Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.[1] There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries according to the organization.[2] China does not consider itself to be a member, nor did it when it was generally regarded as a developing country. However, the country supports and financially contributes to G77, and official statements are made with China. Guinea holds the chairmanship as of 2021.

Group of 77
Group of 77 Logo.svg
Named afterNumber of founding Member States
Formation15 June 1969; 52 years ago (1969-06-15)
Founded atGeneva, Switzerland
TypeIntergovernmental voting bloc
PurposeTo provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests
HeadquartersUnited Nations Headquarters
MethodsCollective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies
FieldsInternational politics
Membership (2019)
134 Member States
Chair of the Group of 77
The Co-operative Republic of Guyana
AffiliationsUnited Nations

The group was founded on 15 June 1969 , by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).[3] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA.[4] There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).


The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.[5] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order.[5][6] It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.[5][7][8]


Group of 77 countries as of 2013

As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:

  1. Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan.
  2. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Costa Rica, Chile and Colombia.
  3. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.

Current founding members[9]Edit

Other current membersEdit

Former membersEdit

  1.   New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2.   Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3.   South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4.   Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003.[citation needed] It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in the G77.
  5.   Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the European Union in 2004.
  6.   Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the European Union in 2004.
  7.   Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8.   Romania was classed as a Latin American country for the purposes of the G77, having joined in 1976.[10][11] The G77 was divided into geographical regions, and because there was technically no European area, Romania was placed under the umbrella of Latin America.[12] Romania left the G77 following its accession to the European Union.[13]


The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members.[2] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member.[14] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China.[15]

Presiding countriesEdit

The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:[16]

Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = three times
Presiding country Year
  India 1970–1971
  Peru 1971–1972
  Egypt 1972–1973
  Iran 1973–1974
  Mexico 1974–1975
  Madagascar 1975–1976
  Pakistan 1976–1977
  Jamaica 1977–1978
  Tunisia 1978–1979
  India 1979–1980
  Venezuela 1980–1981
  Algeria 1981–1982
  Bangladesh 1982–1983
  Mexico 1983–1984
  Egypt 1984–1985
  Yugoslavia 1985–1986
  Guatemala 1987
  Tunisia 1988
  Malaysia 1989
  Bolivia 1990
  Ghana 1991
  Pakistan 1992
  Colombia 1993
  Algeria 1994
  Philippines 1995
  Costa Rica 1996
  Tanzania 1997
  Indonesia 1998
  Guyana 1999
  Nigeria 2000
  Iran 2001
  Venezuela 2002
  Morocco 2003
  Qatar 2004
  Jamaica 2005
  South Africa 2006
  Pakistan 2007
  Antigua and Barbuda 2008
  Sudan 2009
  Yemen 2010
  Argentina 2011
  Algeria 2012
  Fiji 2013
  Bolivia 2014
  South Africa 2015
  Thailand 2016
  Ecuador 2017
  Egypt 2018
  Palestine 2019
  Guyana 2020
  Guinea 2021

Group of 24Edit

G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Joined as Dahomey.
  2. ^ Joined as Upper Volta.
  3. ^ Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  4. ^ Joined as Burma.
  5. ^ Joined as Ceylon.
  6. ^ Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
  7. ^ Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
  8. ^ Joined as Swaziland.


  1. ^ About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. ^ a b "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
  3. ^ About the Group of 77:Establishment
  4. ^ Prebisch, Raúl; Prebisch, Raul (October 1986). "El desarrollo económico de la América Latina y algunos de sus principales problemas". Desarrollo Económico. 26 (103): 479. doi:10.2307/3466824. hdl:11362/10183. ISSN 0046-001X. JSTOR 3466824.
  5. ^ a b c Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
  6. ^ Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
  7. ^ Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
  8. ^ Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
  10. ^ James Mark, Bogdan C. Iacob, Tobias Rupprecht, Ljubica Spaskovska, Cambridge University Press, 29 aug. 2019, 1989 A Global History of Eastern Europe, p. 125
  11. ^ James Mark, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Steffi Marung, Indiana University Press, 11 feb. 2020, Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World, p. 43
  12. ^ United Nations University Press, 1995, State, Society and the UN System: Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism, p. 152
  13. ^ Bertrand Badie, Springer, Aug 21, 2012, Diplomacy of Connivance
  14. ^ "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以“77国集团加中国”的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
  15. ^ "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
  16. ^ "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.

External linksEdit