Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
The Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election with the goal of harming the campaign of Hillary Clinton, boosting the candidacy of Donald Trump, and increasing political and social discord in the United States.
The Internet Research Agency, based in Saint Petersburg and described as a troll farm, created thousands of social media accounts that purported to be Americans supporting radical political groups, and planned or promoted events in support of Trump and against Clinton; they reached millions of social media users between 2013 and 2017. Fabricated articles and disinformation were spread from Russian government-controlled media, and promoted on social media. Additionally, computer hackers affiliated with the Russian military intelligence service (GRU) infiltrated information systems of the Democratic National Committee (DNC), the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC), and Clinton campaign officials, notably chairman John Podesta, and publicly released stolen files and emails through DCLeaks, Guccifer 2.0 and WikiLeaks during the election campaign. Finally, several individuals connected to Russia contacted various Trump campaign associates, offering business opportunities to the Trump Organization and damaging information on Clinton. Russian government officials have denied involvement in any of the hacks or leaks.
Russian interference activities triggered strong statements from American intelligence agencies, a direct warning by then-U.S. President Barack Obama to Russian President Vladimir Putin, renewed economic sanctions against Russia, closures of Russian diplomatic facilities and expulsion of their staff. The Senate and House Intelligence Committees conducted their own investigations into the matter. Trump denied that the interference occurred, contending that it was a "hoax" perpetrated by Democrats to explain Clinton's loss. He dismissed FBI Director James Comey in part over his investigation of Russian meddling.
Russian attempts to interfere in the election were first disclosed publicly by members of the United States Congress on September 22, 2016, confirmed by United States intelligence agencies on October 7, 2016, and further detailed by the Director of National Intelligence office in January 2017. According to U.S. intelligence agencies, the operation was ordered directly by Putin. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened the Crossfire Hurricane investigation of Russian interference on July 31, 2016, including a special focus on links between Trump associates and Russian officials and suspected coordination between the Trump campaign and the Russian government. The FBI's work was taken over in May 2017 by former FBI director Robert Mueller, who led a Special Counsel investigation until March 2019. Mueller concluded that Russian interference was "sweeping and systematic" and "violated U.S. criminal law", and he indicted twenty-six Russian citizens and three Russian organizations. The investigation also led to indictments and convictions of Trump campaign officials and associated Americans, for unrelated charges. The Special Counsel's report, made public on April 18, 2019, examined numerous contacts between the Trump campaign and Russian officials but concluded that there was insufficient evidence to bring any conspiracy or coordination charges against Trump or his associates.
- 1 Background and Russian actors
- 2 Social media and Internet trolls
- 3 Cyberattack on Democrats
- 3.1 Podesta hack
- 3.2 DNC hack
- 4 Targeting of important voting blocs and institutions
- 5 Intrusions into state voter-registration systems
- 6 Investigation into financial flows
- 7 Intelligence analysis and reports
- 8 U.S. government response
- 9 Impact on election result
- 10 2017 developments
- 11 2018 developments
- 12 2019 developments
- 13 Links between Trump associates and Russian officials
- 14 Steele dossier
- 15 Commentary and reactions
- 16 See also
- 17 Notes
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
Background and Russian actors
Prior Russian election interference in Ukraine
The May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election was disrupted by cyberattacks over several days, including the release of hacked emails, attempted alteration of vote tallies, and distributed denial-of-service attacks to delay the final result. They were found to have been launched by Pro-Russian hackers. Malware that would have displayed a graphic declaring far-right candidate Dmytro Yarosh the electoral winner was removed from Ukraine's Central Election Commission less than an hour before polls closed. Despite this, Channel One Russia falsely reported that Mr. Yarosh had won, fabricating a fake graphic from the election commission's website. Political scientist Peter Ordeshook said in 2017, "These faked results were geared for a specific audience in order to feed the Russian narrative that has claimed from the start that ultra-nationalists and Nazis were behind the revolution in Ukraine." The same Sofacy malware used in the Central Election Commission hack was later found on the servers of the Democratic National Committee (DNC). Around the same time as Russia's attempt to hack the 2014 elections the Obama administration received a report suggesting that that the Kremlin was building a disinformation program that could be used to interfere in Western politics.
In December 2016, two senior intelligence officials told several U.S. news media outlets[Note 1] that they were highly confident that the operation to interfere in the 2016 presidential election was personally directed by Vladimir Putin. Under Putin's direction, the goals of the operation evolved from first undermining American's trust in their democracy to undermining Clinton's campaign, and by the fall of 2016 to directly helping Trump's campaign, because Putin thought Trump would ease economic sanctions.
The officials believe Putin became personally involved after Russia accessed the DNC computers, because such an operation would require high-level government approval. White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest and Obama foreign policy advisor and speechwriter Ben Rhodes agreed with this assessment, with Rhodes saying operations of this magnitude required Putin's consent.
President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election. Russia's goals were to undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency. We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear preference for President-elect Trump. We have high confidence in these judgments.:7
Putin blamed Clinton for the 2011–2012 mass protests in Russia against his rule, according to the report:11 (Clinton was U.S. Secretary of State at the time). FBI Director James Comey also has testified that Putin disliked Clinton and preferred her opponent, and Clinton herself has accused Putin of having a grudge against her. Michael McFaul, who was U.S. ambassador to Russia, said that the operation could be a retaliation by Putin against Clinton. Russian security expert Andrei Soldatov has said, "[The Kremlin] believes that with Clinton in the White House it will be almost impossible to lift sanctions against Russia. So it is a very important question for Putin personally. This is a question of national security."
Russian officials have denied the allegations multiple times. In June 2016, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied any connection of Russia to the DNC hacks. In December 2016, when U.S. intelligence officials publicly accused Putin of being directly involved in the covert operation, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said he was "astonished" by this "nonsense". Putin also has denied any Kremlin involvement in the election campaign, though in June 2017 he told journalists that "patriotically minded" Russian hackers may have been responsible for the campaign cyberattacks against the U.S., and in 2018 he stated that he had wanted Trump to win the election "because he talked about bringing the U.S.-Russia relationship back to normal."
U.S. counter-disinformation team
The United States Department of State planned to use a unit formed with the intention of combating disinformation from the Russian government, but it was disbanded in September 2015 after department heads missed the scope of propaganda before the 2016 U.S. election. The unit had been in development for 8 months prior to being scrapped. Titled the Counter-Disinformation Team, it would have been a reboot of the Active Measures Working Group set up by the Reagan Administration. It was created under the Bureau of International Information Programs. Work began in 2014, with the intention of countering propaganda from Russian sources such as TV network RT (formerly called Russia Today). A beta website was ready, and staff were hired by the U.S. State Department for the unit prior to its cancellation. U.S. Intelligence officials explained to former National Security Agency analyst and counterintelligence officer John R. Schindler writing in The New York Observer (published at the time by Jared Kushner) that the Obama Administration decided to cancel the unit, as they were afraid of antagonizing Russia. A State Department representative told the International Business Times after being contacted regarding the closure of the unit, that the U.S. was disturbed by propaganda from Russia, and the strongest defense was sincere communication. U.S. Undersecretary of State for Public Diplomacy Richard Stengel was the point person for the unit before it was canceled. Stengel had written in 2014 that RT was engaged in a disinformation campaign about Ukraine.
Russian Institute for Strategic Studies
In April 2017, Reuters cited several unnamed U.S. officials as stating that the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies (RISS) had developed a strategy to sway the U.S. election to Donald Trump, and failing that to disillusion U.S. voters with in their democratic system. The development of strategy was allegedly ordered by Putin and directed by former officers of Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), retired SVR general Leonid Petrovich Reshetnikov being head of the RISS at the time. The Institute had been a part of the SVR until 2009, whereafter it has worked for the Russian Presidential Administration.
