, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, and Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania.[19] North Korea began to play a part in the global radical movement, forging ties with such diverse groups as the Black Panther Party of the US,[20] the Workers Party of Ireland,[21] and the African National Congress.[22] As it increasingly emphasized its independence, North Korea began to promote the doctrine of Juche ("self-reliance") as an alternative to orthodox Marxism-Leninism and as a model for developing countries to follow.[23]

 
Kim Il-sung's 80th birthday ceremony with international guests, in 1992.

When North-South dialogue started in 1972, North Korea began to receive diplomatic recognition from countries outside the Communist bloc. Within four years, North Korea was recognized by 93 countries, on par with South Korea's 96. North Korea gained entry into the World Health Organization and, as a result, sent its first permanent observer missions to the United Nations (UN).[24] In 1975, it joined the Non-Aligned Movement.[25]

During the 1980s, the pace of North Korea's establishment of new diplomatic relations slowed considerably.[26][27] Following Kim Il-sung's 1984 visit to Moscow, there was a dramatic improvement in Soviet-DPRK relations, resulting in renewed deliveries of advanced Soviet weaponry to North Korea and increases in economic aid. In 1989, as a response to the 1988 Seoul Olympics, North Korea hosted the 13th World Festival of Youth and Students in Pyongyang.[28][29]

South Korea established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1990 and the People's Republic of China in 1992, which put a serious strain on relations between North Korea and its traditional allies. Moreover, the demise of Communist states in Eastern Europe in 1989 and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 had resulted in a significant drop in communist aid to North Korea, resulting in largely decreased relations with Russia. Subsequently, South Korea developed the "sunshine policy" towards North Korea, aiming for peaceful Korean reunification. This policy ended in 2009.

In September 1991, North Korea became a member of the UN. In July 2000, it began participating in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), as Foreign Minister Paek Nam-sun attended the ARF ministerial meeting in Bangkok 26–27 July. North Korea also expanded its bilateral diplomatic ties in that year, establishing diplomatic relations with Italy, Australia and the Philippines. The United Kingdom established diplomatic relations with North Korea on 13 December 2000,[30] as did Canada in February 2001,[31] followed by Germany and New Zealand on 1 March 2001.[32][33]

 
The historic Trump–Kim summit in June 2018

In 2006, North Korea test-fired a series of ballistic missiles, after Chinese officials had advised North Korean authorities not to do so. As a result, Chinese authorities publicly rebuked what the west perceives as China's closest ally, and supported the UN Security Council Resolution 1718, which imposed sanctions on North Korea.[14] At other times however, China has blocked United Nations resolutions threatening sanctions against North Korea.[34] In January, 2009, China's paramount leader Hu Jintao and North Korea's supreme leader Kim Jong-il exchanged greetings and declared 2009 as the "year of China-DPRK friendship", marking 60 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries.[35]

On 28 November 2010, as part of the United States diplomatic cables leak, WikiLeaks and media partners such as The Guardian published details of communications in which Chinese officials referred to North Korea as a "spoiled child" and its nuclear program as "a threat to the whole world's security" while two anonymous Chinese officials claimed there was growing support in Beijing for Korean reunification under the South's government.[36][37]

Inter-Korean relationsEdit

 
The Korean DMZ, viewed from the north

In August 1971, both North and South Korea agreed to hold talks through their respective Red Cross societies with the aim of reuniting the many Korean families separated following the division of Korea after the Korean War. After a series of secret meetings, both sides announced on 4 July 1972, an agreement to work toward peaceful reunification and an end to the hostile atmosphere prevailing on the peninsula. Dialogue was renewed on several fronts in September 1984, when South Korea accepted the North's offer to provide relief goods to victims of severe flooding in South Korea.

In a major initiative in July 1988, South Korean President Roh Tae-woo called for new efforts to promote North-South exchanges, family reunification, inter-Korean trade and contact in international forums. Roh followed up this initiative in a UN General Assembly speech in which South Korea offered to discuss security matters with the North for the first time. In September 1990, the first of eight prime minister-level meetings between officials of North Korea and South Korea took place in Seoul, beginning an especially fruitful period of dialogue. The prime ministerial talks resulted in two major agreements: the Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression, Exchanges, and Cooperation (the Basic Agreement) and the Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula (the Joint Declaration). The Joint Declaration on denuclearization was initiated on 13 December 1991. It forbade both sides to test, manufacture, produce, receive, possess, store, deploy, or use nuclear weapons and forbade the possession of nuclear reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities. On 30 January 1992, North Korea also signed a nuclear safeguards agreement with the IAEA, as it had pledged to do in 1985 when acceding to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. This safeguards agreement allowed IAEA inspections to begin in June 1992.

As the 1990s progressed, concern over the North's nuclear program became a major issue in North-South relations and between North Korea and the US. By 1998, South Korean President Kim Dae-jung announced a Sunshine Policy towards North Korea. This led in June 2000 to the first Inter-Korean summit, between Kim Dae-jung and Kim Jong-il.[38] In September 2000, the North and South Korean teams marched together at the Sydney Olympics.[39] Trade increased to the point where South Korea became North Korea's largest trading partner.[40] Starting in 1998, the Mount Kumgang Tourist Region was developed as a joint venture between the government of North Korea and Hyundai.[41] In 2003, the Kaesong Industrial Region was established to allow South Korean businesses to invest in the North.[42]

In 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun held talks with Kim Jong-il in Pyongyang.[43][44][45][46] On October 4, 2007, South Korean President Roh and Kim signed a peace declaration. The document called for international talks to replace the Armistice which ended the Korean War with a permanent peace treaty.[47] The Sunshine Policy was formally abandoned by subsequent South Korean President Lee Myung-bak in 2010.[48]

The Kaesong Industrial Park was closed in 2013, amid tensions about North Korea's nuclear weapons program. It reopened the same year but closed again in 2016.[49][50]

In 2017 Moon Jae-in was elected President of South Korea with promises to return to the Sunshine Policy.[51] In his New Year address for 2018, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un proposed sending a delegation to the upcoming Winter Olympics in South Korea.[52] The Seoul–Pyongyang hotline was reopened after almost two years.[53] North and South Korea marched together in the Olympics opening ceremony and fielded a united women's ice hockey team.[54] North Korea sent an unprecedented high-level delegation, headed by Kim Yo-jong, sister of Kim Jong-un, and President Kim Yong-nam, as well as athletes and performers.[55]

On 27 April, the 2018 inter-Korean summit took place between President Moon Jae-in and Kim Jong-un on the South Korean side of the Joint Security Area. It was also the first time since the Korean War that a North Korean leader had entered South Korean territory.[56] The summit ended with both countries pledging to work towards complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.[57][58] They agreed to work to remove all nuclear weapons from the Korean Peninsula and, within the year, to declare an official end to the Korean War.[59] As part of the Panmunjom Declaration which was signed by leaders of both countries, both sides also called for the end of longstanding military activities in the region of the Korean border and a reunification of Korea.[60] Also, the leaders of the region's two divided states have agreed to work together to connect and modernise their border railways.[61]

Moon and Kim met the second time on 26 May.[62] Their second summit was unannounced, held in the North Korean portion of Joint Security Area and concerned Kim's upcoming summit with US President Donald Trump.[63][64] Trump and Kim met on 12 June 2018 in Singapore and endorsed the Panmunjom Declaration. On June 30, 2019, Kim and Moon met again at the Korean DMZ, this time joined by Trump.[65] During 2019, North Korea conducted a series of short–range missile tests, while the US and South Korea took part in joint military drills in August. On 16 August 2019, North Korea's ruling party made a statement criticizing the South for participating in the drills and for buying US military hardware, calling it a "grave provocation" and saying there would be no more negotiation.[66]

Nuclear weapons programEdit

 
5 MWe experimental reactor at Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center

North Korea's nuclear research program started with Soviet help in the 1960s, on condition that it joined the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the 1980s an indigenous nuclear reactor development program started with a small experimental 5 MWe gas-cooled reactor in Yongbyon, with a 50 MWe and 200 MWe reactor to follow. Concerns that North Korea had non-civilian nuclear ambitions were first raised in the late 1980s and almost resulted in their withdrawal from the NPT in 1994. However, the Agreed Framework and the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) temporarily resolved this crisis by having the US and several other countries agree that in exchange for dismantling its nuclear program, two light-water reactors (LWRs) would be provided with moves toward normalization of political and economic relations. This agreement started to break down from 2001 because of slow progress on the KEDO light water reactor project and U.S. President George W. Bush's Axis of Evil speech. After continued allegations from the United States, North Korea declared the existence of uranium enrichment programs during a private meeting with American military officials. North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on 10 January 2003. In 2006, North Korea conducted its first nuclear test.[67]

In the third (and last) phase of the fifth round of six-party talks were held on 8 February 2007, and implementation of the agreement reached at the end of the round has been successful according to the requirements of steps to be taken by all six parties within 30 days, and within 60 days after the agreement, including normalization of US-North Korea and Japanese-North Korean diplomatic ties, but on the condition that North Korea ceases to operate its Yongbyon nuclear research centre.[68][69]

North Korea conducted further nuclear tests in 2009, 2013, January and September 2016, and 2017.[70][71][72] In 2018, North Korea ceased conducting nuclear and missile tests. Kim Jong-un signed the Panmunjom Declaration committing to "denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula" and affirmed the same commitment in a subsequent meeting with US President Donald Trump.

Bilateral relationsEdit

North Korea is often perceived as the "Hermit kingdom", completely isolated from the rest of the world, but North Korea maintains diplomatic relations with 164 independent states.[73][74][75][76]

The country also has bilateral relations with the State of Palestine, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the European Union.[77][78][79][80][81][82]

AfricaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria 25 September 1958 On 25 September 1958, Algeria became the first non-Marxist country to establish diplomatic relations with North Korea.[16] Initially, relations were with the National Liberation Front since the Algerian War was still ongoing and the country had not gained its independence yet.[83] North Korea maintains an embassy in the country.[84]
  Angola North Korea has had a strong relationship with Angola from the time of Angola's struggle for independence. It is estimated that 3,000 North Korean troops and a thousand advisers took part in the Angolan Civil War in the 1970s and 1980s, and fighting against the apartheid South African military.[22] In 2011, Angola purchased naval patrol boats from North Korea.[85]
  Benin After the People's Republic of Benin was proclaimed in 1975, the government established good relations with several Communist countries, including North Korea. These good relations have continued to the present day.[86]
  Botswana See Botswana–North Korea relations

Botswana had good relations with North Korea from 1974.[87][88][89][90][91] In years that followed, the first independent leader of Botswana, President Seretse Khama, made a state visit to Pyongyang, and several North Korean martial arts instructors were commissioned to train the Botswana Police Service in unarmed combat but did not stay long. Beyond this, North Korea used the Mansudae Overseas Projects company to build the Three Dikgosi Monument, which has been a source of controversy in the Western media, and hired medical professionals to supplement the ones in their country.[92][93]

However, Botswana broke off diplomatic ties in 2014, after suspending bilateral cooperation the previous year, over alleged human rights violations.[94] In the following year, Ian Khama, the president of Botswana, declared that the country was an "opponent" and went on to claim that "the aggressive attitude of North Korea threatens peace in the region and therefore threatens world peace...I think the North Korean leadership is living in the Stone Age."[95]

  Burkina Faso See Burkina Faso–North Korea relations

Burkina Faso and North Korea established strong relations during the Cold War, and these have been continued.

