Supreme People's Assembly
The Supreme People's Assembly (SPA; Korean: 최고인민회의; MR: Ch’oego Inmin Hoeŭi) is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. It consists of one deputy from each of the DPRK's 687 constituencies, elected to five-year terms.
Supreme People's Assembly
Choego Inmin Hoeŭi
|14th Supreme People's Assembly|
since 11 April 2019
|Democratic Front for the Reunification of Fatherland (687)|
|First-past-the-post show elections|
|10 March 2019|
|Mansudae Assembly Hall|
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
|Minju Choson, the official newspaper of the SPA Presidium|
|Revised Romanization||Choego Inmin Hoeui|
|McCune–Reischauer||Ch’oego Inmin Hoeŭi|
The constitution recognizes the Workers' Party as the leading party of the state. The Workers' Party, led by Kim Jong-un, governs the DPRK in a monopoly coalition with the Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party called the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. Elections are held in five-year intervals, the most recent taking place in 2019.
In 1990, the composition of the SPA was 601 seats held by the Workers' Party of Korea, 51 seats held by the Korean Social Democratic Party, 22 seats held by the Chondoist Chongu Party and 13 seats held by independents.
The last convention during Kim Il-sung's government took place in April 1994, three months before his death. Then during the mourning period the assembly did not meet, nor did elections take place. The next meeting convened in September 1998, four years after Kim's death.
Kim Jong-il did not make a speech at the first session of the 10th SPA in 1998. Instead, members listened to a tape-recorded speech of the late Kim Il Sung, which was made at the first session of the 9th SPA, in 1991. The enhanced status of the Korean People's Army was anticipated by the SPA election July 1998, when 101 military officials were elected out of 687 delegates. This was a large increase from the 57 military officials elected during the 9th SPA in 1990.
On April 14, 2012, during the fifth session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly Kim Jong Un was elected as the country's supreme leader. Addressing the SPA session, Kim Yong-nam, president of the SPA Presidium, said Kim's accession to the DPRK's top post reflected "the ardent desire and unanimous will of all the party members, servicepersons and other people". His status as leader was reaffirmed when he was elected unopposed on March 9, 2014. Kim was nominated to represent his district, the symbolic Mount Paekdu, in the assembly election. Voters could vote yes or no, with all voting in the affirmative, according to government officials.
In 2017, the assembly created a subordinate Diplomatic Commission. This may be useful for international dialogue with other parliaments, while other diplomatic channels are blocked. On 11 April 2019, Choe Ryong-hae was appointed President of the Presidium.
Elections and membershipEdit
All candidates are selected by the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland in mass meetings held to decide which candidates will be nominated and their names can only go on the ballot paper with the approval of the meeting. The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland is a popular front dominated by the Korean Worker's Party, in which almost all power rests. The other participants in the coalition include the two other de facto legal political parties, the Korean Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party, as well as various other member organizations including social groups and youth groups, such as the Korean section of the Pioneer movement, the Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League, the Korean Democratic Women's League, and the Red Cross Society of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Only one candidate who has been selected by the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland appears on the ballot. A voter may cross off the candidate's name to vote against them, but must do so in a special booth without any secrecy. The voter must then drop his or her ballot into a separate box for "no" votes. Voting against a Democratic Front candidate is considered treasonous; those who do face the loss of their jobs and housing, along with extra surveillance. Refusing to vote at all is also considered a treasonous act.
According to the Constitution of North Korea, it is the highest organ of state power in the country. The Assembly is convened once or twice a year in regular sessions of several days each. At all other times, the Presidium acts for the Assembly. Extraordinary sessions of the Assembly can also meet when called by the Presidium or by one third of the Assembly deputies.