The U.S. officials stated that the propaganda efforts began in March 2016. The first set of recommendations, issued in June 2016, proposed that Russia support a candidate for U.S. president more favorable to Russia than Obama had been, via Russia-backed news outlets and a social media campaign. It supported Trump until October, when another conclusion was made that Hillary Clinton was likely to win, and the strategy should be modified to work to undermine U.S. voters′ faith in their electoral system and a Clinton presidency by alleging voter fraud in the election. RISS director Mikhail Fradkov and Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied the allegations.
According to a February 2018 criminal indictment, more than two years before the election, two Russian women obtained visas for what the indictment alleged was a three-week reconnaissance tour of the United States, including battleground states such as Colorado, Michigan, Nevada and New Mexico, to gather intelligence on American politics. The 2018 indictment alleged that another Russian operative visited Atlanta in November 2014 on a similar mission. In order to establish American identities for individuals and groups within specific social media communities, hundreds of email, PayPal and bank accounts and fraudulent driver's licenses were created for fictitious Americans — and sometimes real Americans whose Social Security numbers had been stolen.
Social media and Internet trolls
According to the special counsel investigation's Mueller Report (officially named "Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election"), the first method of Russian interference used the Internet Research Agency (IRA), a Kremlin-linked troll farm, to wage "a social media campaign that favored presidential candidate Donald J. Trump and disparaged presidential candidate Hillary Clinton". The Internet Research Agency also sought to "provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States".
By February 2016, internal IRA documents showed an order to support the candidacies of Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders, while IRA members were to "use any opportunity to criticize" Hillary Clinton and the rest of the candidates. From June 2016, the IRA organized election rallies in the U.S. "often promoting" Trump's campaign while "opposing" Clinton's campaign. The IRA posed as Americans, hiding their Russian background, while asking Trump campaign members for campaign buttons, flyers, and posters for the rallies.
Russian use of social media to disseminate propaganda content was very broad. Facebook and Twitter were used, but also Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest, Medium, YouTube, Vine, and Google+ (among other sites). Instagram was by far the most used platform, and one that largely remained out of the public eye until late 2018. The Mueller report lists IRA-created groups on Facebook including "purported conservative groups" (e.g. 'Tea Party News'), "purported Black social justice groups" (e.g. 'Blacktivist') "LGBTQ groups" ('LGBT United'), and "religious groups" ('United Muslims of America'). The IRA Twitter accounts included @TEN_GOP (claiming to be related to the Tennessee Republican Party), @jenn_abrams and @Pamela_Moore13; both claimed to be Trump supporters and both had 70,000 followers.
Several Trump campaign members (Donald J. Trump Jr., Eric Trump, Kellyanne Conway, Brad Parscale and Michael T. Flynn) linked or reposted material from the IRA's @TEN_GOP Twitter account listed above. Other people who responded to IRA social media accounts include Michael McFaul, Sean Hannity, Roger Stone and Michael Flynn Jr.
Advertisements bought by Russian operatives for the Facebook social media site are estimated to have reached 10 million users. But many more Facebook users were contacted by accounts created by Russian actors. 470 Facebook accounts are known to have been created by Russians during the 2016 campaign. Of those accounts six generated content that was shared at least 340 million times, according to research done by Jonathan Albright, research director for Columbia University's Tow Center for Digital Journalism. The most strident Internet promoters of Trump were paid Russian propagandists/trolls, who were estimated by The Guardian to number several thousand. (By 2017 the U.S. news media was focusing on the Russian operations on Facebook and Twitter and Russian operatives moved on to Instagram.) The Mueller Report found the IRA spent $100,000 for over 3,500 Facebook advertisements from June 2015 to May 2017, which included anti-Clinton and pro-Trump advertisements. In comparison, Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook ads.
Fabricated articles and disinformation were spread from Russian government-controlled outlets, RT and Sputnik to be popularized on pro-Russian accounts on Twitter and other social media. Researchers have compared Russian tactics during the 2016 U.S. election to the "active measures" of the Soviet Union during the Cold War, but made easier by the use of social media.
Monitoring 7,000 pro-Trump social media accounts over a two-and-a-half year period, researchers J. M. Berger, Andrew Weisburd and Clint Watts found the accounts denigrated critics of Russian activities in Syria and propagated falsehoods about Clinton's health. Watts found Russian propaganda in the U.S. to be aimed at fomenting "dissent or conspiracies against the US government and its institutions", and by autumn of 2016 amplifying attacks on Clinton and support for Trump, via social media, Internet trolls, botnets, and websites.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Monitoring news on Twitter directed at one state -- Michigan—prior to the election, Philip N. Howard found approximately 50% of it to be fabricated or untrue; the other half came from real news sources.
Facebook originally denied that fake news on their platform had influenced the election and had insisted it was unaware of any Russian-financed advertisements but later admitted that about 126 million Americans may have seen posts published by Russia-based operatives. Criticized for failing to stop fake news from spreading on its platform during the 2016 election, Facebook originally thought that the fake-news problem could be solved by engineering, but on May 2017 it announced plans to hire 3,000 content reviewers.[failed verification]
According to an analysis by Buzzfeed, the "20 top-performing false election stories from hoax sites and hyperpartisan blogs generated 8,711,000 shares, reactions, and comments on Facebook." In September 2017, Facebook told congressional investigators it had discovered that hundreds of fake accounts linked to a Russian troll farm had bought $100,000 in advertisements targeting the 2016 U.S. election audience. The ads, which ran between June 2015 and May 2017, primarily focused on divisive social issues; roughly 25% were geographically targeted. Facebook has also turned over information about the Russian-related ad buys to Special Counsel Robert Mueller. Approximately 3,000 adverts were involved, and these were viewed by between four and five million Facebook users prior to the election. On November 1, 2017, the House Intelligence Committee released a sample of Facebook ads and pages that had been financially linked to the Internet Research Agency.
Cyberattack on Democrats
According to the Mueller Report, the second method of Russian interference saw the Russian intelligence service, the GRU, hacking into email accounts owned by volunteers and employees of the Clinton presidential campaign, including that of campaign chairman John Podesta, and also hacking into "the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee (DNC)". As a result, the GRU obtained hundreds of thousands of hacked documents, and the GRU proceeded by arranging releases of damaging hacked material via the WikiLeaks organization and also GRU's personas "DCLeaks" and "Guccifer 2.0".
Starting in March 2016, the Russian military intelligence agency GRU sent "spearphishing" emails targeted more than 300 individuals affiliated with the Democratic Party or the Clinton campaign, according to the Special Counsel's July 13, 2018 Indictment. Using malware to explore the computer networks of the DNC and DCCC, they harvested tens of thousands of emails and attachments and deleted computer logs and files to obscure evidence of their activities. These were saved and released in stages to the public during the three months before the 2016 election. Some were released strategically to distract the public from media events that were either beneficial to the Clinton campaign or harmful to Trump's.
The first tranche of 19,000 emails and 8,000 attachments was released on July 22, 2016, three days before the Democratic convention. The resulting news coverage created the impression that the Democratic National Committee was biased against Clinton's Democratic primary challenger Bernie Sanders (who received 43% of votes cast in the Democratic presidential primaries) and forced DNC Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz to resign, disrupting the plans of the Clinton campaign. A second tranche was released on October 7, a few hours after the Obama Administration released a statement by the Department of Homeland Security and the director of National Intelligence accusing the Russian government of interfering in the election through hacking, and just 29 minutes after The Washington Post reported on the Access Hollywood videotape where Trump boasted about grabbing women "by the pussy". The stolen documents effectively distracted media and voter attention from both stories.
Stolen emails and documents were given both to platforms created by hackers — a website called DCLeaks and a persona called Guccifer 2.0 claiming to be a lone hacker — and to WikiLeaks. (The Russians registered the domain dcleaks.com, using principally Bitcoin to pay for the domain and the hosting.)