Relations between Burkina Faso and North Korea have historically been relatively close. Neither country maintains an embassy in the other, although North Korea used to have an ambassador in Ouagadougou.[96] Relations were especially close during the Cold War, with North Korea providing military equipment to the army of the Republic of Upper Volta, along with agricultural, military and technical assistance over the years.[97][98][99][100][101] Even Thomas Sankara, a Marxist and revolutionary, visited Pyongyang several times, leading to a DPRK–Burkina Faso Friendship Association in place at the time. Even during the reign of Blaise Compaoré, the successor of Sankara, cultural and trade relations remained strong, along with North Korea completing construction, in 1998, five small water reservoirs in the country.[102][103][104][105]

In recent years, Burkina Faso has strayed from traditional relations with North Korea, by voting, in 2009, in favor of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874, which imposed further economic sanctions on North Korea, saying that they voted in such a manner due to their commitment to a "nuclear weapon-free" world.[106]

  Burundi See Burundi–North Korea relations

Burundi and North Korea have good relations. In 2011, Burundi purchased weapons from North Korea. In 2016, North Korea's Kim Yong-nam visited Burundi.[107]

  Central African Republic See Central African Republic–North Korea relations

From 1969, North Korea maintained a close relationship with the long-time military ruler of the Central African Republic, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, even though he was anti-communist.[108] After he proclaimed himself Emperor in 1976, Bokassa's first foreign visit was to Pyongyang, returning to the country in 1978, signing a treaty of peace and friendship with Kim Il-sung.[109][110] Even after Bokasa was overthrown in 1979, friendly relations continued. By March 1986 it was estimated that North Korea was supplying 13 technicians to the Central African Republic, seemingly to counter South Korean influence in the country.[111]

  Comoros 13 November 1975 See Comoros–North Korea relations

North Korea has had diplomatic relations with the Comoros since November 13, 1975.[82]

  Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo has friendly relations with North Korea. After the death of Laurent Kabila, North Korean workers under the Mansudae Overseas Projects constructed a statue commemorating the life of the former leader in Kinshasa.[112] When a North Korean delegation visited DR Congo in 2013, the two countries signed a protocol on negotiations and cooperation between their foreign ministries.[86]In 2016, it was revealed that the Congolese government of Joseph Kabila had purchased pistols and hired military instructors from North Korea.[107]
  Egypt 1963 See Egypt–North Korea relations

North Korea and Egypt have a long history of good relations. Egypt recognized North Korea in 1963. It did not recognize South Korea until 1995. North Korea gave Egypt military aid during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. In the 1980s, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak visited North Korea four times. Egyptian company Orascom helped create North Korea's cell phone network. As of September 12, 2017, Egypt announced it was suspending military ties with North Korea.[113]

  Equatorial Guinea See Equatorial Guinea–North Korea relations

Equatorial Guinea's first leader, Francisco Macías Nguema, established close ties with North Korea in 1969. The relationship continued after his overthrow. In 2016, Kim Yong-nam of North Korea visited Equatorial Guinea and held amicable talks with President Teodoro Obiang.[107]

  Ethiopia Ethiopia has had diplomatic relations with North Korea since the 1970s. North Korea has provided training for Ethiopian militias and special forces, and supplied munitions, tanks, Armoured Personnel Carriers, and artillery. It has also helped establish two arms factories. However, economic relations have become restricted by United Nations sanctions.[114]
  Gambia 1973 See Gambia–North Korea relations

The Gambia and North Korea have had relations since 1973, with a diplomatic mission of North Korea opening in 1975.[115] In later years, North Korea sent karate instructors to the country, and had varying strong bilateral relations between the two countries.[116][self-published source][117][118][119][120] Hong Son Phy is currently the accredited ambassador to Banjul.[121]

  Ghana 1964 See Ghana–North Korea relations

Ghana and North Korea established diplomatic relations in 1964.[16]

Even before diplomatic relations were established, Ghana had campaigned, along with other African nations, for recognition of North Korea as an observer in the UN.[122] Trade relations between the two countries preceded diplomatic relations.[123] Kim Il-sung shared much in common politically with Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah.[124] After Nkrumah was ousted,[125] North Korea ended up in a diplomatic spat with Ghana, which accused it of training anti-government rebels.[126] By the late-1960s, North Korea was again supporting Ghana as an anti-imperialist force in Africa.[127] In the 1980s, Ghana's Provisional National Defence Council successfully sought aid from North Korea and other socialist countries in order to be more independent from Western powers.[128] An agreement on cultural exchange was signed for 1993–1995.[129]

There was a North Korean embassy in Ghana until it was closed down in 1998.[130] The current North Korean ambassador to Ghana is Kil Mun-yong.[131][132] Trade between the two countries consists mainly of North Korean exports of cement and Ghanaian cocoa, gemstones, and pearls.[133] There is a Korea–Ghana Friendship Association for cultural exchange.[134]

  Guinea-Bissau See Guinea-Bissau–North Korea relations
  Kenya See Kenya–North Korea relations
  Libya In the 1970s and 1980s, the Libyan government lead by Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi established close ties with the North Korean government and purchased a significant amount of North Korea's weaponry.[135] In 2015, it was estimated that 300 to 400 North Korean citizens were living in Libya.
  Madagascar North Korea has been an ally of Madagascar since the 1970s. North Korea provided assistance in construction projects, such as building the Iavoloha Palace.[136] In 1976, Madagascar hosted a conference on the Juche concept, an established part of North Korea's foreign policy.[137]
  Mauritania 1964 See Mauritania–North Korea relations

North Korea and Mauritania established relations in 1964. President Moktar Ould Daddah visited Pyongyang in 1967, while Kim Il-sung went to Mauritania in 1975. Relations soured shortly afterwards when North Korea recognised the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. In 2017, a North Korean delegation visited Mauritania, and the two governments pledged to increase co-operation.[138]

  Mozambique Mozambique has a history of good relations with North Korea. Its capital Maputo has a street called Avenida Kim Il Sung after the founder of North Korea.[139] In 2016 a delegation of the Mozambique Liberation Front visited Pyongyang and met with members of the Workers' Party of Korea.[140]
  Namibia See Namibia–North Korea relations

Namibia's ruling party, the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) has had a longstanding historical relationship with North Korea, dating back to the South African Border War.[141][142][143][144] Beginning in 1964, North Korea provided training and arms to SWAPO's armed wing, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN), which was engaged in an insurgency against the South African government.[145][146] Following Namibian independence, North Korea established an embassy in Windhoek; however, the current status of the embassy remains unclear.[147]

Kim Yong-nam, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, visited Namibia in 2008, and several bilateral agreements have been signed. North Korea has helped build state houses in the regions within the country, and military co-operation continues even with sanctions on North Korea.[148][149][150][151][152]

  Nigeria 1976 Nigeria and North Korea established diplomatic relations in 1976. In 2014, they signed an agreement to facilitate the exchange of information about technology, including exchanges and joint projects between universities. North Korea also proposed that Nigeria become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.[153]
  Rwanda See North Korea–Rwanda relations
  Senegal 1972 Senegal and North Korea have had diplomatic relations since 1972.[154] The African Renaissance Monument in Dakar, Senegal, was built by Mansudae Overseas Projects, a company from North Korea.[155]
  Seychelles During the 1977–2004 rule of President France-Albert René, the socialist and non-aligned government of Seychelles maintained close relations with North Korea, receiving significant North Korean developmental aid.[156]
  Somalia See North Korea–Somalia relations

Diplomatic relations between North Korea and Somalia were formally established on 13 April 1967. This late-1950s to 1960s period was when North Korea had first declared autonomous diplomacy.[16] However, to this day North Korea favours Ethiopia rather than Somalia during the Ethio-Somali conflict.

  South Africa North Korea supported the African National Congress in its struggle against apartheid in South Africa. North Korea campaigned against the white minority government and provided military training to ANC fighters in camps in Angola. In 1998, after the end of apartheid, North Korea and South Africa established diplomatic relations. A North Korean embassy was established in Pretoria. The two governments continue to have friendly relations.[22]
  South Sudan North Korea and South Sudan established diplomatic relations in November 2011, shortly after South Sudan gained independence from Sudan.[157]
  Tanzania See North Korea–Tanzania relations

Tanzania and North Korea have a long history of military cooperation, going back to their mutual support for anti-imperialist struggle in southern Africa during the Cold War.[158] In 2016, there were 11 North Korean medical clinics operating in Tanzania, two others having recently been shut down by the government.[159] In 2017, it was reported that Tanzania was planning to open a general hospital employing dozens of North Korean doctors.[160]

  Togo See North Korea–Togo relations
  Uganda Uganda is a long-term ally of North Korea. Yoweri Museveni, Uganda's president since 1986, has said that he learned basic Korean from Kim Il-sung during visits to North Korea.[139] North Korea has provided training for pilots, technicians, police, marine forces, and special forces. In 2016 Uganda stated that it was ending this co-operation due to United Nations sanctions against North Korea's nuclear weapons program. Uganda indicated, however, that it still considered North Korea to be a friend.[161][162]
  Zimbabwe The relationship between North Korea and Zimbabwe goes back to the struggle for independence. Soldiers of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwean African National Liberation Army were trained in North Korea in the 1970s.[22] In 1980, after independence was gained, the new Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe visited North Korea. In October 1980, Kim Il-sung and Mugabe signed an agreement for an exchange of soldiers. Following this agreement, 106 North Korean soldiers arrived in Zimbabwe to train a brigade of soldiers that became known as the Fifth Brigade. Zimbabwe's governing party, the ZANU-PF, mourned the death of North Korean leader Kim Jong-il in 2011. In 2013, the two countries signed an agreement, exchanging Zimbabwean uranium for North Korean arms.[163]

In 2019, the state-owned Zimbabwe Herald said that, "Kim Il Sung lives forever in the hearts of the African people as their great saviour, true friend and benevolent mentor".[164]

AmericasEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Belize 20 June 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 20, 1991.[165]
  Brazil See Brazil–North Korea relations

Despite the Brazilian government's economic relations with North Korea, it has generally condemned controversial North Korean actions that threaten stability in East Asia, such as the 2009 North Korean nuclear test, upon which the Brazilian Ministry for Foreign Affairs stated that the Brazilian Government vehemently condemns North Korea's nuclear test and urged the country to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and return to the six-party talks as soon as possible, and the ROKS Cheonan sinking, upon which the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations issued a statement saying the government expresses solidarity with South Korea and urged stability on the Korean peninsula. North Korea took part in the Rio 2016 Olympics, suggesting better stability between the two countries.

  Canada See Canada–North Korea relations

Diplomatic relations between Canada and North Korea were established in February 2001. However, there are no official embassies between the two nations. Canada is represented by the Canadian Ambassador resident in Seoul, and North Korea is represented by their position in the United Nations. On 25 May 2010, Canada suspended diplomatic relations with North Korea.[166]

  Cuba See Cuba–North Korea relations

North Korea has had diplomatic relations with Cuba since 1960 and maintains an embassy in Havana. Cuba has been one of North Korea's most consistent allies.[167] North Korea media portrays Cubans as comrades in the common cause of socialism.[168]

During the Cold War, North Korea and Cuba forged a bond of solidarity based on their militant positions opposing American power. In 1968 Raúl Castro stated their views were "completely identical on everything".[169] Che Guevara, then a Cuban government minister, visited North Korea in 1960, and proclaimed it a model for Cuba to follow.[170] Cuban leader Fidel Castro visited in 1986.[171] Cuba was one of the few countries that showed solidarity with North Korea by boycotting the Seoul Olympics in 1988.[169]

In 2016, the Workers Party of Korea and the Communist Party of Cuba met to discuss strengthening ties.[167] After Fidel Castro's death in 2016, North Korea government declared a three-day mourning period and sent an official delegation to his funeral.[171] Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un visited the Cuban embassy in Pyongyang to pay his respects.[172]

In 2018, the new Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel visited North Korea, stressing socialist solidarity and opposition to sanctions.[173]

  Grenada See Grenada–North Korea relations
  Mexico 4 September 1980 See Mexico–North Korea relations

Both nations established diplomatic relations on 4 September 1980.

On September 7, 2017, Mexico expelled its North Korean ambassador as punishment for Pyongyang's nuclear tests in 2017.[176] However, ties between the two countries have not yet been officially broken.[177]

  Peru North Korea and Peru established diplomatic relations in 1988, with North Korea with an embassy in Lima, Peru.[178] Even so, the Peruvian government condemned the "third nuclear test" by North Korea in 2013, saying "the government of Peru calls on the government of North Korea to immediately stop these types of actions."[179]In September 2017, Peru expelled ambassadors of the North Korea, meaning that relations between countries has been expired.[180]
  United States See North Korea–United States relations Though strained for more than half a century, relations have started to be mended between the United States and North Korea under leaders Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un.
 
Kim Jong-un and US President Donald Trump during the 2018 North Korea–United States summit in June 2018.

Prior to 2018, relations developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by North Korea's six tests of nuclear weapons, its development of long-range missiles capable of striking targets thousands of miles away, and its ongoing threats to strike the United States[181] and South Korea with nuclear weapons and conventional forces.[182][183]

Trump met with Kim in Singapore on June 12, 2018. An agreement was signed between the two countries calling endorsing 2017 Panmunjom Declaration signed by North and South Korea to work towards completely denuclearizing the Korean Peninsula.[184] The they met in Hanoi on February 27–28, 2019, but failed to achieve an agreement.[185] On June 30, 2019, Trump met with Kim along with Moon Jae-in at the Korean DMZ.[186]

Sweden acts as the protecting power of United States interests in North Korea for consular matters.

