Group of 77
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries (including China). Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
|Named after||Number of founding Member States|
|Formation||June 15, 1964|
|Founded at||Geneva, Switzerland|
|Type||Intergovernmental voting bloc|
|Purpose||To provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests|
|Headquarters||United Nations Headquarters|
|Methods||Collective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies|
|134 Member States|
Chair of the Group of 77
|State of Palestine|
The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament. It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order. It has been subject to criticism for its lackluster support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.
- Members of the Council of Europe, except for Bosnia.
- Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Chile.
- Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
- Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.
- Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
- Burkina Faso[b]
- Central African Republic
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Costa Rica
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- Iran (Islamic Republic of)
- Lao People’s Democratic Republic
- Saudi Arabia
- Sierra Leone
- Sri Lanka[e]
- Syrian Arab Republic
- United Republic of Tanzania[f]
- Trinidad and Tobago
- Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
- Viet Nam
- Joined as Dahomey.
- Joined as Upper Volta.
- Joined as the United Arab Republic.
- Joined as Burma.
- Joined as Ceylon.
- Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
Other current membersEdit
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Brunei Darussalam
- Cabo Verde
- Côte D'Ivoire
- Equatorial Guinea
- Gambia (Republic of The)
- Marshall Islands
- Federated States of Micronesia
- North Korea
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Solomon Islands
- South Africa
- South Sudan
- East Timor
- United Arab Emirates
- Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
- Joined as Swaziland.
The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
- New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
- Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
- South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
- Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in the G77.
- Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
- Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
- Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
- Romania was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.
The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:
|Antigua and Barbuda||2008|
Group of 24Edit
The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77. Although membership in the G-24 is strictly limited to 24 countries, any other member of the G-77 can join discussions.
- About the Group of 77:Aims
- "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
- "Palestinians to Lead U.N.'s Biggest Bloc of Developing Countries". Retrieved 2018-07-27.
- About the Group of 77:Establishment
- Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
- Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
- Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
- Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
- Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
- "七十七国集团（Group of 77, G77）". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016.
- "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org.
Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
- "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.