John Podesta, Chairman of Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign, received a phishing email on March 19, 2016, sent by Russian operatives purporting to alert him of a "compromise in the system", and urging him to change his password "immediately" by clicking on a link. This allowed Russian hackers to access around 60,000 emails from Podesta's private account.
John Podesta, later told Meet the Press that the FBI spoke to him only once regarding his hacked emails and that he had not been sure what had been taken until a month before the election on October 7 "when [WikiLeaks' Julian] Assange ... started dumping them out and said they would all dump out, that's when I knew that they had the contents of my email account."
The WikiLeaks October 7 dump started less than an hour after The Washington Post released the Donald Trump and Billy Bush recording Access Hollywood tape, WikiLeaks announced on Twitter that it was in possession of 50,000 of Podesta's emails, and a few hours after the Obama Administration released a statement by the Department of Homeland Security and the director of National Intelligence stating "The U.S. Intelligence Community (USIC) is confident that the Russian Government directed the recent compromises of e-mails from US persons and institutions, including from US political organizations."
It initially released 2,050 of these. The cache included emails containing transcripts of Clinton's paid speeches to Wall Street banks, controversial comments from staffers about Catholic voters, infighting among employees of the Clinton campaign, as well as potential Vice-Presidential picks for Clinton. The Clinton campaign did not confirm or deny the authenticity of the emails but emphasized they were stolen and distributed by parties hostile to Clinton and that "top national security officials" had stated "that documents can be faked as part of a sophisticated Russian misinformation campaign."
Podesta's e-mails, once released by WikiLeaks, formed the basis for Pizzagate, a debunked conspiracy theory that falsely posited that Podesta and other Democratic Party officials were involved in a child trafficking ring based out of pizzerias in Washington, D.C.
The GRU (using the names Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear) gained access to the computer network of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) — the formal governing body of the Democratic Party — in July 2015 and maintained it until at least June 2016, when they began leaking the stolen information via the Guccifer 2.0 online persona. Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned as DNC chairwoman following the release of e-mails by WikiLeaks that showed DNC officials discussing Bernie Sanders and his presidential campaign in a derisive and derogatory manner. Emails leaked included personal information about Democratic Party donors, with credit card and Social Security numbers, emails by Wasserman Schultz calling a Sanders campaign official a "damn liar".
Intelligence analysis of attack
In June and July 2016, cybersecurity experts and firms, including CrowdStrike, Fidelis, FireEye, Mandiant, SecureWorks, Symantec and ThreatConnect, stated the DNC email leaks were part of a series of cyberattacks on the DNC committed by two Russian intelligence groups, called Fancy Bear and Cozy Bear, also known respectively as APT28 and APT29 / The Dukes. ThreatConnect also noted possible links between the DC Leaks project and Russian intelligence operations because of a similarity with Fancy Bear attack patterns. SecureWorks added that the actor group was operating from Russia on behalf of the Russian government. de Volkskrant later reported that Dutch intelligence agency AIVD had penetrated the Russian hacking group Cozy Bear in 2014, and observed them in 2015 hack the State Department in real time, while capturing pictures of the hackers via a security camera in their workspace. American, British, and Dutch intelligence services had also observed stolen DNC emails on Russian military intelligence networks.
Intelligence reaction and indictment
On October 7, 2016, Secretary Johnson and Director Clapper issued a joint statement that the intelligence community is confident the Russian Government directed the recent compromises of e-mails from U.S. persons and institutions, including from U.S. political organizations, and that the disclosures of hacked e-mails on sites like DCLeaks.com and WikiLeaks are consistent with the Russian-directed efforts.
In the July 2018 indictment by the Justice Department of twelve Russian GRU intelligence officials posing as "a Guccifer 2.0 persona" for conspiring to interfere in the 2016 elections was for hacking into computers of the Clinton campaign, the Democratic National Committee, state election boards, and secretaries of several states. The indictment describes "a sprawling and sustained cyberattack on at least three hundred people connected to the Democratic Party and the Clinton campaign". The leaked stolen files were released "in stages," a tactic wreaking "havoc on the Democratic Party throughout much of the election season."
One collection of data that hackers obtained and that may have become a "devastating weapon" against the Clinton campaign was the campaign's data analytics and voter-turnout models, extremely useful in targeting messages to "key constituencies" that Clinton needed to mobilize. These voters were later bombarded by Russian operatives with negative information about Clinton on social media.
In April 2017, CIA Director Mike Pompeo stated WikiLeaks was a hostile intelligence agency aided by foreign states including Russia, and said that the U.S. Intelligence Community concluded that Russia's "propaganda outlet," RT, had conspired with WikiLeaks.
WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange have made a number of statements denying that the Russian government was the source of the material. However, an anonymous CIA official said that Russian officials transferred the hacked e-mails to WikiLeaks using "a circuitous route" from Russia's military intelligence services (GRU) to WikiLeaks via third parties.
Hacking of Congressional candidates
Hillary Clinton was not the only Democrat attacked. Caches of Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee documents stolen by "Guccifer 2.0" were also released to reporters and bloggers around the U.S. As one Democratic candidate put it, "Our entire internal strategy plan was made public, and suddenly all this material was out there and could be used against me." The New York Times noted, "The seats that Guccifer 2.0 targeted in the document dumps were hardly random: They were some of the most competitive House races in the country."
Hacking of Republicans
On January 10, 2017, FBI Director James Comey told the Senate Intelligence Committee that Russia succeeded in "collecting some information from Republican-affiliated targets but did not leak it to the public". In earlier statements, an FBI official stated Russian attempts to access the RNC server were unsuccessful, or had reportedly told the RNC chair that their servers were secure, but that email accounts of individual Republicans (including Colin Powell) were breached. (Over 200 emails from Colin Powell were posted on the website DC Leaks.) One state Republican Party (Illinois) may have had some of its email accounts hacked.
Civil DNC lawsuit against Russian Federation
On April 20, 2018, the Democratic National Committee filed a civil lawsuit in federal court in New York, accusing the Russian Government, the Trump campaign, WikiLeaks, and others of conspiracy to alter the course of the 2016 presidential election and asking for monetary damages and a declaration admitting guilt. The lawsuit was dismissed by the judge, because New York "does not recognize the specific tort claims pressed in the suit"; the judge did not make a finding on whether there was or was not "collusion between defendants and Russia during the 2016 presidential election".
Calls by Trump for Russians to hack Clinton's deleted emails
At a news conference on July 27, 2016, Trump publicly called on Russia to hack and release Hillary Clinton's deleted emails from her private server during her tenure in the State Department.
Russia, if you're listening, I hope you're able to find the 30,000 emails that are missing, I think you will probably be rewarded mightily by our press.
Trump's comment was condemned by the press and political figures, including some Republicans; he replied that he had been speaking sarcastically. Several Democratic Senators said Trump's comments appeared to violate the Logan Act, and Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe added that Trump's call could be treasonous.
The July 2018 federal indictment of Russian GRU agents said that the first attempt by Russian hackers to infiltrate the computer servers inside Clinton's offices took place on the same day (July 27, 2016) Trump made his "Russia if you're listening" appeal. While no direct link with Trump's remark was alleged in the indictment, journalist Jane Mayer called the timing "striking".
Trump asserted in March 2019 that he had been joking when he made the remark. Katy Tur of NBC News had interviewed Trump immediately after the 2016 remark, noting she gave him an opportunity to characterize it as a joke, but he did not.
Targeting of important voting blocs and institutions
In her analysis of the Russian influence on the 2016 election, Kathleen Hall Jamieson argues that Russians aligned themselves with the "geographic and demographic objectives" of the Trump campaign, using trolls, social media and hacked information to target certain important constituencies.