  Venezuela 1965 The two countries have had a friendly relationship since Hugo Chávez took power. In 2008, President Chávez planned to visit North Korean leader Kim Jong-il in Pyongyang.[187] In 2015, North Korea reopened its embassy in La Mercedes, Caracas, as solidarity between Caracas and Pyongyang has strengthened. The two countries also signed a bilateral agreement to build a giant statue.[188]

AsiaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Afghanistan 26 December 1973 Afghanistan and North Korea established diplomatic relations on 26 December 1973.[16]
  Armenia 1992 The establishment of diplomatic relations between Armenia and North Korea started in 1992 upon Armenia's independence from the USSR, but never progressed due to Armenia's protest of North Korea's numerous human rights violations, nuclear weapons program, and its harsh treatment of the North Korean populace.[189]
  Bangladesh See Bangladesh–North Korea relations

Bangladesh currently operates an North Korean office through its embassy in Beijing, China. North Korea also maintains an embassy in Dhaka.[190] Relations were strained during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence when North Korea supported the Government of East Pakistan and the Pakistan Armed Forces.

  Cambodia See Cambodia–North Korea relations

Cambodia and North Korea generally have good relations. When the Khmer Rouge was removed by a Vietnamese invasion in 1979, North Korea supported Norodom Sihanouk in an exile government, and he lived in North Korea until 1991 when he became King of Cambodia and returned to the country with a bodyguard of individuals from North Korea.[191] North Korea has an embassy in Phnom Penh and Cambodia has an embassy in Pyongyang. While North Korea has built the Angkor Panorama museum within the country, reportedly relations are strained with some saying that Cambodia could cast off North Korea as a partner although this seems unlikely since North Korea has asked for help from the country in reducing tensions on the Korean Peninsula.[192][193][194] In 2016, one United Nations expert claimed that the Cambodia Supreme Court upholding "a life sentence for two top cadres of the 1970s Khmer Rouge found guilty of crimes against humanity" will send a "message" to the leaders of North Korea even though the said country never supported the Khmer Rouge.[195] More directly, North Korea has defended Cambodia, saying in later 2016 that a division of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights was operating illegally in the country, saying its operation violated the "principle of respect for sovereignty and non-interference in domestic affairs" and that "every year the U.N. raises the issue of human rights while violating the principle of fairness when discussing human rights and showing sympathy for hostile acts against sovereign states."[196]

  China 6 October 1949 See China–North Korea relations
 
The Sino–Korean Friendship Bridge across the Yalu (Amnokgang) at Sinuiju and Dandong

China is often considered to be North Korea's closest ally.[197][198][199] North Korea is also the only country with which China has a legally binding mutual aid and co-operation treaty.[200]

China and North Korea share a 1,416-kilometre long border (890 miles) that corresponds to the course of the Yalu and Tumen rivers, which both flow from Heaven Lake on Mount Paektu. The countries have six border crossings between them.[201]

The two countries are generally perceived to be on friendly terms; however, in recent years, both the relationship and friendliness between the two nations have gradually declined due to growing concern in the PRC over issues such as North Korea's nuclear weapons program, sinking of the ROKS Cheonan and their bombardment of Yeonpyeong. After North Korea conducted its first nuclear test in 2006, the Chinese government stated that they were "resolutely opposed to it" and voted for United Nations sanctions against North Korea.[202]

The Council on Foreign Relations suggests that the China's main priority in its bilateral relations with North Korea is to prevent the collapse of Kim Jong-un's government, concerned that such an event would provoke a surge of North Korean refugees into China. All the while Chinese counterparts are interested in a buffer zone to US-allied South Korea,[203] it also suggests, however, that Chinese-North Korea relations may be soured due to China's concerns about Japan's remilitarization in response to North Korea's military behaviour.[34]

The PRC permitted the Yanbian Korean Ethnic Group Autonomous Prefecture to conduct border trade with North Korea in August 1954. In the 1950s, border trade between China and North Korea reached as high as 7.56 million Chinese renminbi. Trade was suspended due to the cultural revolution until a new contract was signed in 1982 between China and North Korea, which set the Swiss franc as the exchange currency. Since then, China-North Korea border trade has increased rapidly with the trade between Jilin Province and North Korea alone reaching 1.03 million Swiss francs (510K USD).[204] Trade volume amounted to 11.99 million Swiss francs (CHF) in 1983 (5.71M USD), CHF 100 million in 1985 (40.70M USD), CHF 160 million in 1988 (109.34M USD), and CHF 150 million (88.2M USD) in 1990.[204]

The PRC is North Korea's largest trade partner, while North Korea ranked 82nd (in 2009) in China's trade partners. China provides about half of all North Korea's imports and received a quarter of its exports. The PRC's major imports from North Korea includes mineral fuels (coal), ores, woven apparel, iron and steel, fish and seafood, and stone. North Korea's imports from Mainland China include mineral fuels and oil, machinery, electrical machinery, vehicles, plastic, and iron and steel. The PRC is a major source for North Korea imports of petroleum.[205] In 2009, exports to North Korea of mineral fuel oil totaled $327 million and accounted for 17% of all Chinese exports to North Korea. Much of China's trade with North Korea goes through the port of Dandong on the Yalu River.[206]

During the Korean War from 1950–53, China assisted North Korea, sending as many as 500,000 soldiers to support North Korean forces. In 1975, Kim Il-sung visited Beijing in a failed attempt to solicit support from China for a military invasion of South Korea.[207] On November 23, 2009, PRC Defence Minister Liang Guanglie visited Pyongyang, the first defense chief to visit since 2006.[208]

In 2019, Chinese President and General Secretary of the Communist Party Xi Jinping visited North Korea, the first for a Chinese paramount leader in 14 years. This has been widely considered by observers as the improvement of relations between the two countries. Before his visit, Xi reaffirmed North Korea on Rodong Sinmun that China would support them "no matter how the international situation changes".[209]

  Hong Kong See Hong Kong–North Korea relations

Hong Kong and North Korea have had official relations established since 1997, after the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China.[210]

  India See India–North Korea relations

India and North Korea have growing trade and diplomatic relations. India maintains a fully functioning embassy in Pyongyang and North Korea has an embassy in New Delhi. India has said that it wants the "reunification" of Korea.[211] Many North Korean nationals receive training in India including in the fields of IT and science and technology. India has a bilateral trade of around half a billion dollars with North Korea. Also, India is increasingly being asked by the US to mediate in the Korean peninsula due to its strengthening relations with both North Korea and South Korea.[212]

India voted in favour of Security Council resolutions 82 and 83 relating to the Korean War. However, India did not support resolution 84 for military assistance to South Korea. As a non-aligned country, India declined to fight against North Korea. Instead, India decided to send a medical unit to Korea as a humanitarian gesture. The 60th Indian Field Ambulance Unit, a unit of the Indian Airborne Division, was selected to be dispatched to Korea. The unit consisted of 346-men including 14 doctors.[213]

After the Korean War, India again played an important role as the chair of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission in the Korean peninsula. India established consular relations with North Korea in 1962 and in 1973, established full diplomatic relations with it.[214] India's relationship with North Korea has however been affected by North Korea's relations with Pakistan especially due to its help for Pakistan's nuclear missile program. In 1999, India impounded a North Korean ship off the Kandla coast that was found to be carrying missile components and blueprints. India's relations with South Korea have far greater economic and technological depth and India's keenness for South Korean investments and technology have in turn affected the North's relations with India. India has consistently voiced its opposition to North Korea's nuclear and missile tests.[215][216]

Trade between India and North Korea has seen a large increase in recent years. From an average total trade of barely $100 million in the middle of the 2000s, it shot up to over $1 billion in 2009. The trade is overwhelmingly in India's favour, with its exports accounting for roughly $1 billion while North Korea's exports to India were worth $57 million. India's primary export to North Korea is refined petroleum products while silver and auto parts are the main components of its imports from North Korea.[217] India participated in the sixth Pyongyang Autumn International Trade Fair in October 2010 and there have been efforts to bring about greater economic cooperation and trade between the two countries since then.[214][216] In 2010–11, Indo–North Korean trade stood at $572 million with India's exports accounting for $329 million. India has been providing training to North Korea's citizens in areas like science and technology and IT through agreements for such cooperation between Indian and North Korea's agencies and through India's International Technological and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme.[218][219]

In 2002 and 2004, India contributed 2000 tonnes of food grains to help North Korea tide over severe famine-like conditions. In 2010, India responded to North Korea's request for food aid and made available to it 1,300 tonnes of pulses and wheat worth $1 million through the UN World Food Programme.[220][221]

  Indonesia See Indonesian–North Korea relations

Indonesia maintains cordial relations with North Korea, despite international sanctions and isolation applied upon North Korea concerning its human rights abuses and nuclear missile program.[222] Both nations share a relationship that dates back to the Sukarno and Kim Il-sung era in the 60s. Indonesia has an embassy in Pyongyang, while North Korea has an embassy in Jakarta, with cordial diplomatic relations.[223][224][225] Both nations are members of the Non-Aligned Movement, with broad support for North Korea among the Indonesia populace, with a North Korean restaurant in the country currently.[226][227]

  Iran See Iran–North Korea relations

Iran–North Korea relations are described as being positive by official news agencies of the two countries. Diplomatic relations picked up following the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. Iran and North Korea pledged cooperation in educational, scientific, and cultural spheres,[228] as well as cooperating in the nuclear program of Iran.[229] The United States has expressed its opposition towards North Korea's arms deals with Iran, which started during the 1980s during the Iran–Iraq War, as well as selling domestically produced weapons to Iran, with former US President George W. Bush labelling North Korea, Iran, and Iraq under Saddam Hussein as part of the "Axis of evil," in his conception.

  Israel See Israel–North Korea relations

Israeli–North Korea relations are hostile, and North Korea does not recognise the state of Israel, denouncing it as an 'imperialist satellite'.[230] Since 1988 it recognises the sovereignty of the State of Palestine over the territory held by Israel.

Over the years, North Korea has supplied missile technology to Israel's neighbours, including Iran, Syria, Libya, and Egypt.[231][232][233] Syria, which has a history of confrontations with Israel, has long maintained a relationship with North Korea based on the cooperation between their respective nuclear programs. On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force conducted an airstrike on a target in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria. According to Media and IAEA investigative reports, 10 North Korean nuclear scientists were killed during the airstrike.[234]

When North Korea opened up for Western tourists in 1986 it excluded citizens of Israel along with those of Japan, the United States, and South Africa.[235] It has been suggested that North Korea has sought to model its nuclear weapons program on Israel's, as "a small-state deterrent for a country surrounded by powerful enemies; to display enough activity to make possession of a nuclear device plausible to the outside world, but with no announcement of possession: in short, to appear to arm itself with an ultimate trump card and keep everyone guessing whether and when the weapons might become available."[236]

  Japan See Japan–North Korea relations

Japan, along with South Korea, Taiwan, France and the United States, is one of the few countries that has no relations with North Korea.

However, numerous groups within Japan support North Korea. In May 2017, a delegation of officials from the Korean Youth League visited the birthplace of Kim Il-sung in Mangyongdae, touring the Mangyongdae Revolutionary Museum, the Korean Revolution Museum, the Mangyongdae Schoolchildren's Palace, and so on as part of their visit.[237]

  Laos Laos maintains an embassy in Pyongyang, with Laos being a similar state ideologically.[238] In February 2016 Kim Yong-Chul made an official visit to Bounnhang Vorachith.
  Malaysia See Malaysia–North Korea relations

North Korea maintained friendly diplomatic ties with Malaysia, with an embassy in Kuala Lumpur while Malaysia had an embassy in Pyongyang.[239][240] In an effort to boost tourism between the two countries, North Korea announced that Malaysians will not require a visa to visit North Korea.[241]

After the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, relations between both countries steadily worsened, and as a response Malaysia gradually withdrew its ambassador from North Korea, cancelled the visa-free entry for North Korea for security reasons, and decided to expel North Korea's ambassador. The ambassador of North Korea has been declared by Malaysia as persona non grata.[242][243][244] However, both countries still retain their diplomatic ties.[245][246]

  Mongolia 1948 See Mongolia–North Korea relations

North Korea–Mongolia relations date back to 1948, when the Mongolian People's Republic recognized Kim Il-sung's Soviet-backed government in the North. Mongolia also provided assistance to the North during the Korean War. The two countries signed their first friendship and cooperation treaty in 1986.[247] Kim Il-sung also paid a visit to the country in 1988.[248] However, relations became strained after the collapse of the Communist government in Mongolia in 1992. The two countries nullified their earlier friendship and cooperation treaty in 1995, and in 1999, North Korea closed its embassy in Ulaanbaatar during an official visit by Kim Dae-jung, the first-ever such visit by a South Korean president.[247] Mongolia had previously expelled two North Korean diplomats but later pursued a policy of engagement.[249][250]