The functions of the SPA are:
- Adopting, amending or supplementing enactments to the constitution;
- enact, amend and supplement statutory laws
- approve major statutory laws adopted by the SPA Presidium while the SPA is in recess
- establish the basic principles of the state's domestic and foreign policies
- Determining State policy and budgets;
- Elections of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and members of the State Affairs Commission;
- Elections of the President and other members of the Presidium;
- Elections of legal officials;
- Appointing the Premier, Deputy Premiers and other members of the Cabinet;
- Receiving reports and adopting measures on the Cabinet.
- Elect or recall the director of the Central Court
- Elect or recall the director of the Central General Prosecutor's Office
Constitutional amendments require the approval of two-thirds of the deputies.
The Presidium exercises legislative power when the SPA is in recess, which occurs during all but a few days of every year. For all intents and purposes, it is the highest organ of state power in North Korea.
The Presidium consists of the President, Vice-Presidents, a Secretary-General and other members. The Presidium is elected by the SPA members. The Secretary-General, a largely symbolic role, is currently Jong Yong-guk. The functions of the Presidium are to:
- Convene sessions of the Supreme People's Assembly;
- Examine and approve new state legislation when the SPA is in recess;
- Supervise the Supreme Procurator's Office when the SPA is not in session;
- Supervise the Central Court when the SPA is in recess;
- Interpret and enact the Constitution and most legislation passed, with the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission now having the power to enact important laws;
- Form or dissolve state ministries;
- Supervise laws of State organs;
- Supervise parliamentary committees;
- Organize elections to the Supreme People's Assembly;
- Ratify treaties with foreign countries;
- Appoint, transfer, or remove officials and judges when the SPA is in recess;
- Grant special pardons or amnesties.
Many of the powers of the Presidium derive from the 1998 constitutional amendment which abolished the posts of the President of North Korea, Central People's Committee, and Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly and gave their powers to the Presidium. Of these organs, the Presidium is seen as the successor of the Standing Committee.
|Vice President||Pak Yong-il|||
|Vice President||Thae Hyong-chol|||
|Secretary General||Jong Yong-guk|||
According to the 1998 Constitution, the Presidium and the President of the Presidium succeed the Assembly's Standing Committee and the Chairman of the Standing Committee. Prior to the creation of the post of President of the DPRK in 1972, the Chairman of the Standing Committee was the country's de jure head of state. Currently, the Chairman of the Assembly is the SPA speaker, while the President of the Presidium performs representative functions ordinarily accorded to a head of state. As the representative of the state in external matters and the head of the highest sovereign organ, the President of the Presidium is often considered the de facto head of state of North Korea. The President also convenes sessions of the SPA.
The President, like the rest of the Presidium, is elected by the SPA members. The SPA can also remove the President. Kim Yong-nam held the post from its creation in 1998 until 2019, when he was replaced by Choe Ryong-hae.
In addition to the Presidium, the SPA has four parliamentary committees: the Foreign Affairs Committee, Budget Committee, Legislation Committee, and Deputy Credentials Committee. The constitution mandates the Legislation and Budget Committees and leaves the choice of having more committees to the SPA. Before 1998, the tasks of the Presidium was exercised by a Standing Committee and there was an additional committee called the Reunification-policy Deliberation Committee. The Foreign Affairs Committee, too, was discontinued in 1998, but as of 2019[update] is operating again.