Attempts to suppress African American votes and spread alienation
According to Vox, the Russian Internet Research Agency (IRA) focused on the culture of Muslims, Christians, Texas, and LGBTQ people, to engage those communities as part of a broader strategy to deepen social and political divisions within the US, but no other group received as much attention as Black Americans, whose voter turnout has been historically crucial to the election of Democrats. Russia's influence campaign used an array of tactics aiming to reduce their vote for Hillary Clinton, according to a December 2018 report (The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency) commissioned by the Senate Intelligence Committee.
30 Facebook pages targeting black Americans and 10 YouTube channels that posted 571 videos related to police violence against African-Americans.) The covertly Russian Instagram account @blackstagram had over 300,000 followers. A variety of Facebook pages targeting African Americans and later determined to be Russian amassed a total of 1.2 million individual followers, the report found. The Facebook page for (the Russian) Blacktivist, garnered more hits than Black Lives Matter's (non-Russian) Facebook page.
Influence operations included recruiting typically unknowing assets who would stage events and spread content from Russian influencers, spreading videos of police abuse and spreading misleading information about how to vote and who to vote for.
Arousing conservative voters
25 social media pages drawing 1.4 million followers were created by Russian agents to target the American political right and promote the Trump candidacy. An example of the targeting was the adding of Blue Lives Matter material to social media platforms by Russian operatives after the Black Lives Matter movement moved to the center of public attention in the America and sparked a pro-police reaction.
Jamieson noted there was reason to believe Donald Trump would under-perform among two normally dependable conservative Republican voting blocs — churchgoing Christians and military service members and their families. It was thought pious Christians were put off by Trump's lifestyle as a Manhattan socialite, known for his three marriages and many affairs but not for any religious beliefs, who had boasted of groping women. Military personnel might lack enthusiasm for a candidate who avoided service in Vietnam but who described himself as a "brave soldier" in having to face his "personal Vietnam" of the threat of sexually transmitted diseases, and who mocked Gold Star parents and former prisoner of war John McCain. To overcome Trump's possible poor reputation among evangelicals and veterans, Russian trolls created memes that exploited typical conservative social attitudes about people of color, Muslims, and immigrants. One such meme juxtaposed photographs of a homeless veteran and an undocumented immigrant, alluding to the belief that undocumented immigrants receive special treatment.:84 CNN exit polls showed that Trump led Clinton among veterans by 26 percentage points and won a higher percentage of the evangelical vote than either of the two previous Republican presidential nominees, indicating that this tactic may have succeeded.
Intrusions into state voter-registration systems
During the summer and fall of 2016, Russian hackers intruded into voter databases and software systems in 39 different US states, alarming Obama administration officials to the point that they took the unprecedented step of contacting Moscow directly via the Moscow–Washington hotline and warning that the attacks risked setting off a broader conflict.
As early as June 2016, the FBI sent a warning to states about "bad actors" probing state-elections systems to seek vulnerabilities. In September 2016, FBI Director James Comey testified before the House Judiciary Committee that the FBI was investigating Russian hackers attempting to disrupt the 2016 election and that federal investigators had detected hacker-related activities in state voter-registration databases, which independent assessments determined were soft targets for hackers. Comey stated there were multiple attempts to hack voter database registrations. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper attributed Russian hacking attempts to Vladimir Putin.
In August 2016, the FBI issued a nationwide "flash alert" warning state election officials about hacking attempts. In September 2016, U.S. Department of Homeland Security officials and the National Association of Secretaries of State announced that hackers had penetrated, or sought to penetrate, the voter-registration systems in more than 20 states over the previous few months. Federal investigators attributed these attempts to Russian government-sponsored hackers, and specifically to Russian intelligence agencies. Four of the intrusions into voter registration databases were successful, including intrusions into the Illinois and Arizona databases. Although the hackers did not appear to change or manipulate data, Illinois officials said that information on up to 200,000 registered voters was stolen. The FBI and DHS increased their election-security coordination efforts with state officials as a result. Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson reported that 18 states had requested voting-system security assistance from DHS. The department also offered risk assessments to the states, but just four states expressed interest, as the election was rapidly approaching. The reports of the database intrusions prompted alarm from Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, Democrat of Nevada, who wrote to the FBI saying foreign attempts to cast doubt on free and fair elections was a danger to democracy not seen since the Cold War.
On September 22, 2017, federal authorities notified the election officials of 21 states that their election systems had been targeted. Over a year after the initial warnings, this was the first official confirmation many state governments received that their states specifically had been targeted. Moreover, top elections officials of the states of Wisconsin and California have denied the federal claim. California Secretary of State Alex Padilla stated that "California voters can further rest assured that the California Secretary of State elections infrastructure and websites were not hacked or breached by Russian cyber actors". "Our notification from DHS last Friday was not only a year late, it also turned out to be bad information".
In May 2018, the Senate Intelligence Committee released its interim report on election security. The committee concluded, on a bipartisan basis, that the response of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to Russian government-sponsored efforts to undermine confidence in the U.S. voting process was "inadequate". The committee reported that the Russian government was able to penetrate election systems in at least 18, and possibly up to 21, states, and that in a smaller subset of states, infiltrators "could have altered or deleted voter registration data," although they lacked the ability to manipulate individual votes or vote tallies. The committee wrote that the infiltrators' failure to exploit vulnerabilities in election systems could have been because they "decided against taking action" or because "they were merely gathering information and testing capabilities for a future attack". To prevent future infiltrations, the committee made a number of recommendations, including that "at a minimum, any machine purchased going forward should have a voter-verified paper trail and no WiFi capability".
Investigation into financial flows
By January 2017, a multi-agency investigation, conducted by the FBI, the CIA, the NSA, the Justice Department, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network and representatives of the DNI, was underway looking into how the Russian government may have secretly financed efforts to help Trump win the election had been conducted over several months by six federal agencies. Investigations into Carter Page, Paul Manafort and Roger Stone were underway on January 19, the eve of the presidential inauguration.
Money funneled through the NRA
By January 2018, the FBI was investigating the possible funneling of illegal money by Aleksandr Torshin, a deputy governor of the Central Bank of Russia, through the National Rifle Association, which was then used to help Donald Trump win the presidency. Torshin is known to have close connections to both Russia's president Vladimir Putin and the NRA, and has been charged with money laundering in other countries.
The NRA reported spending $30 million to support the 2016 Trump campaign, three times what it spent on Mitt Romney in 2012, and spent more than any other independent group including the leading Trump superPAC. Sources with connections to the NRA have stated that the actual amount spent was much higher than $30 million. The subunits within the organization which made the donations are not generally required to disclose their donors.
Spanish special prosecutor José Grinda Gonzalez has said that in early 2018 the Spanish police gave wiretapped audio to the FBI of telephone discussions between Torshin, and convicted money launderer and mafia boss Alexander Romanov. Torshin met with Donald Trump Jr. at an NRA event in May 2016 while attempting to broker a meeting between Donald Trump and Vladamir Putin.
Maria Butina, a Russian anti-gun control activist who has served as a special assistant to Torshin and came to the U.S. on a student visa to attend university classes in Washington, claimed both before and after the election that she was part of the Trump campaign's communications with Russia. Like Torshin, she cultivated a close relationship with the NRA. In February 2016, Butina started a consulting business called Bridges LLC with Republican political operative Paul Erickson. During Trump's presidential campaign Erickson contacted Rick Dearborn, one of Trump's advisors, writing in an email that he had close ties to both the NRA and Russia and asking how a back-channel meeting between Trump and Putin could be set up. The email was later turned over to federal investigators as part of the inquiry into Russia's meddling in the presidential election. On July 15, 2018, Butina was arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and charged with conspiring to act as an unregistered Russian agent who had attempted to create a backchannel of communications between American Republicans/conservatives and Russian officials by infiltrating the National Rifle Association, the National Prayer Breakfast, and conservative religious organizations.