  Myanmar May 1975 See Myanmar–North Korea relations

Myanmar (formerly Burma) and North Korea established bilateral diplomatic relations in May 1975.[251] The history of contacts between the two countries goes back to 1948, the year of the declaration of Burmese independence. Initially however, Myanmar under U Nu favored Syngman Rhee's government in the south of Korea.[252] During and after the Korean War, Myanmar balanced the interest of North and South Korea, taking into consideration the position of China.[253] After the 1975 establishment of diplomatic relations, Myanmar began to shift toward North Korea, which was also nominally socialist and equally wary of both US and China.[254]

The Rangoon bombing on 9 October 1983 was a turning point in Myanmar–North Korea relations. Once it found out that North Koreans were behind the attack, Myanmar cut off diplomatic relations and went as far as withdrawing formal recognition of the country.[255] Relations began to recover during the years of the Sunshine Policy when South Korea encouraged the North's rapprochement with Myanmar.[256] Strategic considerations brought Myanmar and North Korea even closer. Myanmar had natural resources that North Korea needed, and North Korea began supplying Myanmar with military technology.[257] Diplomatic relations were restored on 25 April 2007.[258]

Military cooperation between North Korea and Myanmar deepened into cooperation with nuclear issues. Myanmar is believed to operate a nuclear weapons program that seeks to emulate the success of North Korea's nuclear weapons capability.[259] The program is supported by North Korean training and equipment. Although the 2011–2015 Myanmar political reforms have led to the cancellation or downgrading of military ties,[260] reports on suspicious activities have continued as of 2018.[261]

  Pakistan See North Korea–Pakistan relations

Pakistan maintains warm diplomatic and trade relations with North Korea, while still maintaining friendly relations with South Korea. The start of relations between the two countries emerged sometime in the 1970s during the rule of Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. North Korea maintains an embassy in Islamabad. Relations between the two countries are reported to have been strong in the past and North Korea has supplied missile technology to Pakistan even as the populace of Pakistan is divided on North Korea.[226][262][263][264]

  Palestine 1966 See North Korea–Palestine relations

North Korea established diplomatic relations with Palestine in 1966.[16] Beyond this, North Korea has long seen Israel as an "imperialist satellite" and recognizes the sovereignty of Palestine over all territory held by Israel, excluding the Golan Heights, which is considered as Syrian Territory.[230] After the demise of the Soviet Union, North Korea's in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict declined and North Korea shifted from the exporting of revolution to pragmatism.[265] During the Gaza War (2008–09) North Korea harshly condemned Israeli actions, with a Foreign Ministry spokesman denounced the killing of unarmed civilians and called it a crime against humanity.[266] Later, on the floor of the UN General Assembly North Korea permanent representative Sin Son-ho said that North Korea "fully supported Palestinians' struggle to expel Israeli aggressors from their Territory and restore their right to self-determination."[267] After the 2010 Gaza flotilla raid North Korea Foreign Ministry called the attack a "crime against humanity" perpetrated under the guidance of the United States, with North Korea also expressing full support for the self-determination of the Palestinian Arabs.[268] During the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, the Foreign Ministry issued a statement that read: "We bitterly denounce Israel's brutal killings of many defenseless Palestinians through indiscriminate military attacks on peaceable residential areas in Palestine as they are unpardonable crimes against humanity."[269]

  Philippines 2000 See North Korea–Philippines relations

In 2000, the Philippines and North Korea established diplomatic relations after more than 20 years of negotiations. Trade between the two countries remains almost non-existent as a trade embargo remains in place. In 2007, the agreement was boosted further and was signed by Philippine Foreign Secretary Alberto Romulo and North Korean Foreign Minister Pak Ui Chun during the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN) meeting in Manila.[270] The Philippines has a representative in Pyongyang through an embassy in Beijing. North Korea has a representative through its embassy in Bangkok.

  Singapore See North Korea–Singapore relations

Singapore and North Korea have extremely good relations. Numerous Singaporean companies have opened up businesses in Pyongyang, the country's capital. Singapore is also North Korea's 4th largest trade partner (after Russia, China, and Malaysia). North Korean citizens can visit Singapore by applying for an e-visa online. North Korea maintains an embassy in Singapore while the latter has accredited a non-resident ambassador in Beijing to North Korea.[271][circular reference]

  Sri Lanka In 1970, North Korea trade delegation's office in Colombo became an embassy. While in the country, North Korea diplomats cultivated links with the Marxist–Leninist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna. In 1971, in the wake of a failed uprising by the JVP, embassy was closed.[272]
  Syria See North Korea–Syria relations

Syria and North Korea have had close relations since the late 1960s, when North Korea provided military assistance to Syria in its wars with Israel.[273] They maintain embassies in the other country's respective capitals.[274]

North Korea built a nuclear reactor in Syria based on the design of its own reactor at Yongbyon, and North Korean officials traveled regularly to the site. The Syrian reactor was destroyed by Israel in an airstrike in 2007.[275] The United States signed the Iran North Korea Syria Nonproliferation Act in 2000. In 2016, there were reports that North Korean troops were fighting to defend the Syrian government in the Syrian Civil War.[273]

  Taiwan The Republic of China (Taiwan) does not recognise North Korea as a state.

Taiwanese Premier Lai Ching-te approved a total ban on trade between Taiwan and North Korea in September 2017.[276] Taiwanese businessmen have been accused of selling coal, oil and gas to North Korea, as well as importing North Korean textiles and employing North Koreans in Taiwanese fishing vessels.[276]

  Vietnam See North Korea–Vietnam relations

Students from North Vietnam began going to North Korea to study as early as the 1960s, even before the formal establishment of Korean-language education in their country.[277]

North Korea lent material and manpower support to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, though the number of South Korean troops fighting for South Vietnam was larger.[278][279] As a result of a decision of the Korean Workers' Party in October 1966, in early 1967 North Korea sent a fighter squadron to North Vietnam to back up the North Vietnamese 921st and 923rd fighter squadrons defending Hanoi. They stayed through 1968; 200 pilots were reported to have served.[279] In addition, at least two anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent as well. North Korea also sent weapons, ammunition and two million sets of uniforms to their comrades in North Vietnam.[280] Kim Il-sung is reported to have told his pilots to "fight in the war as if the Vietnamese sky were their own".[281][282][283]

EuropeEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  European Union See North Korea–European Union relations

North Korea had economic interests in the European Union. In March 2002, North Korea's trade minister visited certain EU member states, including Belgium, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Sweden, and the country has also been known to send short-term trainees to Europe. Additionally, workshops regarding North Korea's economic reform have taken place with EU diplomats and economists as participants.[284] The EU still is concerned about human rights violations occurring within the country and has hosted talks with North Korean defectors.

  Albania 28 November 1948 Diplomatic relations with Albania were established on November 28, 1948.[285] Albania's communist government led by Enver Hoxha was often likened to the isolation of North Korea.[286] In 1961, Albania and North Korea signed a joint declaration of friendship.[287] In the 1970s, relations between the two countries deteriorated, with Hoxha writing in June 1977 that Kim Il-sung and the leadership of the Korean Workers' Party had betrayed the Korean people by accepting aid from other countries, primarily between countries in the Eastern Bloc and non-aligned countries such as Yugoslavia. As a result, relations between North Korea and Albania would remain low until Hoxha's death in 1985.|date=August 2019}} In 2012, the President of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam sent a congratulatory message to Albanian President Bujar Nishani on the 100th Anniversary of the Independence of Albania.[286]
  Austria Diplomatic relations between Austria and North Korea have consistently been rather close, with the former President of Austria Heinz Fischer having been a founding member and co-chairman in the Austria-DPRK Friendship Organization. With the changes in government in 2000 and 2017 respectively, relations have taken a light hit, with the parties in coalition, namely the ÖVP and FPÖ, generally utilizing an anti-North Korean stance and using such to defame their political opponents.[288][289]Austria was the host of the Golden Star Bank, the last bank instituted and owned by North Korea in Europe.
  Bulgaria 29 November 1948 Bulgaria and North Korea generally have good relations. Diplomatic relations between the countries were established on 29 November 1948, and a bilateral agreement on cultural and scientific cooperation was signed in 1970. Kim Il-sung visited the People's Republic of Bulgaria for the first time in the 1950s, and again in 1975. Bulgarian volunteers provided basic aid to North Korea during the Korean war by providing items such as clothing and foodstuffs.[290] Even after the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the countries retained active diplomatic relations. The foreign language institute in Pyongyang maintains a Bulgarian language department. In the past, the two countries also cooperated closely in the sphere of sports, and still maintain such cooperation albeit to a lesser degree. In 2017, the primer of North Korea, Pak Pong Ju, sent a message to Boyko Borisov, congratulating him on his appointment as prime minister of Bulgaria, saying that "relations of friendship and cooperation between the two countries" should favorably develop "in common interests." The same day, North Korea's foreign minister, Ri Yong Ho, sent a message, similar in content, to Ekaterina Gecheva-Zaharieva, congratulating her on "appointment as vice prime minister and foreign minister of Bulgaria."[291]
  Belarus 1992 Diplomatic relations were established in 1992.[292] Since 2016, North Korea has operated an embassy in Minsk, opened in 2016,[292][293] while Belarus has a consulate in Hamgyong-namdo, despite the fact that the Belarusian government recognizes this as a trade mission and works through other representatives in Moscow (Russia).[294][295][296]North Korean President Kim Il Sung visited Minsk, the capital of the Belarusian SSR in 1984. During the visit, he visited the Minsk Tractor Works and the Brest Fortress.[297]
  Denmark See Denmark–North Korea relations

Denmark is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Hanoi, Vietnam.[298]

  Finland 1 June 1973 See Finland–North Korea relations

Finland recognised North Korea on 13 April 1973. Diplomatic relations were established on 1 June 1973.[299] Finland has a resident ambassador posted in Seoul. North Korea owes the government and other private businesses over 30 million Euros that date back to the 1970s. In April 2017 government officials reassured YLE news reporters that they have not forgotten about the debt, and will work to find a solution to their debts.[300]

  France See France–North Korea relations

Relations between the French Republic and North Korea are officially non-existent. France is one of only two European Union members not to maintain diplomatic relations with North Korea, the other being Estonia.[301][302] There is no French embassy, nor any other type of French diplomatic representation, in Pyongyang, and no North Korean embassy in Paris, although a North Korean diplomatic office is located in nearby Neuilly sur Seine.[303][304] France's official position is that it will consider establishing diplomatic relations with North Korea if and when the latter abandons its nuclear weapons program and improves its human rights record.[303]

  Germany 1949 (East Germany)

1 March 2001 (United Germany)

See Germany–North Korea relations

The relations between Germany and North Korea date back to 1949, when the governments of East Germany and North Korea established diplomatic relations. The embassies in Berlin and Pyongyang opened 1954. East Germany used to be one of North Koreas closest allies within the Eastern Communist states, so multiple cooperation agreements and trade ties were established. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) remained in a rather hostile position towards North Korea during the Cold War and only maintained basic diplomatic contact, however in 1981 a delegation of North Korean officials visited Bonn.

After the German reunion Germany maintained a diplomatic mission in the former East German Embassy and officially opened its embassy in Pyongyang in 2001, While North Korea re-opened its embassy in Berlin the same year. These diplomatic ties are still active, but due to the massive UN sanctions there is only very little economic cooperation between the two countries. Also Germany has continued to condemn the North Korean nuclear program.

  Hungary See Hungary–North Korea relations

Relations between the two countries have existed since the Korean War; however, conflicts beginning in the late 1980s strained relations.