Foreign Affairs CommitteeEdit
Deputy Credentials CommitteeEdit
List of office holdersEdit
|Chairman of the Standing committee Supreme People's Assembly of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea|
|Workers' Party of North Korea||9 September 1948||20 September 1957||1st SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea|
|Korean Democratic Party||20 September 1957||23 October 1962||2nd SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea|
|23 October 1962||16 December 1967||3rd SPA|
|16 December 1967||28 December 1972||4th SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea||28 December 1972||16 December 1977||5th SPA|
|16 December 1977||6 April 1982||6th SPA|
|6 April 1982||7 April 1983||7th SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea||7 April 1983||29 December 1986|
|29 December 1986||24 May 1990||8th SPA|
|24 May 1990||5 September 1998||9th SPA|
|President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea|
|Workers' Party of Korea||5 September 1998||3 September 2003||10th SPA|
|3 September 2003||9 April 2009||11th SPA|
|9 April 2009||9 April 2014||12th SPA|
|9 April 2014||11 April 2019||13th SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea||11 April 2019||Incumbent||14th SPA|||
|Chairman of the Assembly of Supreme People's Assembly of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea|
|Workers' Party of Korea||September 1948||1951||1st SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea||25 November 1957||1972||4th SPA|
|Workers' Party of Korea||1972||1986||5th SPA
|Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea|
|Workers' Party of Korea||5 September 1998||11 April 2019||10th SPA
|Workers' Party of Korea||11 April 2019||Incumbent||14th SPA|
- "DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA Choe Go In Min Hoe Ui (Supreme People's Assembly)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
- "DPRK Holds Election of Local and National Assemblies". People's Korea. Archived from the original on 2013-03-31. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
- Gorvin, Ian (1989-01-01). Elections since 1945: a worldwide reference compendium. Longman. p. 196. ISBN 9780582036208.
- Publications, Europa; Staff, Europa Publications; 32nd, Ed (2017-04-25). The Far East and Australasia 2001. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 597. ISBN 9781857430806. Archived from the original on 2017-04-26.
- Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments
- "North Korean legislature seen set to name Kim president", CNN, August 20, 1998. Archived March 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Dae-woong, Jin (2007-10-04). "Who's who in North Korea's power elite". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 2007-10-05.[permanent dead link]
- "In full: promotions and demotions at North Korea's 14th SPA". NK PRO. Korea Risk Group. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "DPRK revises constitution, elects Kim Jong Un as top leader", 2012-04-14 Archived 2012-04-18 at the Wayback Machine
- Frank, Ruediger (28 April 2017). "The North Korean Parliamentary Session and Budget Report for 2017". 38 North. U.S.-Korea Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "N.K. leader re-elected as chairman of State Affairs Commission". Yonhap. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "North Korea votes for new rubber-stamp parliament". Associated Press. 8 March 2009.
- Milisic, Alma (19 July 2015). "Foregone result in North Korea's local elections". Al-Jazeera English.
- Europa Publications Staff. (2002). The Far East and Australasia 2003. Routledge. pp. 680. ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9
- Frank, Ruediger (8 April 2016). "The 2016 North Korean Budget Report: 12 Observations". 38 North. U.S.-Korea Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- "Organizational Chart of North Korean Leadership" (PDF). Seoul: Political and Military Analysis Division, Intelligence and Analysis Bureau; Ministry of Unification. January 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Madden, Michael (5 April 2013). "Kim Jong Un's Pyongyang Shuffle". 38 North. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Cha & Hwang 2008, p. 201.
- Minnich 2008, p. 276.
- Cha & Hwang 2008, p. 196.
- Cha & Hwang 2008, p. 198.
- "6th Session of the 13th SPA Held". North Korea Leadership Watch. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "First-day Meeting of First Session of 14th SPA Held". KCNA Watch. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- "Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea". 2016. Chapter VI, Section 1, Article 98. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Cha, Victor D.; Hwang, Balbina Y. (2008). "Government and Politics". In Worden, Robert L. (ed.). North Korea: A Country Study (5th ed.). Washington: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. pp. 187–234. ISBN 978-0-8444-1188-0.
- Minnich, James M. (2008). "National Security" (PDF). In Worden, Robert L. (ed.). North Korea: A Country Study (5th ed.). Washington: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. pp. 237–281. ISBN 978-0-8444-1188-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Supreme People's Assembly.|
- Minju Choson, the official newspaper of the SPA Presidium (in Korean)
- Supreme People's Assembly at the Inter-Parliamentary Union
- North Korean Government, CIA World Factbook
- FACTBOX - North Korea's main political bodies and power, Reuters.