Money from Russian oligarchs
As of April 2018, Mueller's investigators were examining whether Russian oligarchs directly or indirectly provided illegal cash donations to the Trump campaign and inauguration. Investigators were examining whether oligarchs invested in American companies or think tanks having political action committees connected to the campaign, as well as money funneled through American straw donors to the Trump campaign and inaugural fund. At least one oligarch, Viktor Vekselberg, was detained and his electronic devices searched as he arrived at a New York area airport on his private jet in early 2018. Vekselberg was questioned about hundreds of thousands of dollars in payments made to Michael Cohen after the election, through Columbus Nova, the American affiliate of Vekselberg's Renova Group. Another oligarch was also detained on a recent trip to the United States, but it is unclear if he was searched. Investigators have also asked a third oligarch who has not traveled to the United States to voluntarily provide documents and an interview.
Intelligence analysis and reports
In part because U.S. agencies cannot surveil U.S. citizens without a warrant, the U.S. was slow to recognize a pattern itself. From late 2015 until the summer of 2016, during routine surveillance of Russians, several countries discovered interactions between the Trump campaign and Moscow. The UK, Germany, Estonia, Poland, and Australia (and possibly the Netherlands and France) relayed their discoveries to the U.S.
Because the materials were highly sensitive, GCHQ director Robert Hannigan contacted CIA director John O. Brennan directly to give him information. Concerned, Brennan gave classified briefings to U.S. Congress' "Gang of Eight" during late August and September 2016. Referring only to intelligence allies and not to specific sources, Brennan told the Gang of Eight that he had received evidence that Russia might be trying to help Trump win the U.S. election. It was later revealed that the CIA had obtained intelligence from "sources inside the Russian government" that stated that Putin gave direct orders to disparage Clinton and help Trump.
On May 23, 2017, Brennan stated to the House Intelligence Committee that Russia "brazenly interfered" in the 2016 U.S. elections. He said that he first picked up on Russia's active meddling "last summer", and that he had on August 4, 2016, warned his counterpart at Russia's FSB intelligence agency, Alexander Bortnikov, against further interference.
The first public US government assertion of Russian efforts to influence the 2016 election came in a joint statement on September 22, 2016, by Senator Dianne Feinstein and Representative Adam Schiff, the top Democrats on the Senate and House Intelligence Committees, respectively.
October 2016 ODNI / DHS joint statement
At the Aspen security conference in summer 2016, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper said that Vladimir Putin wanted to retaliate against perceived U.S. intervention in Russian affairs with the 2011–13 Russian protests and the ousting of Viktor Yanukovych in the 2014 Ukraine crisis. In July 2016, consensus grew within the CIA that Russia had hacked the DNC. In a joint statement on October 7, 2016, the Department of Homeland Security and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence expressed confidence that Russia had interfered in the presidential election by stealing emails from politicians and U.S. groups and publicizing the information. On December 2, intelligence sources told CNN they had gained confidence that Russia's efforts were aimed at helping Trump win the election.
On October 7, the US government formally accused Russia of hacking the DNC's computer networks to interfere in the 2016 US presidential election with the help of organizations like WikiLeaks. The Department of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security claimed in their joint statement, "The recent disclosures of alleged hacked e-mails on sites like DCLeaks.com and WikiLeaks and by the Guccifer 2.0 online persona are consistent with the methods and motivations of Russian-directed efforts." This was corroborated by a report released by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), in conjunction with the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA on January 6, 2017.
December 2016 CIA report
On December 9, the CIA told U.S. legislators the U.S. Intelligence Community had concluded, in a consensus view, that Russia conducted operations to assist Donald Trump in winning the presidency, stating that "individuals with connections to the Russian government", previously known to the intelligence community, had given WikiLeaks hacked emails from the DNC and John Podesta. The agencies further stated that Russia had hacked the RNC as well, but did not leak information obtained from there. These assessments were based on evidence obtained before the election.
FBI has been investigating the Russian government's attempt to influence the 2016 presidential election — including whether campaign associates of Donald Trump's were involved in Russia's efforts — since July 31, 2016.
An earlier event investigated by the FBI was a May 2016 meeting between the Donald Trump campaign foreign policy advisor, George Papadopoulos, and Alexander Downer in a London wine bar, where Papadopoulos disclosed his inside knowledge of a large trove of Hillary Clinton emails that could potentially damage her campaign.
In June 2016, the FBI notified the Illinois Republican Party that some of its email accounts may have been hacked. In December 2016, an FBI official stated that Russian attempts to access the RNC server were unsuccessful. In an interview with George Stephanopoulos of ABC News, RNC chair Reince Priebus stated they communicated with the FBI when they learned about the DNC hacks, and a review determined their servers were secure. On January 10, 2017, FBI Director James Comey told the Senate Intelligence Committee that Russia succeeded in "collecting some information from Republican-affiliated targets but did not leak it to the public".
On October 31, 2016, The New York Times stated that the FBI had been examining possible connections between the Trump campaign and Russia, but did not find any clear links. At the time, FBI officials thought Russia was motivated to undermine confidence in the U.S. political process rather than specifically support Trump. During a House Intelligence Committee hearing in early December, the CIA said it was certain of Russia's intent to help Trump. On December 16, 2016, CIA Director John O. Brennan sent a message to his staff saying he had spoken with FBI Director James Comey and Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, and that all agreed with the CIA's conclusion that Russia interfered in the presidential election with the motive of supporting Donald Trump's candidacy.
On December 29, 2016, the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) released an unclassified report that gave new technical details regarding methods used by Russian intelligence services for affecting the U.S. election, government, political organizations and private sector.
The report included malware samples and other technical details as evidence that the Russian government had hacked the Democratic National Committee. Alongside the report, DHS published Internet Protocol addresses, malware, and files used by Russian hackers. An article in the Süddeutsche Zeitung discussed the difficulty of proof in matters of cybersecurity. One analyst told the Süddeutsche Zeitung that U.S. intelligence services could be keeping some information secret to protect their sources and analysis methods. Clapper later stated that the classified version contained "a lot of the substantiation that could not be put in the [public] report".
On March 20, 2017, during public testimony to the House Intelligence Committee, FBI director James Comey confirmed the existence of an FBI investigation into Russian interference and Russian links to the Trump campaign, including the question of whether there had been any coordination between the campaign and the Russians. He said the investigation began in July 2016. Comey made the unusual decision to reveal the ongoing investigation to Congress, citing benefit to the public good. On October 7, 2016, Secretary Johnson and Director Clapper issued a joint statement that the intelligence community is confident the Russian Government directed the recent compromises of e-mails from U.S. persons and institutions, including from U.S. political organizations, and that the disclosures of hacked e-mails on sites like DCLeaks.com and WikiLeaks are consistent with the Russian-directed efforts. The statement also noted that the Russians have used similar tactics and techniques across Europe and Eurasia to influence public opinion there. On December 29, 2016, DHS and FBI released a Joint Analysis Report (JAR) which further expands on that statement by providing details of the tools and infrastructure used by Russian intelligence services to compromise and exploit networks and infrastructure associated with the recent U.S. election, as well as a range of U.S. government, political and private sector entities.
January 2017 Intelligence Community Assessment
On January 6, 2017, after briefing the president, the president-elect, and members of the Senate and House, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) released a de-classified version of the report on Russian activities. The report, produced by the CIA, the FBI, the NSA, and the ODNI, asserted that Russia had carried out a massive cyber operation ordered by Russian President Putin with the goal to sabotage the 2016 U.S. elections. The agencies concluded that Putin and the Russian government tried to help Trump win the election by discrediting Hillary Clinton and portraying her negatively relative to Trump, and that Russia had conducted a multipronged cyber campaign consisting of hacking and the extensive use of social media and trolls, as well as open propaganda on Russian-controlled news platforms. The report contained no information about how the data was collected and provided no evidence underlying its conclusions. Clapper said the classified version contained substantiation that could not be made public. A large part of the report was dedicated to criticizing Russian TV channel RT America, which it described as a "messaging tool" for a "Kremlin-directed campaign to undermine faith in the U.S. Government and fuel political protest."