When the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 began, roughly 200 of North Korean students joined in; their war experience proved to be of aid to the Hungarian students.[305] In the aftermath of the revolution, Hungarian police and Soviet forces gathered up the students from North Korea and deported them back to North Korea, with four of them escaping to Austria.[306][307]

In 1989, Hungary would become the first Eastern Bloc nation to open relations with South Korea; in response, North Korea withdrew Kim Pyong-il from Hungary and sent him to Bulgaria instead.[308][309] In response, North Korea referred to the Hungarian decision as a "betrayal", and expelled the Hungarian envoy to Pyongyang.[310] As a result, there was a downturn in bilateral ties which lasted over a decade-and-a-half but in 2004, then-deputy State Secretary Gábor Szentiványi indicated that his government were interested in improving their relations with North Korea, even though by 2009, the former Hungarian embassy building in Pyongyang remained empty.[311][310]

  Iceland See Iceland–North Korea relations
  Italy January 2000 See Italy–North Korea relations

While North Korea was considered isolationist and "politically reclusive" by the Italian government for years, in January 2000, Italy announced its opening of official diplomatic relations with North Korea.[312][313][314] Later, North Korea's representative for the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization met with Lamberto Dini to formally establish diplomatic ties, with formal ties considered a huge step for North Korea.[315]

  Malta During the Cold War, Malta had good relations with North Korea. The future leader Kim Jong-il spent a year there learning English in 1973. The Maltese Prime Minister Dom Mintoff traveled to Pyongyang to meet President Kim Il-sung in 1982. They signed a secret military agreement whereby North Korea supplied Malta with weapons and military training. In 1984, Malta severed ties with South Korea.[316]
  Netherlands 2001 The Netherlands and North Korea have maintained diplomatic relations since 2001. In 2011, the two countries celebrated 10 years of diplomatic relations, and for the occasion North Korea showed three Dutch documentaries in Pyongyang, including one about Dutch water management. Contact with North Korea are maintained by the Dutch ambassador in Seoul, South Korea. North Korea's embassy in Bern, Switzerland serves North Korea's interests in the Netherlands. The Netherlands is worried about the violations of human rights and the development of nuclear technologies in North Korea, and has urged North Korea to improve their bilateral relations with South Korea.[317]There is little economic interest between the two countries. The most recent data about trade between the two countries dates back to 2011, and showed a decline.

While the Netherlands does not have a bilateral development relationship with North Korea, it does participate in several humanitarian projects through the UN, EU and the International Red Cross. In addition, Wageningen University and Research Centre and the Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Pyongyang are working together on several projects concerning food safety and recent developments in potato farming.

  Norway See North Korea–Norway relations
  Poland See North Korea–Poland relations

Poland maintains diplomatic and limited trading (fishing) relations with North Korea after relations between the two countries began on 16 October 1948. Poland maintains an embassy in Pyongyang, with economic relations between the two countries currently maintained at the symbolic level of trade and sailing co-operation[318][319][320]

  Portugal See North Korea–Portugal relations

Kim Yong-nam has made statements affirming the good relationship between the two countries, such as the condolences he gave then-President Jorge Sampaio when Francisco da Costa Gomes died,[321] and the congratulations he extended to President Cavaco Silva after he won the Portuguese elections.[322] In 2017, Portugal cut diplomatic ties with North Korea.[323]

  Romania 3 November 1948 See North Korea–Romania relations

Socialist Republic of Romania and North Korea established diplomatic relations on 3 November 1948.[16] The two states had little contact until Nicolae Ceaușescu and Kim Il-sung met in 1971 as part of Ceaușescu's Asian tour.[324][325] The two were close allies,[19] and got along both in terms of political and personal relations.[326] During the trip, Ceausescu took a liking to North Korea's Juche ideology. This experience contributed to his formerly liberal stance taking a turn for authoritarianism.[324] It was the first of many times Ceaușescu would visit Pyongyang.[327]

Both countries host embassies to one another.[84]

  Russia 12 October 1948 See North Korea–Russia relations
 
North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un (left) and Russian President Vladimir Putin (right), April 2019.
Russia and North Korea maintain friendly relations and Russia is generally seen as the second most important ally of North Korea after China. Russia–North Korea relations are generally determined by Russia's strategic interests in Korea and the goal of preserving peace and stability in the Korean peninsula. Russia's official position is by extension its stance on settlement of the North Korean nuclear crisis.
  Serbia 1948 See North Korea–Serbia relations

Serbia maintains friendly relations with North Korea, with relations between the two countries started in 1948 under the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito. In March 2017, North Korean Ambassador Ri Pyong Du visited Belgrade and affirmed North Korea's support of Serbia's position on Kosovo.[328]

  Slovenia Slovenia and North Korea have a bilateral relation that began in 1948, during the time of Yugoslavia.
  Spain

In January 2014, North Korea opened an embassy in Madrid.[329] Following a series of nuclear and missile tests by North Korea in 2017, Spain declared the North Korean ambassador, Kim Hyok Chol, persona non grata on September 18.[330]

On the afternoon of February 22, 2019, ten perpetrators, mostly Korean, broke into the North Korean embassy according to Spanish police. Spain's National Intelligence Centre suspected that at least some of the perpetrators had ties to the American Central Intelligence Agency and South Korea's National Intelligence Service. Embassy staff were beaten during interrogation. After one staff member managed to escape and caught the attention of a resident in the neighbourhood, the police were called. Officers arriving at the scene tried to enter the embassy but were refused by a man who claimed there was no cause for alarm. Soon after, two vehicles belonging to the embassy left and afterwards were abandoned nearby. The perpetrators had taken computers and mobiles phones. Spain's authorities suspect the attack was done in order to obtain information on Kim Hyok Chol who was part of a delegation which attempted to negotiate nuclear disarmament with the United States Special Representative for North Korea Stephen Biegun.[331][332][333][334][335][336] Spanish court released details of the probe into attack on the embassy, perpetrators soon after attack went to Portugal and boarded plane for the US. 7 individuals were identified from the group, among them Adrian Hong Chang, founder of Liberty in North Korea as leader of the group. Court disclosed details of before, during and after the raid of the embassy by the group which consisted of citizens from the US, Mexico and South Korea. The group attempted to convince one of the embassy attache to defect.[337] Arrest warrants for Hong Chang and another person were issued by Spanish authorities. The alleged group leader contacted Federal Bureau of Investigation.[338][339][340][341]

  Sweden See North Korea–Sweden relations

Sweden was the first Western country to open an embassy in North Korea. The embassy is located in Pyongyang, and "Sweden serves as the interim consular protecting power for American, Finnish, Australian and Canadian interests in North Korea."[342] The Swedish-Korean Association has friendly ties with North Korea government and works to promote solidarity with and support for it.

   Switzerland See North Korea–Switzerland relations

Switzerland is an active member of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), an international organization for the prevention of hostilities on the Korean peninsula. Switzerland conducts regular political dialogue with North Korea, the last meeting taking place in October 2011. North Korea maintains both an embassy in Bern and a permanent mission in Geneva. Switzerland's embassy in Beijing is accredited to Pyongyang but the Swiss also have a permanent office for Development and Cooperation in North Korea, responsible for humanitarian aid.[343]

Cooperation in the domain of education was maintained but North Korea's interest to work closer with Swiss companies has been put on hold since May 2016, when the Swiss cabinet introduced "considerably tighter sanctions" to slow down North Korea's nuclear proliferation.[344] In the aftermath of North Korea's nuclear weapons test on September 3, 2017, Swiss Federal Councilor and President Doris Leuthard emphasized the need for renewed negotiations, and offered pertinent mediation services between the United States and North Korea.[345]

  Turkey 2001 Turkey did not have any diplomatic relations with North Korea before 2001. In a statement made in 2001 in Beijing by the Turkish and North Korean embassies, Turkey officially recognized North Korea and on 15 January 2001 both countries established diplomatic relations.[346] Turkey is represented in North Korea through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea. North Korea is represented in Turkey through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria.

Turkey fought against North Korea during the Korean War, in which approximately 487 Turkish soldiers died.[347] In June 2018, Turkey and North Korea began negotiations to return the remains of deceased Turkish soldiers.[347]

  United Kingdom 12 December 2000 See North Korea–United Kingdom relations

Following initial progress in North Korea–South Korea relations, North Korea and the United Kingdom established diplomatic relations on 12 December 2000, opening resident embassies in London and Pyongyang. The United Kingdom provides English language and human rights training to North Korean officials, urging North Korea government to allow a visit by the UN Special Rapporteur for Human Rights, and it oversees bilateral humanitarian projects in North Korea.

To mark the tenth anniversary of North Korea's relations with the United Kingdom, an edited version of the 2002 film Bend It Like Beckham was broadcast on North Korean state television on 26 December 2010. The British Ambassador to South Korea, Martin Uden, posted on Twitter that it was the "1st ever Western-made film to air on TV" in North Korea.

Good relations between the two nations have been in existence as far back as 1966 when North Korea football team played in the 1966 World Cup in England. North Korea team became the adopted team of Middlesbrough which was where they played their group games during the competition. Middlesbrough fans went on to support North Korea team in the next round of the tournament, with many travelling to Liverpool to watch the team against Portugal. In 2002, members of North Korea team returned to Middlesbrough for an official visit.

OceaniaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia See Australia–North Korea relations

Australia and North Korea maintain diplomatic relations.[348] Neither country has a diplomatic presence in the other country, and relations are strained by disputes such as over North Korea's nuclear program and alleged drug trafficking.[349][350]

  New Zealand See New Zealand–North Korea relations

Relations between the two countries have been almost non-existent since the establishment of North Korea. During the 1950s, New Zealand fought against North Korea in the Korean War, siding with the United States and South Korea. Since then, New Zealand had little contact with North Korea until 2001, when the New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Phil Goff met with his North Korean counterpart Paek Nam-sun. Diplomatic relations were established shortly thereafter. New Zealand has accredited its embassy in South Korea to North Korea as well.[351] New Zealand Ambassador Patrick Rata is in charge of New Zealand's relations with both South and North Korea.[352] New Zealand's Foreign Affairs Minister Winston Peters made a trip to Pyongyang on November 20, 2007. The Foreign Affairs Minister had talks with President Kim Yong-nam in his two-day visit to North Korea's capital. Areas in which New Zealand is looking to co-operate could include agriculture, training, and conservation.

