International Bureau of Weights and Measures
Coordinates: The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (French: Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards. The organisation is usually referred to by its French initialism, BIPM.
Metre Convention signatories
|Formation||20 May 1875|
|French and English|
The BIPM also refers to its headquarter based at Sèvres, France that has custody of the International Prototype Kilogram and houses the secretariat for this organization and hosts its formal meetings.
The BIPM reports to the International Committee for Weights and Measures (French: Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM), which is in turn overseen by periodic meetings of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (French: Conférence générale des poids et mesures, CGPM). These organizations are also commonly referred to by their French initialisms.
The BIPM was created on 20 May 1875, following the signing of the Metre Convention, a treaty among 59 nations (as of March 2018[update]). It is based at the Pavillon de Breteuil in Sèvres, France, a 4.35 ha (10.7-acre) site (originally 2.52 ha (6.2 acres)) granted to the Bureau by the French Government in 1876, where it enjoys extraterritorial status,[dubious ] a status that was clarified by the French decree No 70-820 of 9 September 1970.
The BIPM has the mandate to provide the basis for a single, coherent system of measurements throughout the world, traceable to the International System of Units (SI). This task takes many forms, from direct dissemination of units (as in the case of mass and time) to coordination through international comparisons of national measurement standards (as in electricity and ionizing radiation).
Following consultation, a draft version of the BIPM work programme is presented at each meeting of the General Conference for consideration with the BIPM dotation. The final programme of work is determined by the CIPM in accordance with the dotation agreed by the CGPM.
Currently, main work of the BIPM include:
- scientific and technical activities carried out in its four departments: chemistry, ionizing radiation, physical metrology, and time;
- liaison and coordination work, including providing the secretariat for the CIPM Consultative Committees and some of their Working Groups and for the CIPM MRA, and providing institutional liaison with the other bodies supporting the international quality infrastructure and other international bodies;
- capacity building and knowledge transfer programs that aim to increase the effectiveness within the world-wide metrology community of those Member State and Associates with emerging metrology systems;
- a resource center providing database and publications for international metrology.
The BIPM has an important role in maintaining accurate worldwide time of day. It combines, analyses, and averages the official atomic time standards of member nations around the world to create a single, official Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Directors of the BIPMEdit
|J. Pernet||Switzerland||1877-1879||Acting director|
|Ole Jacob Broch||Norway||1879-1889|
|Charles Édouard Guillaume||Switzerland||1915-1936|
|Terry J. Quinn||United Kingdom||1988-2003||Honorary director|
|Andrew J. Wallard||United Kingdom||2004-2010||Honorary director|
|Martin J. T. Milton||United Kingdom||2013-|
- Pat Naughtin. USMA:36871 Re: Translation of METRO XPO. 29 May 2006. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "Brief history of the SI". BIPM. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
- Page, Chester H; Vigoureux, Paul, eds. (20 May 1975). The International Bureau of Weights and Measures 1875–1975: NBS Special Publication 420. Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Standards. pp. 26–27.
- "History of the Pavillon de Breteuil § The BIPM from 1875 to the Present Day". BIPM. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
- "BIPM - BIPM work programme". www.bipm.org. Retrieved 2018-04-26.
- "BIPM Time Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)". BIPM. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- "International prototype of the kilogram". BIPM. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
- "Directors of the BIPM since 1875". Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "NPL Fellow, Dr Martin Milton, is new Director at foundation of world's measurement system". QMT News. Quality Manufacturing Today. August 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.