On March 5, 2017, James Clapper said, in an interview with Chuck Todd on Meet the Press that, regarding the January 2017 Intelligence Community Assessment, their report did not have evidence of collusion. On May 14, 2017, in an interview with George Stephanopoulos, Clapper explained more about the state of evidence for or against any collusion, saying he was personally unaware of evidence of collusion but was also unaware of the existence of the formal investigation. In November 2017, Clapper explained that at the time of the Stephanopoulos interview, he did not know about the efforts of George Papadopoulos to set up meetings between Trump associates and Kremlin officials, nor about the meeting at Trump Tower between Donald Trump Jr., Jared Kushner, Paul Manafort and a Russian lawyer.
In June 2017, E. W. Priestap, the assistant director of the FBI Counterintelligence Division, told the PBS Newshour program that Russian intelligence "used fake news and propaganda and they also used online amplifiers to spread the information to as many people as possible" during the election.
James Comey testimony
|Wikinews has related news: Former U.S. FBI Director James Comey testifies about President Trump|
In testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee on June 8, former FBI Director James Comey said he had "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016 election and that the interference was a hostile act. Concerning the motives of his dismissal, Comey said, "I take the president at his word that I was fired because of the Russia investigation. Something about the way I was conducting it, the president felt, created pressure on him he wanted to relieve." He also said that, while he was director, Trump was not under investigation.
U.S. government response
At least 17 distinct investigations were started to examine aspects of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.
The Senate Intelligence Committee began work on its bipartisan inquiry in January 2017. In May, the committee voted unanimously to give both Chairmen solo subpoena power. Soon after, the committee issued a subpoena to the Trump campaign for all Russia-related documents, emails, and telephone records. In December, it was also looking at the presidential campaign of Green Party's Jill Stein for potential "collusion with the Russians".
In May 2018, the Senate Intelligence Committee released the interim findings of their bipartisan investigation, finding that Russia interfered in the 2016 election with the goal of helping Trump gain the presidency, stating: "Our staff concluded that the [intelligence community's] conclusions were accurate and on point. The Russian effort was extensive, sophisticated, and ordered by President Putin himself for the purpose of helping Donald Trump and hurting Hillary Clinton."
On January 10, 2018, Senator Ben Cardin of the United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee released, "Putin's Asymmetric Assault on Democracy in Russia and Europe: Implications for U.S. National Security." The report said the interference in the 2016 United States elections was a part of Putin's "asymmetric assault on democracy" worldwide, including targeting elections in a number of countries, such as Britain, France and Germany, by "Moscow-sponsored hacking, internet trolling and financing for extremist political groups".
2018 committee reports
The Senate Intelligence Committee commissioned two reports that extensively described the Russian campaign to influence social media during the 2016 election. Both were based largely on data provided by involved social media companies like Facebook and Twitter.
One report (The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency) was produced by the New Knowledge cybersecurity company aided by researchers at Columbia University and Canfield Research LLC. Another (The IRA, Social Media and Political Polarization in the United States, 2012-2018) by the Computational Propaganda Project of Oxford University along with the social media analysis company Graphika. The New Knowledge report highlighted "the energy and imagination" of the Russian effort to "sway American opinion and divide the country", and their focus on African-Americans. The report identified over 263 million "engagements" (likes, comments, shares, etc.) with Internet Research Agency content and faulted U.S. social media companies for allowing their platforms to be co-opted for foreign propaganda".
U.S. House of Representatives
After bipartisan calls to action in December 2016, the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence launched an investigation in January 2017 about Russian election meddling, including possible ties between Trump's campaign and Russia. The Senate Intelligence Committee launched its own parallel probe in January as well. Fifteen months later, in April 2018, the House Intelligence Committee's Republican majority released its final report, amid harsh criticism from Democratic members of the committee. The report found "no evidence" of collusion between the Russian government and the Trump campaign.
On February 24, 2017, Republican Congressman Darrell Issa called for a special prosecutor to investigate whether Russia meddled with the U.S. election and was in contact with Trump's team during the presidential campaign, saying that it would be improper for Trump's appointee, Attorney General Jeff Sessions, to lead the investigation. In March 2017, Democratic ranking committee member Adam Schiff stated that there was sufficient evidence to warrant further investigation, and claimed to have seen "more than circumstantial evidence" of collusion.
On April 6, 2017, Republican committee chairman Devin Nunes temporarily recused himself from the investigation after the House Ethics Committee announced that it would investigate accusations that he had disclosed classified information without authorization. He was replaced by Representative Mike Conaway. Nunes was cleared of wrongdoing on December 8, 2017
The committee's probe was shut down on March 12, 2018, acknowledging that Russians interfered in the 2016 elections through an active measures campaign promoting propaganda and fake news, but rejecting the conclusion of intelligence agencies that Russia had favored Trump in the election (although some Republican committee members distanced themselves from this assertion). The committee's report did not find any evidence of collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government's efforts; Conaway said they had uncovered only "perhaps some bad judgment, inappropriate meetings."
Democrats on the committee objected to the Republicans' closure of the investigation and their refusal to press key witnesses for further testimony or documentation that might have further established complicity of the Trump campaign with Russia. Schiff issued a 21-page "status report" outlining plans to continue the investigation, including a list of additional witnesses to interview and documents to request.
U.S. President Obama and Vladimir Putin had a discussion about computer security issues in September 2016, which took place over the course of an hour and a half. During the discussion, which took place as a side segment during the then-ongoing G20 summit in China, Obama made his views known on cyber security matters between the U.S. and Russia. Obama said Russian hacking stopped after his warning to Putin. One month after that discussion the email leaks from the DNC cyber attack had not ceased, and President Obama decided to contact Putin via the Moscow–Washington hotline, commonly known as the red phone, on October 31, 2016. Obama emphasized the gravity of the situation by telling Putin: "International law, including the law for armed conflict, applies to actions in cyberspace."
On December 9, 2016, Obama ordered the U.S. Intelligence Community to investigate Russian interference in the election and report before he left office on January 20, 2017. U.S. Homeland Security Advisor and chief counterterrorism advisor to the president Lisa Monaco announced the study, and said foreign intrusion into a U.S. election was unprecedented and would necessitate investigation by subsequent administrations. The intelligence analysis would cover malicious cyberwarfare occurring between the 2008 and 2016 elections. A senior administration official said that the White House was confident Russia interfered in the election. The official said the order by President Obama would be a lessons learned report, with options including sanctions and covert cyber response against Russia.
On December 12, 2016, White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest was critical of Trump's rejection of the conclusions of the U.S. Intelligence Community that Russia used cyberattacks to influence the election. United States Secretary of State John Kerry spoke on December 15, 2016, about President Obama's decision to approve the October 2016 joint statement by the Department of Homeland Security and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
Obama said the U.S. government would respond to Russia via overt and covert methods, in order to send an unambiguous symbol to the world that any such interference would have harsh consequences in a December 15, 2016, interview by NPR journalist Steve Inskeep. He added that motive behind the Russian operation could better be determined after completion of the intelligence report he ordered. Obama emphasized that Russian efforts caused more harm to Clinton than to Trump during the campaign. At a press conference the following day, he highlighted his September 2016 admonition to Putin to cease engaging in cyberwarfare against the U.S. Obama explained that the U.S. did not publicly reciprocate against Russia's actions due to a fear such choices would appear partisan. President Obama stressed cyber warfare against the U.S. should be a bipartisan issue.