International organizationsEdit

North Korea is a member of the following international organizations:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Similar commentaries have also been made for Pakistan, another nuclear-armed state; which is known for political instability and internal armed conflict.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-05-06. Retrieved 2017-04-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)" (PDF). Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program - United States Department of Defense. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  3. ^ "In pictures: President Trump meets Kim Jong Un". CNN. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  4. ^ United Nations, "North Korean Constitution", April 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Naenara, "Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea," Pyongyang, Korea, Juche 103 (2014).
  6. ^ Past news Archived 2006-01-10 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Sometimes, the announcements never mention what sort of gift, but the Kim family has a large collection of cultural and other souvenirs from leaders all over the world, which is partly or entirely on public display.
  8. ^ Perlez, Jane (2000-10-25). "Albright reports progress in talks with north korea". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-06.
  9. ^ Kim Hyun (July 5, 2010). "Pair of N. Korean dogs are state guests at Seoul zoo amid frozen relations". Yonhap.
  10. ^ Wei Du, "Inter-Korean summit: What gifts will Moon Jae-in, Kim Jong Un bring for each other?", Channel News Asia (April 26, 2018).
  11. ^ "Pungsan dog gifted by N.K. leader to Moon gives birth to six puppies". Yonhap. 12 November 2018.
  12. ^ "North Korea threatens "sea of fire" if attacked". BBC. 1999-01-22. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
  13. ^ Dagyum Ji (17 January 2017). "Document details the heavy restrictions on diplomats in North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Q&A: China-North Korea Relationship" Archived 2017-02-17 at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, July 13, 2006
  15. ^ a b Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance between the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea Archived 2013-01-22 at the Wayback Machine, 11 July 1967.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 3.
  17. ^ Oberdorfer, Don; Carlin, Robert (2014). The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Basic Books. p. 76. ISBN 9780465031238.
  18. ^ Schaefer, Bernd (8 May 2017). "North Korea and the East German Stasi, 1987–1989". Wilson Center.
  19. ^ a b Oberdorfer, Don; Carlin, Robert (2014). The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Basic Books. p. 113. ISBN 9780465031238.
  20. ^ Young, Benjamin (30 March 2015). "Juche in the United States: The Black Panther Party's Relations with North Korea, 1969–1971". The Asia Pacific Journal. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
  21. ^ Farrell, Tom (17 May 2013). "Rocky road to Pyongyang: DPRK-IRA relations in the 1980s". NK News. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d Young, Benjamin R (16 December 2013). "North Korea: Opponents of Apartheid". NK News. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016.
  23. ^ Armstrong, Charles (April 2009). "Juche and North Korea's Global_Aspirations" (PDF). NKIDP Working Paper (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-07.
  24. ^ Oberdorfer, Don; Carlin, Robert (2014). The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Basic Books. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9780465031238.
  25. ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-415-23749-9.
  26. ^ Barry K. Gills, Korea versus Korea: A Case of Contested Legitimacy (Routledge, 1996), p. 198.
  27. ^ Time Magazine "A Bomb Wreaks Havoc in Rangoon," 17 Oct, 1983.
  28. ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 152, 157–58. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.
  29. ^ Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.
  30. ^ FCO: Country Profile: North Korea Archived 2009-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ – Bilateral Relations Canada-DPRK – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
  32. ^ Auswärtiges Amt: Länderinformation Archived 2010-01-11 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ North Korea – Country Information Paper – NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2007-11-17 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ a b "The China-North Korea Relationship" Archived 2009-07-31 at the Wayback Machine, Council for Foreign Relations, June 18, 2008
  35. ^ Xinhua, "Chinese, DPRK leaders exchange congratulatory messages on the launch of friendship year," 1 January 2009.
  36. ^ Tisdall, Simon (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks cables reveal China 'ready to abandon North Korea'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  37. ^ "US embassy cables: China 'would accept' Korean reunification". The Guardian. London. 29 November 2010. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  38. ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 165, 180. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.
  39. ^ Buzo, Adrian (2002). The Making of Modern Korea. London: Routledge. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-415-23749-9.
  40. ^ Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.
  41. ^ Robinson, Michael E (2007). Korea's Twentieth-Century Odyssey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 179–80. ISBN 978-0-8248-3174-5.
  42. ^ Bluth, Christoph (2008). Korea. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 107–08. ISBN 978-07456-3357-2.
  43. ^ Korean leaders in historic talks Archived 2007-10-16 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Tuesday, 2 October 2007, 10:14 GMT
  44. ^ In pictures: Historic crossing Archived 2008-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, 2 October 2007, 10:15 GMT
  45. ^ Mixed feelings over Koreas summit Archived 2007-11-15 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, 2 October 2007, 10:17 GMT
  46. ^ Kim greets Roh in Pyongyang before historic summit Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine, CNN. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  47. ^ Korean leaders issue peace call Archived 2007-10-21 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, 4 October 2007, 9:27 GMT
  48. ^ South Korea Formally Declares End to Sunshine Policy Archived 2012-04-12 at the Wayback Machine, Voice of America Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, 18 November 2010
  49. ^ K .J. Kwon (16 September 2013). "North and South Korea reopen Kaesong Industrial Complex". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  50. ^ "South Korea to Halt Work at Joint Industrial Park With North". NBC News. 10 February 2016. Archived from the original on 10 February 2016.
  51. ^ "South Korea's likely next president warns the U.S. not to meddle in its democracy". Washington Post.
  52. ^ Kim Jong Un offers rare olive branch to South Korea CNN. By Alanne Orjoux and Steve George. January 2, 2018. Downloaded January 2, 2018.
  53. ^ Kim, Hyung-Jin (3 January 2018). "North Korea reopens cross-border communication channel with South Korea". Chicago Tribune. AP. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  54. ^ Gregory, Sean (10 February 2018). "'Cheer Up!' North Korean Cheerleaders Rally Unified Women's Hockey Team During 8-0 Loss". Time.
  55. ^ Ji, Dagyum (12 February 2018). "Delegation visit shows N. Korea can take "drastic" steps to improve relations: MOU". NK News.
  56. ^ "Location of planned inter-Korean summit hints at changes in North Korea strategy, say experts". The Straits Times. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  57. ^ Sang-Hun, Choe (2018-04-27). "North and South Korea Set Bold Goals: A Final Peace and No Nuclear Arms". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  58. ^ Kim, Christine. "Korean leaders aim for end of war, 'complete denuclearisation'..." U.S. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  59. ^ "North and South Korea Set Bold Goals: A Final Peace and No Nuclear Arms - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  60. ^ Taylor, Adam (27 April 2018). "The full text of North and South Korea's agreement, annotated" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  61. ^ "North Korea and South Korea make pledge to connect border railways - Global Rail News". 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 8 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  62. ^ "North and South Korean leaders meet to discuss Kim-Trump summit". Channel NewsAsia. 2018-05-26. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  63. ^ "Leaders of North and South Korea meet for second summit". Msnbc.com. 2018-05-26. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  64. ^ "North, South Korea meet for surprise second summit". syracuse.com. 2018-05-26. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
  65. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/06/30/trumps-press-secretary-bruised-after-jostling-with-north-korea-security-over-media-report-says/
  66. ^ Smith, Nicola (16 August 2019). "North Korea 'fires missiles off coast' and says talks with 'impudent' South are over". The Telegraph.
  67. ^ "North Korea's nuclear tests". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 21, 2013.
  68. ^ "Rice hails N Korea nuclear deal". BBC News. 2007-02-13. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-02-13.
  69. ^ Scanlon, Charles (2007-02-13). "The end of a long confrontation?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-02-13.
  70. ^ Kim, Hyung-Jin. "North Korea Says it has Conducted Third Nuke Test". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.
  71. ^ CNN, Katie Hunt, K. J. Kwon and Jason Hanna. "North Korea claims successful test of nuclear warhead". CNN. Archived from the original on 2016-09-10. Retrieved 2016-09-11.
  72. ^ Kim, Jack, and Soyoung Kim. "North Korea detonates its sixth and most powerful nuclear test yet". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017.
  73. ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (23 February 2017). "The Myth of a North Korea-Malaysia Special Relationship". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017.
  74. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 1.
  75. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 7.
  76. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 10.
  77. ^ "States recognizing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" (in Arabic). Official Website of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
  78. ^ "Listado de Paises Que Han Reconocido a La Republica Arabe Saharaui Democratica" (in Spanish). Embajada de la República Saharaui en Argelia. 2006-10-22. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
  79. ^ "States which recognize the SADR". ARSO – Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  80. ^ "Country recognitions of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic". Western Sahara Online. Archived from the original on 2006-02-21. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
  81. ^ "Countries That Recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 2004-08-19. Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  82. ^ a b Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 8.
  83. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, pp. 3, 8fa.
  84. ^ a b Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 2.
  85. ^ Macdonald, Hamish (8 April 2016). "Angola discusses public security cooperation with North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 25 May 2016.
  86. ^ a b Hotham, Oliver (23 August 2013). "N. Korea strengthens ties with Cameroon, other African countries". NK News. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016.
  87. ^ Yonhap News Agency (2002). North Korea Handbook. Seoul: M. E. Sharpe. p. 967. ISBN 978-076-563-523-5.
  88. ^ Asian Almanac. V.T. Sambandan. 1997. p. 8140.
  89. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Far East, Part 3. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. 1976.
  90. ^ Rotberg, Robert I. (2012). Transformative Political Leadership: Making a Difference in the Developing World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-022-672-898-8.
  91. ^ Franklin, Derek Peter (1996). A Pied Cloak: Memoirs of a Colonial Police Officer (special Branch), Kenya, 1953–66, Bahrain, 1967–71, Lesotho, 1971–75, Botswana, 1976–81. Cambridge: Janus Publishing Company. p. 157. ISBN 978-185-756-294-1.
  92. ^ "North Korea built Three Dikgosi Monument Bashi Letsididi". Sunday Standard. Gaborone. 30 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  93. ^ Connell, John (2010). Migration and the Globalisation of Health Care: The Health Worker Exodus?. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 213. ISBN 978-184-980-518-6.
  94. ^ "Botswana Cuts Ties with North Korea". www.gov.bw. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  95. ^ Yonhap News, Botswana President "North Korean human rights retreat, relationship was not worth keeping", October 2015.
  96. ^ North Korea Handbook. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe. 2002. pp. 902, 926. ISBN 978-076-563-523-5.
  97. ^ Becker, Jasper (2005). Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-019-803-810-8.
  98. ^ Smith, Hazel (2005). Hungry for Peace: International Security, Humanitarian Assistance, and Social Change in North Korea. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-192-922-358-9.
  99. ^ Metzler, John J. (1996). Divided dynamism: the diplomacy of separated nations: Germany, Korea, China. Lanham: University Press of America. p. 101. ISBN 978-076-180-235-8.
  100. ^ Asian Almanac: Weekly Abstract of Asian Affairs. Singapore: V.T. Sambandan. 1983. p. 11792.
  101. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Far East. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. 1985.
  102. ^ Rupley, Lawrence; Bangali, Lamissa; Diamitani, Boureima (2013). Historical Dictionary of Burkina Faso. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-081-088-010-8.
  103. ^ "Pyongyang-Sponsored "People's Theater" Completed in Burkina Faso". Naewoe Press. Seoul. 1988.
  104. ^ Statistical Appendix to Minerals Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. 1988. p. 325.
  105. ^ "Reservoirs built in Burkina Faso with DPRK help". Pyongyang. Korean Central News Agency. 22 January 1998. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  106. ^ "Text of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874". UN Press Centre.
  107. ^ a b c Ramani, Samuel (4 June 2016). "North Korea's African Allies". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016.
  108. ^ Yonhap News Agency (2002). North Korea Handbook. Seoul: M. E. Sharpe. p. 957. ISBN 978-076-563-523-5.
  109. ^ Armstrong, Charles K. (2013). Tyranny of the Weak: North Korea and the World, 1950–1992. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-080-146-893-3.
  110. ^ Titley, Brian (2002). Dark Age: The Political Odyssey of Emperor Bokassa. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-077-352-418-7.
  111. ^ Gills, Barry (2005). Korea versus Korea: A Case of Contested Legitimacy. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-113-476-625-3.
  112. ^ "Monument to African Dictator Laurent Kabila". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 2016-04-30.
  113. ^ Ducret, Julien (10 March 2011). "The Egypt–DPRK Relationship". NK News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016.
  114. ^ Macdonald, Hamish (3 August 2017). "Ethiopia working to restrict North Korean embassy's bank accounts: MFA". NK News.
  115. ^ Touray, Omar A. (2000). The Gambia and the World: A History of the Foreign Policy of Africa's Smallest State, 1965–1995. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies. p. 71. ISBN 978-392-804-966-5.
