Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty

The Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty is a treaty signed on 11 July 1961 between North Korea and China. The treaty is currently the only defense treaty China and North Korea has with any nation.[1]

Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Flag of North Korea.svg
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese中朝友好合作互助条约
Traditional Chinese中朝友好合作互助條約
Korean name
Hangul중조우호협력상호원조조약
Signing of the treaty by Kim Il-Sung and Zhou Enlai in 11 July 1961, Beijing
Treaty signing in Beijing on 11 July 1961

BackgroundEdit

After the 1961 May 16 Coup, the new South Korean leader Park Chung-hee urged for an increase in military spending and for action to be taken against North Korea. The North Korean leadership feared a South Korean invasion and turned to the Soviet Union and China for support.[2]

SigningEdit

The treaty was signed in Beijing and came into effect on 10 September of the same year.[3][4] Premier of the People's Republic of China Zhou Enlai and Prime Minister of North Korea Kim Il-sung signed for their respective countries.[5] The treaty generally promoted peaceful cooperation in the areas of culture, economics, technology and other social benefits between the two nations.[5] Specifically, Article 2 of the treaty declares the two nations undertake all necessary measures to oppose any country or coalition of countries that might attack either nation.[6]

The treaty remains in effect and automatically renews every 20 years, being renewed in 1981 and 2001.[5][7] The most recent renewal will remain in effect until 2021.[8][7] The right to cancel the Sino-North Korean Treaty can be invoked at specified five-year intervals, and each party must give advance notice of one year.[6]

Kim Il-sung arrived in Beijing in 1961 to sign the treaty just a few days after signing the North Korean-Soviet Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty (朝苏友好合作互助条约).[5] The Soviet treaty however has not been in effect since the 1990s with only a revised "consultation" treaty being re-adopted in 1999.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "China-N. Korea defense treaty". koreatimes. 26 July 2016. Archived from the original on 6 October 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  2. ^ 北朝鮮と軍事同盟50年を祝う中国を侮るな. MSN産経ニュース (in Japanese). 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. Alternative source: [1] Archived 12 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Archived copy" 1961年7月11日 《中朝友好合作互助條約》在北京簽訂. Cpc.people.com.cn. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Archived copy" 中朝兩國關係發展的新契機. CCTV News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ a b c d "Archived copy" 鴨綠江水靜流淌:中朝60年紀事. Ifeng. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b c Harrison, Selig S. [2003] (2003). Korean endgame: a strategy for reunification and U.S. disengagement. p 322.
  7. ^ a b "China 'not obliged to defend North Korea from an attack'". The Straits Times. 14 April 2017. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" 兩韓緊張升級 中國角色難演 (in Chinese). Sina Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)