In the last days of the Obama administration, officials pushed as much raw intelligence as possible into analyses and attempted to keep reports at relatively low classification levels as part of an effort to widen their visibility across the federal government. The information was filed in many locations within federal agencies as a precaution against future concealment or destruction of evidence in the event of any investigation.
Punitive measures imposed on Russia
On December 29, 2016, the U.S. government announced a series of punitive measures against Russia. The Obama administration imposed sanctions on four top officials of the GRU and declared persona non grata 35 Russian diplomats suspected of spying; they were ordered to leave the country within 72 hours.[Note 2] On December 30, two waterfront compounds used as retreats by families of Russian embassy personnel were shut down on orders of the U.S. government, citing spying activities: one in Upper Brookville, New York, on Long Island, and the other in Centreville, Maryland, on the Eastern Shore. Further sanctions against Russia were undertaken, both overt and covert. A White House statement said that cyberwarfare by Russia was geared to undermine U.S. trust in democracy and impact the election. President Obama said his decision was taken after previous warnings to Russia. In mid-July 2017, the Russian foreign ministry said the U.S. was refusing to issue visas to Russian diplomats to allow Moscow to replace the expelled personnel and get its embassy back up to full strength.
Initially Putin refrained from retaliatory measures to the December 29 sanctions and invited all the children of the U.S. diplomats accredited in Russia to New Year's and Christmas celebrations at the Kremlin. He also stated that steps for restoring Russian-American relations would be built on the basis of the policies developed by the Trump administration. Later in May 2017, Russian banker Andrey Kostin, an associate of President Vladimir Putin, accused "the Washington elite" of purposefully disrupting the presidency of Donald Trump.
Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act
In June 2017, the Senate voted 98 to 2 for a bill that had been initially drafted in January by a bipartisan group of senators over Russia's continued involvement in the wars in Ukraine and Syria and its meddling in the 2016 election that envisaged sanctions on Russia as well as Iran, and North Korea; the bill would expand the punitive measures previously imposed by executive orders and convert them into law. An identical bill was introduced by Democrats in the U.S. House of Representatives in July and passed in the house on July 25, with 419 votes in favor and 3 against.
The law forbids the president from lifting earlier sanctions without first consulting Congress, giving them time to reverse such a move. It targets Russia's defense industry by harming Russia's ability to export weapon, and allows the U.S. to sanction international companies that work to develop Russian energy resources. The proposed sanctions also caused harsh criticism and threats of retaliatory measure on the part of the European Union, Germany and France. On January 29, 2018, the Trump administration notified Congress saying that it would not impose additional sanctions on Russia under 2017 legislation designed to punish Moscow's meddling in the 2016 U.S. election. The administration insisted that the mere threat of the sanctions outlined in the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act would serve as a deterrent, and that implementing the sanctions would therefore be unnecessary.
Counter-sanctions by Russia
On July 27, as the sanctions bill was being passed by the Senate, Putin pledged a response to ″this kind of insolence towards our country″. Shortly thereafter, Russia's foreign ministry Sergey Lavrov demanded that the U.S. reduce its diplomatic and technical personnel in the Moscow embassy and its consulates in St Petersburg, Ekaterinburg and Vladivostok to 455 persons—the same as the number of Russian diplomats posted in the U.S, and suspended the use of a retreat compound and a storage facility in Moscow. Putin said that he had made this decision personally, and confirmed that 755 employees of the U.S. diplomatic mission must leave Russia.
Impact on election result
As of October 2018, the question of whether Donald Trump won the 2016 election because of the Russian interference had not been given much focus — being declared impossible to determine, or ignored in favor of other factors that led to Trump's victory. Joel Benenson, the Clinton campaign's pollster, said we probably will never know, while Richard Burr, the Republican chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, said "we cannot calculate the impact that foreign meddling and social media had on this election". Michael V. Hayden, a former director of the CIA and the NSA, believes that although the Russian attacks were "the most successful covert influence operation in history," what impact they had is "not just unknown, it's unknowable." Statistician Nate Silver, writing in February 2018, described himself as "fairly agnostic" on the question, but notes "thematically, the Russian interference tactics were consistent with the reasons Clinton lost."
Clinton supporters have been more likely to blame her defeat on campaign mistakes, Comey's reopening of the criminal investigation into her emails, or to direct attention to whether Trump colluded with Russia.
Several high-level Republicans believe that Russian interference did not determine the election's outcome, including those who would have benefited from Russia's efforts. President Trump has asserted that "the Russians had no impact on our votes whatsoever", and Vice President Pence has claimed "it is the universal conclusion of our intelligence communities that none of those efforts had any impact on the outcome of the 2016 election." Secretary of State Mike Pompeo also said "the intelligence community's assessment is that the Russian meddling that took place did not affect the outcome of the election". In fact, the official intelligence assessment of January 2017 did not evaluate whether Russian activities had any impact on the election's outcome, and CIA spokesman Dean Boyd stated that Pompeo's remark was erroneous.Paul Ryan also claimed it is "clear" that the Russian interference "didn't have a material effect on our elections."
On the other hand, a number of former intelligence and law enforcement officials, at least one political scientist and one former U.S. president argue that Russian interference was decisive because of the sophistication of the Russian propaganda on social media, the hacking of Democratic Party emails and the timing of their public release, the small shift in voter support needed to achieve victory in the electoral college, and the relatively high number of undecided voters (who may be more readily influenced). James Clapper, the former director of National Intelligence, told Jane Mayer, "it stretches credulity to think the Russians didn't turn the election ... I think the Russians had more to do with making Clinton lose than Trump did". Ex-FBI agent, Clint Watts, writes that, "without the Russian influence ... I believe Trump would not have even been within striking distance of Clinton on Election Day." Former president Jimmy Carter has publicly stated that he believes Trump would not have gotten elected without the Russian interference.
Three states where Trump won by very close margins — margins significantly less than the number of votes cast for third party candidates in those states — gave him an electoral college majority. Mayer writes that if only 12% of these third-party voters "were persuaded by Russian propaganda — based on hacked Clinton-campaign analytics — not to vote for Clinton", this would have been enough to win the election for Trump. Political scientist Kathleen Hall Jamieson, in a detailed forensic analysis concludes that Russian trolls and hackers persuaded enough Americans "to either vote a certain way or not vote at all", thus impacting election results. Specifically, Jamieson argues that two events that caused a drop in intention to vote for Clinton reported to pollsters can be traced to Russian work: the publicizing of excerpts of speeches by Clinton made to investment banks for high fees stolen from campaign emails during the presidential debates, and the effect of Russian disinformation on FBI head Comey's public denunciation of Clinton's actions as "extremely careless" (see above).
Dismissal of FBI Director James Comey
On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed Comey, attributing his action to recommendations from United States Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein. Trump had been talking to aides about firing Comey for at least a week before acting, and had asked Justice Department officials to come up with a rationale for dismissing him. After he learned that Trump was about to fire Comey, Rosenstein submitted to Trump a memo critical of Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails. Trump later confirmed that he had intended to fire Comey regardless of any Justice Department recommendation. Trump himself also tied the firing to the Russia investigation in a televised interview, stating, "When I decided to [fire Comey], I said to myself, I said, 'You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made up story, it's an excuse by the Democrats for having lost an election that they should have won.'"
The dismissal came as a surprise to Comey and most of Washington, and was described as immediately controversial and having "vast political ramifications" because of the Bureau's ongoing investigation into Russian activities in the 2016 election. It was compared to the Saturday Night Massacre, President Richard Nixon's termination of special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who had been investigating the Watergate scandal, and to the dismissal of Sally Yates in January 2017. Comey himself stated "It's my judgment that I was fired because of the Russia investigation. I was fired in some way to change, or the endeavor was to change, the way the Russia investigation was being conducted."