  116. ^ Sarr, Samsudeen (2007). Coup d'etat by the Gambia National Army: 34537. Bloomington: Xlibris. ISBN 978-146-910-014-2.
  117. ^ Ceesay, Alhagie (3 April 2010). "DPRK Presidium President Pays Maiden Visit to The Gambia". www.statehouse.gm. Government of the Gambia. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  118. ^ Darboe, Mustapha (24 December 2014). "Gambia votes against referring North Korea to ICC". The Standard. Bakau. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  119. ^ Porzucki, Nina (6 January 2015). "The Gambia is the worst dictatorship you've probably never heard of". Public Radio International. Minneapolis. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  120. ^ Jallow, Matthew K. (22 October 2012). "The Gambia: The case of a North Korea in the heart of West Africa". Modern Ghana. Accra. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  121. ^ Ndow, Musa (18 July 2014). "Diplomat says N/Korea to cooperate with Gambia on agric, others". Daily Observer. Banjul. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  122. ^ Armstrong 2013, p. 223.
  123. ^ Armstrong 2013, p. 144.
  124. ^ Schaefer 2009, p. 119.
  125. ^ Owusu-Ansah, David (2014). Historical Dictionary of Ghana (4th ed.). London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8108-7500-5.
  126. ^ Some Facts about North Korea. Seoul: Naewoe Press. 1984. p. 38. OCLC 603996576.
  127. ^ Cha, Victor (2013). The Impossible State: North Korea, Past and Future. London: Vintage. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-099-57865-9.
  128. ^ Bobiash, Donald (1992). South-South Aid: How Developing Countries Help Each Other. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-349-11623-2.
  129. ^ Vantage Point. 16. Seoul: Naewoe Press. 1993. p. 30. OCLC 29800060.
  130. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 6n20.
  131. ^ Africa South of the Sahara 2004. London: Europa. 2003. p. 494. ISBN 978-1-85743-183-4.
  132. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 532.
  133. ^ DuPre, Annie; Kasprzyk, Nicolas; Stot, Noël (2016). Cooperation between African states and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (PDF). Institute for Security Studies. p. 32.
  134. ^ North Korea Handbook 2002, p. 817.
  135. ^ Oliemans, Joost; Mitzer, Stijn (5 January 2015). "North Korea and Libya: friendship through artillery". NK News. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016.
  136. ^ Goff, Samuel (2016). "The Pyongyang connection: North Korea's strange and surprisingly effective charm offensive in Africa". The Calvert Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-08-25.
  137. ^ "Madagascar: Foreign Relations". US Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2016-04-09.
  138. ^ Macdonald, Hamish (2 May 2017). "North Korean delegation visits Mauritania amid diplomatic pressure". NK News. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017.
  139. ^ a b Sieff, Kevin (10 July 2017). "North Korea's surprising, lucrative relationship with Africa". Washington Post.
  140. ^ "Ri Su Yong Meets with Mozambique Delegation". North Korea Leadership Watch. 26 May 2016. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016.
  141. ^ Udogu, E. Ike (2011). Liberating Namibia: The Long Diplomatic Struggle Between the United Nations and South Africa. Jefferson: McFarland. pp. 123, 169. ISBN 978-078-648-878-0.
  142. ^ Katjavivi, Peter H. (1988). A History of Resistance in Namibia. Melton: James Currey Publishers. p. 86. ISBN 978-085-255-320-6.
  143. ^ Tonchi, Victor L.; Lindeke, William A.; Grotpeter, John J. (31 August 2012). Historical Dictionary of Namibia (Second ed.). Plymouth: Scarecrow Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-8108-7990-4.
  144. ^ "Namibia's vote on Nov. 28 likely to follow southern African pattern – victory for ruling party". Fox News. New York City. 23 November 2014. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  145. ^ Bermudez, Joseph (1997). Terrorism, the North Korean connection. New York: Crane, Russak & Company. p. 124. ISBN 978-0844816104.
  146. ^ Herbstein, Denis; Evenson, John (1989). The Devils Are Among Us: The War for Namibia. London: Zed Books Ltd. pp. 14–23. ISBN 978-0862328962.
  147. ^ Grobler, John (26 April 2013). "North Korea's deals in Namibia a mystery". Mail & Guardian. Johannesburg. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  148. ^ "N. Korea, Namibia reach deals". The Hankyoreh. Seoul. 22 March 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  149. ^ Sasman, Catherine (20 December 2011). "Namibia and North Korean relations to remain positive". The Namibian. Windhoek. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  150. ^ Laing, Aislinn (12 June 2012). "Namibia plans 'mini state houses' for President Hifikepunye Pohamba". The Telegraph. Johannesburg. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  151. ^ O'Carroll, Chad (27 June 2016). "Namibian delegation visits N.Korea despite sanctions questions". NK News. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016.
  152. ^ North Korea News. Naewoe Press. 1994. p. 12.
  153. ^ Byrne, Leo (7 May 2014). "North Korea and Nigeria sign cooperation agreement". NK News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016.
  154. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, p. 9.
  155. ^ "Senegal President Wade apologises for Christ comments". BBC News. London. 31 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  156. ^ Campling, Liam; Confiance, Hansel; Purvis, Marie-Therese (2011). Social Policies in Seychelles. Commonwealth Secretariat. p. 26. ISBN 978-184-929-065-4.
  157. ^ N. Korea, South Sudan establish full diplomatic ties Archived 2012-05-26 at the Wayback Machine, Yonhap News
  158. ^ Hotham, Oliver (15 August 2013). "Tanzania won't deny N. Korea is providing military assistance". NK News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016.
  159. ^ "Tanzania Shutters Two North Korean Medical Clinics". Radio Free Asia. 19 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016.
  160. ^ "Tanzania to import NK doctors due to manpower shortage". Korea Herald. 24 January 2017. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017.
  161. ^ Macdonald, Hamish (20 July 2016). "Uganda reveals another military contract with North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016.
  162. ^ O'Carroll, Chad (12 December 2016). "Uganda disengages with N.Korea in "areas where sanctions apply"". NK News. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016.
  163. ^ Young, Benjamin R (30 October 2013). "Zimbabwe and North Korea: Uranium, elephants, and a massacre". NK News. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016.
  164. ^ "Kim Il Sung's contribution to Africa". Herald (Zimbabwe). 4 July 2019.
  165. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2019-02-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  166. ^ http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/canada/breakingnews/canada-suspends-diplomatic-relations-with-north-korea-over-warship-sinking-94869569.html Archived May 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  167. ^ a b Ramani, Samuel (7 June 2016). "The North Korea-Cuba Connection". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016.
  168. ^ "DPRK-Cuba relations showcase mutual support and solidarity". Pyongyang Times. 27 August 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016.
  169. ^ a b Young, Benjamin R (28 August 2016). "Revolutionary Solidarity: Castro's cozy relationship with North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016.
  170. ^ Cumings, Bruce (2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-393-32702-1.
  171. ^ a b "N.K. declares 3-day mourning over ex-Cuban leader Castro's death". Yonhap. 28 November 2016. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016.
  172. ^ "DPRK leader conveys condolences over passing of Fidel Castro". Xinhua. 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016.
  173. ^ "Cuban President Meets North Korea's Kim Jong Un as Part of First Overseas Tour". Time. 4 November 2018.
  174. ^ "Inicio". embamex.sre.gob.mx.
  175. ^ "Representaciones Diplomáticas Acreditadas en México". acreditadas.sre.gob.mx.
  176. ^ Linthicum, Kate. "Mexico expels North Korean ambassador over nuclear tests". latimes.com.
  177. ^ CNBC (8 September 2017). "Mexico expels North Korean ambassador over nuclear tests".
  178. ^ http://www.lima-diplo.com[permanent dead link], Embassy of North Korea in Lima[permanent dead link], 2017.
  179. ^ Manuel Vigo, Peru government condemns North Korea’s third nuclear test[permanent dead link], Living in Peru, Feb. 14, 2013.
  180. ^ "페루도 북한 대사 추방 "5일 안에 떠나라"". 12 September 2017.
  181. ^ "In Focus: North Korea's Nuclear Threats". The New York Times. 2013-04-16. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  182. ^ "North Korea threatens to strike without warning". CNN. 2013-04-15. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  183. ^ "North Korea threatens South with 'final destruction'". Reuters. 2013-02-19. Archived from the original on 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  184. ^ Rosenfeld, Everett (2018-06-12). "Read the full text of the Trump-Kim agreement here". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  185. ^ Rosenfeld, Everett (February 28, 2019). "Trump-Kim summit was cut short after North Korea demanded an end to all sanctions". CNBC. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  186. ^ "Donald Trump meets Kim Jong Un in DMZ; steps onto North Korean soil". USA Today. June 30, 2019.
  187. ^ [1]
  188. ^ [2]
  189. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia (September 2013). "Bilateral Relations: Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  190. ^ https://www.nknews.org/pro/nk_directory/embassy-of-north-korea-in-dhaka-bangladesh/
  191. ^ Strangio, Sebastian (14 August 2011). "North Korea's New Friend?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
  192. ^ Go Cambodia, "North Korea seeks Cambodia’s help[permanent dead link]", 2017.
  193. ^ Jack Board, The curious case of North Korea in Cambodia Archived 2017-05-31 at the Wayback Machine, Channel News Asia, April 23, 2017.
  194. ^ Hunt, Lake (21 March 2017). "North Korea-Cambodia Relations: The Sound of Silence". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 11 April 2017.
  195. ^ Prak Chan Thul, Jailing of Khmer Rouge leaders 'sends message to North Korea': U.N. envoy, Reuters, November 23, 2016.
  196. ^ Elizabeth Shim, North Korea intervenes in Cambodia, U.N. human rights dispute Archived 2016-12-20 at the Wayback Machine, UPI, November 10, 2016.
  197. ^ Nanto, Dick K.; Manyin, Mark E. (2011). "China-North Korea Relations". North Korean Review. 7 (2): 94–101. doi:10.3172/NKR.7.2.94. ISSN 1551-2789. JSTOR 43908855.
  198. ^ "China's Xi to visit North Korea as both countries lock horns with United States".
  199. ^ "N Korea hails 'invincible' relationship with China". 2019-06-21. Retrieved 2019-07-25.
  200. ^ Brown, Prof Kerry (2017-09-05). "How much leverage does China have over North Korea?". Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  201. ^ Foley, James. "China Steps Up Security on North Korean Border," Jane's Intelligence Review, 1 November 2003.
  202. ^ "China resolutely opposes DPRK's nuclear test". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
  203. ^ "President Obama Vows Strengthened U.S.-South Korea Ties". Embassy of the United States, Seoul. 2 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009.
  204. ^ a b "Foreign Currency Units Per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2007" Archived 2015-05-12 at the Wayback Machine, Werner Antweiler, University of British Columbia, 2007.
  205. ^ Evans, Stephen (2017-04-25). "Why are petrol prices spiking in N Korea?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  206. ^ Lee, Chang-hak. "China's Trade with N.K. Via Dandong Exceeds US $200 million." KOTRA, 21 February 2003
  207. ^ "East German Documents on Kim Il Sung's April 1975 Trip to Beijing" Archived 2012-11-04 at the Wayback Machine, NKIDP e-Dossier No. 7, May 2012
  208. ^ Associated Press, "China's Defense Minister Travels to North Korea," The China Post, 23 November 2009
  209. ^ "Xi Jinping pledges support for Kim Jong-un and North Korea". South China Morning Post. 2019-06-19. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  210. ^ North Korea's Macau-based trading venture opens its doors to deny reports of espionage and shady deals Archived 2016-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 3 September 2000
  211. ^ "Sorry for the inconvenience". Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  212. ^ "Kim's death: Will India-North Korea ties improve?". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  213. ^ Kim Chan Wahn. "The Role of India in the Korean War", International Area Studies Review, June 2010; vol. 13(2), pp. 21–37
  214. ^ a b Nayar, K.P. (20 December 2011). "The food bridge India built with Kim's Korea". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  215. ^ "Kim's death: Will India-North Korea ties improve?". NDTV. 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  216. ^ a b Dikshit, Sandeep (13 December 2012). "North Korea's rocket launch unwarranted: India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  217. ^ Bahree, Megha (August 9, 2010). "Look Who's Helping North Korea". Forbes Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  218. ^ "How much it will affect India-North Korea ties". Nav Hind Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  219. ^ "India – DPR Korea Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  220. ^ "India Gives Food Aid as U.S.-SK Think". Daily NK. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  221. ^ "India's secret-ish romance with North Korea". FirstPost.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  222. ^ "Megawati embarks on Asian tour". BBC. 24 March 2002. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  223. ^ Bagus BT Saragih (May 14, 2012). "Human rights concerns cloud North Korea's leader visit to RI". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  224. ^ Jeffrey Robertson (September 15, 2010). "Sun sets on Indonesia's North Korea ties". Asia Times. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  225. ^ Jamil Maidan Flores (July 23, 2012). "The odd couple: North Korea and Indonesia". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  226. ^ a b 2013 World Service Poll Archived 2015-10-10 at the Wayback Machine BBC
  227. ^ Tash Roslin (May 6, 2010). "North Korea's Hidden Menu". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
  228. ^ "Result of Iranian delegation visit to N Korea positive". IRNA. 2007-01-23. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
  229. ^ Coughlin, Con (2007-01-26). "N. Korea helping Iran with nuclear testing". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
  230. ^ a b Haggard, M (1965). "North Korea's International Position". Asian Survey. California, United States. 5 (8): 375–88. doi:10.2307/2642410. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2642410. OCLC 48536955.
  231. ^ "North Korea Military Threat to Israel – Jewish Virtual Library". Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  232. ^ "Israel: North Korea supplying weapons to six Mideast states". Haaretz. 4 October 2008. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  233. ^ "Israel: North Korea shipping WMDs to Syria". The Daily Star Newspaper – Lebanon. Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  234. ^ "North Koreans May Have Died in Israel Attack on Syria, NHK Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  235. ^ Koh, B (1988). "North Korea in 1987: Launching a New Seven-Year Plan". Asian Survey. California, United States. 28 (1): 62–70. doi:10.1525/as.1988.28.1.01p0121e. ISSN 0004-4687. OCLC 48536955.
  236. ^ Cha, Victor (2002). "North Korea's Weapons of Mass Destruction: Badges, Shields, or Swords?". Political Science Quarterly. New York, United States. 117 (2): 209–30. doi:10.2307/798181. ISSN 0032-3195. JSTOR 798181. OCLC 39064101.
  237. ^ Rodong News Team, Delegation of Korean Youths in Japan Visits Mangyongdae Archived 2017-05-07 at the Wayback Machine, Rodong Sinmun, May 6, 2017.
  238. ^ "Vietnam-Embassy.org". Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  239. ^ "Embassy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  240. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Pyongyang". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  241. ^ Aziz, Fazleena (9 March 2009). "Only Malaysians can visit North Korea without a visa". The Star. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  242. ^ Ashwin Kumar (4 March 2017). "N. Korean ambassador given 48 hours to leave Malaysia". The Sun (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  243. ^ "Kim Jong-nam death: Malaysia scraps visa-free entry for North Koreans". Associated Press. The Guardian. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
  244. ^ "Malaysia-North Korea row escalates over Kim Jong-nam". Al Jazeera. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  245. ^ "Najib: Malaysia-North Korea diplomatic ties still on". The Malaysian Reserve. 3 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  246. ^ "PM says won't cut diplomatic ties with North Korea yet". Malay Mail. 3 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  247. ^ a b "Mongolia, N. Korea sign friendship treaty". Kyodo. 12 August 2002. Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  248. ^ Ch., Sumiyabazar (20 July 2007). "North Korean Kim visits Mongolia". The UB Post. Archived from the original on 2007-08-12. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  249. ^ Foster-Carter, Aidan (16 June 2001). "Pyongyang Watch". Asia Times. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  250. ^ Batchimeg, Migeddorj (March–April 2006). "Mongolia's DPRK Policy: Engaging North Korea". Asian Survey. 46 (2): 275–97. doi:10.1525/as.2006.46.2.275.
  251. ^ Selth 2004, p. 4.
  252. ^ Selth 2004, p. 1.
  253. ^ Selth 2004, pp. 2–3.
  254. ^ Selth 2004, p. 5.
  255. ^ Selth 2004, p. 10.
  256. ^ Steinberg, David I. (11 August 2015). "Why Myanmar, North Korea are keeping their own time". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  257. ^ Win, Kanbawza (21 October 2008). "The 4th Burmese Empire with Nuclear Weapon". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  258. ^ Hoare 2012, p. l.
  259. ^ Lintner, Bertil (3 December 2008). "Burma's Nuclear Temptation". YaleGlobal Online. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  260. ^ Seekins 2017, p. 308.
  261. ^ "North Korea arming Syria, Myanmar: UN report". Al Jazeera. AFP. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  262. ^ Carbaugh, John E. "Pakistan-North Korea Connection Creates Huge Dilemma For U.S." Pakistan-Facts.com. Archived from the original on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  263. ^ "BBC NEWS – South Asia – Powell says nuclear ring broken". Archived from the original on 2013-04-23.
  264. ^ "BBC NEWS – Asia-Pacific – Outcry at N Korea 'nuclear test'". Archived from the original on 2007-03-16.
  265. ^ North Korea-Relations with the Third World Archived 2009-09-17 at the Wayback Machine
  266. ^ "DPRK denounces Israel for bombarding Gaza". News.xinhuanet.com. 2008-12-30. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
  267. ^ UNGA10807
  268. ^ News From Korean Central News Agency Of Dprk Archived 2009-09-10 at the Wayback Machine. Kcna.co.jp. Retrieved on 2010-06-19.
  269. ^ 조선중앙통신 Archived 2017-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  270. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2011-07-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Philippines, North Korea agree to boost bilateral relations
  271. ^ North Korea–Singapore relations
  272. ^ Farrell, Tom (12 March 2014). "North Korea's role in Sri Lanka's bloody insurgencies". NK News. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017.
  273. ^ a b Taylor, Adam (25 March 2016). "Are North Koreans fighting in Syria? It's not as far-fetched as it sounds". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016.
  274. ^ O'Carroll, Chad (31 January 2017). "A long way from Damascus: Life as Syria's ambassador to North Korea". NK News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017.
  275. ^ Mark Landler, Choe Sang-hun (19 December 2011). "In Kim Jong-il Death, an Extensive Intelligence Failure". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  276. ^ a b White, Edward (January 29, 2018). "Taiwanese suspected of shipping coal from North Korea to Vietnam". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018.
  277. ^ Le, Quang Thiem (February 2005). "Korean Studies in Vietnam". Korea Foundation Newsletter. 14 (1). Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
  278. ^ Ku, Su-Jeong (1999-09-02). "The secret tragedy of Vietnam". The Hankyoreh. Archived from the original on 2007-05-26. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
  279. ^ a b Bennett, Richard M. (2006-08-18). "Missiles and madness". Asia Times. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
  280. ^ Pribbenow, Merle (2003). "The 'Ology War: technology and ideology in the Vietnamese defense of Hanoi, 1967". Journal of Military History. 67 (1): 183. doi:10.1353/jmh.2003.0066.
  281. ^ Gluck, Caroline (2001-07-27). "N Korea admits Vietnam war role". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
  282. ^ "North Korea fought in Vietnam War". BBC News. 2000-03-31. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
  283. ^ "North Korea honours Vietnam war dead". BBC News. 2001-07-12. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2006-10-19.
  284. ^ Park, Youngho (2006). 21st century NEA relations and human rights in North Korea. p. 245. ISBN 978-8988435830.
  285. ^ http://blog.naver.com/iman0714?Redirect=Log&logNo=220266009365
  286. ^ a b http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/north-korea-s-leader-wishes-albania-prosperity
  287. ^ http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/114408
  288. ^ https://www.unzensuriert.at/content/00691-Wann-distanziert-sich-Heinz-Fischer-endlich-von-Nordkorea
  289. ^ https://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20100420_OTS0242/nordkorea-gesellschaft-roter-praesidentschaftskandidat-heinz-fischer-der-unwahrheit-ueberfuehrt
  290. ^ "Страницата не може да бъде намерена – вестник Дума". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  291. ^ "Greetings to Bulgarian PM". KCNA. 7 May 2017.[dead link]
  292. ^ a b "The North Korean Embassy in Belarus. Diplomatic symbolism, economic horizons". New Eastern Europe. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2019-07-12.
  293. ^ "Now OFFICIALLY: North Korea Opens Embassy In Minsk". BelarusFeed. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  294. ^ "Belarus Denies N. Korea's Claim of Embassy Opening". KBS World Radio. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  295. ^ "Embassies, Consulates and Representations of International Organisations in Belarus" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. January 2017. p. 20. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  296. ^ "Embassies, Consulates and Representations of International Organisations in Belarus" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. January 2017. pp. 26–27. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  297. ^ https://news.tut.by/society/509875.html
  298. ^ "KOREA, DEN DEMOKRATISKE FOLKEREPUBLIK". Ministry Of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27.
  299. ^ "North Korea – Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Entering Finland and travelling abroad: North Korea". formin.finland.fi. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  300. ^ "North Korea owes Finland millions in decades-old debt". Yle Uutiset. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  301. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, pp. 1–2.
  302. ^ Wertz, Oh & Kim 2016, pp. 8–9.
  303. ^ a b "FICHE QUESTION". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  304. ^ "Le site de vos voyages". ABM Aventure du Bout du Monde. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  305. ^ "<헝가리 혁명 50주년> ④ 북한 유학생도 참가했다/50th Anniversary of the Hungarian Revolution, #4: North Korean Exchange Students Also Participated", Yonhap News, 2006-10-22, retrieved 2009-04-21[permanent dead link]
  306. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-11. Retrieved 2017-02-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  307. ^ Farber, Barry (2006-02-23), "Bureaucratic Horror in 1956 and Today", Newsmax, archived from the original on 2009-10-23, retrieved 2009-04-21
  308. ^ Sano, Yoel (2004-02-14), "Happy Birthday, Dear Leader – who's next in line?", Asia Times, retrieved 2007-10-25
  309. ^ Sterngold, James (1990-06-02), "Evolution in Europe; Stunned North Korea Warns Soviets on Meeting With Seoul Leader", The New York Times, retrieved 2007-10-22
  310. ^ a b Kim, Se-jeong (2009-02-01), "Hungary Fetes 20-Year Ties With Korea", The Korea Times, archived from the original on 2012-08-29, retrieved 2009-04-21
  311. ^ Seo, Hyun-jin (2004-02-02), "Hungary ready to improve ties with N. Korea", The Korea Herald; Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, archived from the original on 2012-10-17, retrieved 2009-04-21
  312. ^ French, Howard W. (17 March 2000). "North Korea suddenly makes diplomatic waves". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  313. ^ "North Korea wages diplomatic campaign with a wary world". Associated Press Archive. 2000-01-19. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  314. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (5 January 2000). "Italy Opens North Korea Ties, First by a Big Western Nation". New York Times.
  315. ^ "Asia Times: Italy brings North Korea out of isolation". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  316. ^ Young, Benjamin R (11 June 2014). "Kim Jong Il's unlikely Maltese mentor & a secret military agreement". NK News. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015.
  317. ^ "Betrekkingen Nederland – Noord Korea". Rijksoverheid. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  318. ^ Sedia, Giuseppe (17 July 2015). "The strange history of North Korean-Polish relations". Krakow Post. Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
  319. ^ http://www.msz.gov.pl/KOREANSKA,REPUBLIKA,LUDOWO-DEMOKRATYCZNA,(KOREA,POLNOCNA),20995.html Archived 2009-02-23 at the Wayback Machine
  320. ^ http://www.msz.gov.pl/Internetowa.Baza.Traktatowa.3995.html[permanent dead link]
  321. ^ "Past news". Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  322. ^ http://www.zibb.com/article/3400207/North+Korean+No+sends+greetings+to+Portuguese+president[permanent dead link]
  323. ^ Herald, The Korea (11 October 2017). "Portugal cuts diplomatic ties with N. Korea: report".
  324. ^ a b Post, Jerrold M. (2014). Narcissism and Politics: Dreams of Glory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-107-00872-4.
  325. ^ Rinna, Anthony V (20 November 2018). "Comrades no more: North Korea-Romania relations, 70 years on". NK News.
  326. ^ Gabanyi, Anneli Ute (2000). The Ceauşescu cult: propaganda and power policy in communist Romania. The Romanian Cultural Foundation Publ. House. p. 93. ISBN 978-973-577-280-2.
  327. ^ "Romanian President Visits Pyongyang". Vantage Point. Naewoe Press. 1988. p. 20.
  328. ^ “Serbia Grateful to N. Korea for Stance on Kosovo.” B92.Net, B92, 21 Mar. 2017.
  329. ^ "Kim Jong Un en España". www.larazon.es. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  330. ^ Leo Byrne (18 September 2017). "Spain declares North Korean ambassador persona non grata". NK News. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  331. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-spain-northkorea/spain-investigates-raid-on-north-korean-embassy-sources-idUSKCN1QG1QJ
  332. ^ https://elpais.com/elpais/2019/03/13/inenglish/1552464196_279320.html
  333. ^ https://elpais.com/politica/2019/03/12/actualidad/1552422470_906307.html?id_externo_rsoc=TW_CC
  334. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-47553804
  335. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/13/spain-investigates-possible-cia-links-to-north-korea-embassy-break-in-madrid
  336. ^ https://www.foxnews.com/world/assailants-in-raid-at-north-korean-embassy-in-madrid-have-connections-to-cia-reports
  337. ^ https://elpais.com/elpais/2019/03/26/inenglish/1553610317_669827.html
  338. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/26/world/europe/spain-north-korea-embassy-attack.html
  339. ^ https://edition.cnn.com/2019/03/27/politics/adrian-hong-north-korea-madrid-intl/index.html
  340. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-spain-northkorea-idUSKCN1R71O0
  341. ^ https://www.nknews.org/2019/03/cia-linked-madrid-embassy-invaders-alleged-to-have-assaulted-n-korean-diplomats/
  342. ^ Embassies in North Korea Archived 2017-05-01 at the Wayback Machine everything2.com, read 2011-04-08
  343. ^ Bilateral relations Switzerland–North Korea Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA). Retrieved 5 September 2017
  344. ^ North Korea faces long list of Swiss Sanctions swissinfo.ch. Politics. Conflict. Retrieved 5 September 2017
  345. ^ Nordkorea-Krise: Die Schweiz will vermitteln(in German). euro news. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  346. ^ "Türkiye – Kuzey Kore Siyasi İlişkileri". T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  347. ^ a b Zwirko, Colin (June 26, 2018). "Turkey, N. Korea begin negotiations over Turkish soldier remains". NK Consulting Inc. Turkey and North Korea have begun negotiations over the return of remains for almost 500 Turkish soldiers killed during the Korean War, Turkish outlet Habertürk reported late Tuesday. The Turkish Ambassador to South Korea Ersin Erçin, who recently also became ambassador-at-large to North Korea, told Habertürk that Turkey began negotiating the return of remains with Pyongyang following the June 12 U.S.-DPRK summit in Singapore. Erçin described talks as the start of a process where Turkey would first provide DNA samples to North Korea to help identify 487 soldiers believed to have perished in DPRK territory during the 1950-1953 war.
  348. ^ "N Korea to close its lonely embassy", The Australian, 26 January 2008
  349. ^ "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  350. ^ "N Korean heroin ship sunk by jet". BBC News. 2006-03-23. Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  351. ^ "Embassies – New Zealand representatives Overseas". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  352. ^ "Embassies – New Zealand representatives Overseas". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  353. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "International Organizations". North Korea in the World. East-West Center, The National Committee on North Korea. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  354. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "CIA World Factbook – Korea, North". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2019-02-24.

Works citedEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Downs, Chuck (1999). Over the Line: North Korea's Negotiating Strategy. Washington: American Enterprise Institute. ISBN 978-0-8447-4029-4.
  • Kim Yongho (2010). North Korean Foreign Policy: Security Dilemma and Succession. Plymouth: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-4864-8.
  • Kwak Tae-Hwan; Joo Seung-Ho, eds. (2009). North Korea's Foreign Policy Under Kim Jong Il: New Perspectives. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-7739-0.
  • Park, Kyung-Ae, ed. (2010). New Challenges of North Korean Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-11397-8.
  • Wallace, Robert Daniel (2016). North Korea and the Science of Provocation: Fifty Years of Conflict-Making. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-9969-4.

External linksEdit