During a meeting Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and Ambassador Sergey Kislyak on May 10, 2017, in the Oval Office, Trump told the Russian officials that firing the F.B.I. director, James Comey, had relieved "great pressure" on him, according to a White House document. Trump stated, "I just fired the head of the F.B.I. He was crazy, a real nut job ... I faced great pressure because of Russia. That's taken off." In 2019, The Washington Post revealed that Trump also told Lavrov and Kislyak during this meeting that he wasn't concerned about Russia interfering in American elections.
Investigation by special counsel
On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed former FBI Director Robert Mueller as special counsel to direct FBI agents and Department of Justice prosecutors investigating election interference by Russia and related matters. As special counsel, Mueller has the power to issue subpoenas, hire staff members, request funding, and prosecute federal crimes in connection with his investigation.
Mueller assembled a legal team. Trump engaged several attorneys to represent and advise him, including his longtime personal attorney Marc Kasowitz as well as Jay Sekulow, Michael Bowe, and John M. Dowd. All but Sekulow have since resigned. In August 2017 Mueller was using a grand jury.
In October 2017 Trump campaign adviser George Papadopoulos pleaded guilty earlier in the month to making a false statement to FBI investigators about his connections to Russia. In the first guilty plea of special counsel Robert Mueller's investigation, George Papadopoulos admitted lying to the FBI about contact with Russian agents that offered the campaign 'thousands' of damaging emails about Clinton months before then candidate Donald Trump asked Russia to "find" Hillary Clinton's missing emails. His plea agreement said a Russian operative had told a campaign aide "the Russians had emails of Clinton". Papadopoulos agreed to cooperate with prosecutors as part of the plea bargain.
Later that month, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort surrendered to the FBI after being indicted on multiple charges. His business associate Rick Gates was also indicted and surrendered to the FBI. The pair were indicted on one count of conspiracy against the United States, one count of conspiracy to launder money, one count of being an unregistered agent of a foreign principal, one count of making false and misleading FARA statements, and one count of making false statements. Manafort was charged with four counts of failing to file reports of foreign bank and financial accounts while Gates was charged with three. All charges arise from their consulting work for a pro-Russian government in Ukraine and are unrelated to the campaign. It was widely believed that the charges against Manafort are intended to pressure him into becoming a cooperating witness about Russian interference in the 2016 election. In February 2018, Gates pleaded guilty to fraud-related charges and agreed to testify against Manafort. In April 2018, when Manafort's lawyers filed a motion to suppress the evidence obtained during the July 26 raid on Manafort's home, the warrants for the search were revealed and indicated that, in addition to seeking evidence related to Manafort's work in Ukraine, Mueller's investigation also concerned Manafort's actions during the Trump campaign including the meeting with a Russian lawyer and a counterintelligence officer at the Trump Tower meeting on June 9, 2016.
In March 2018 the investigation revealed that the prosecutors have established links between Rick Gates and an individual with ties to Russian intelligence which occurred while Gates worked on Trump's campaign. A report filed by prosecutors, concerning the sentencing of Gates and Manafort associate Alex van der Zwaan who lied to Mueller's investigators, alleges that Gates knew the individual he was in contact with had these connections.
On February 16, 2018, a Federal grand jury in Washington, D.C., indicted 13 Russian nationals and 3 Russian entities on charges of conspiracy to defraud the United States, conspiracy to commit bank and wire fraud, and fraud with identification documents, in connection with the 2016 United States national elections. The 37-page indictment cites the illegal use of social media "to sow political discord, including actions that supported the presidential candidacy of Donald Trump and disparaged his opponent, Hillary Clinton." On the same day, Robert Mueller announced that Richard Pinedo had pleaded guilty to using the identities of other people in connection with unlawful activity.
Lawyers representing Concord Management and Consulting appeared on May 9, 2018, in federal court in Washington, to plead not guilty to the charges.
On July 13, 2018, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein released indictments returned by a grand jury charging twelve Russian intelligence officials, who work for the Russian intelligence agency GRU, with conspiring to interfere in the 2016 elections. The individuals, posing as "a Guccifer 2.0 persona" are accused of hacking into computers of the Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee, as well as state election boards and secretaries of several states. In one unidentified state, the Russians stole information on half a million voters. The indictment also said that a Republican congressional candidate, also unidentified, was sent campaign documents stolen by the group, and that a reporter was in contact with the Russian operatives and offered to write an article to coincide with the release of the stolen documents.
Claims by Anastasia Vashukevich
In March 2018, Anastasia Vashukevich, a Belarusian national arrested in Thailand, said that she had over 16 hours of audio recordings that could shed light on possible Russian interference in American elections. She offered the recordings to American authorities in exchange for asylum, to avoid being extradited to Belarus. Vashukevich said she was close to Oleg Deripaska, a Russian oligarch with ties to Putin and business links to Paul Manafort, and asserted the recordings included Deripaska discussing the 2016 presidential election. She said some of the recorded conversations, which she asserted were made in August 2016, included three individuals who spoke fluent English and who she believed were Americans. Vashukevich's claims appeared to be consistent with a video published in February 2018 by Alexei Navalny, about a meeting between Deripaska and Russian Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Eduardovich Prikhodko. In the video, Navalny claims Deripaska served as a liaison between the Russian government and Paul Manafort in connection with Russian interference efforts.
In August 2018, Vashukevich said she no longer has any evidence having sent the recordings to Deripaska without having made them public, hoping he would be able to gain her release from prison, and has promised Deripaska not to make any further comment on the recordings' contents.
On March 24, Attorney General Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress regarding the Special Counsel's findings regarding Russian interference and obstruction of justice. Barr said that on the question of Russian interference in the election, Mueller detailed two ways in which Russia attempted to influence the election in Trump's favor, but "did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities." On the question of obstruction of justice, Barr said that Mueller wrote "while this report does not conclude that the President committed a crime, it also does not exonerate him."
On April 18, 2019, a redacted version of the final Mueller Report was released to the public. The Mueller Report found that the Russian government interfered in the election in "sweeping and systematic fashion" and violated U.S. criminal laws.
On May 29, 2019, Mueller announced that he was retiring as special counsel and that the office would be shut down, and he spoke publicly about the report for the first time. He reiterated that his report did not exonerate the president and that legal guidelines prevented the indictment of a sitting president, stating that "the Constitution requires a process other than the criminal justice system to formally accuse a sitting president of wrongdoing." Saying, "The report is my testimony," he indicated he would have nothing to say that did not already appear in the report. He emphasized that the central conclusion of his investigation was "that there were multiple, systematic efforts to interfere in our election. That allegation deserves the attention of every American."
Soon after the release of the Mueller report, Trump began urging an investigation into the origins of the Russian investigation, wanting to "investigate the investigators". In April 2019, Attorney General William Barr announced that he had launched a review of the origins of the FBI's investigation. The origins of the probe were already being investigated by the Justice Department's inspector general and by U.S. attorney John Huber, who was appointed in 2018 by Jeff Sessions. He assigned U.S. Attorney John Durham to lead it. Durham was given the authority "to broadly examin[e] the government's collection of intelligence involving the Trump campaign's interactions with Russians," reviewing government documents and requesting voluntary witness statements. Trump directed the American intelligence community to "promptly provide assistance and information" to Barr, and delegated to him the "full and complete authority" to declassify any documents related to his probe. In September 2019 it was reported that Barr has been contacting foreign governments to ask for help in this mission. He personally traveled to the United Kingdom and Italy to seek information, and at Barr's request Trump phoned the prime minister of Australia about the subject.
Links between Trump associates and Russian officials
During the course of the 2016 presidential campaign and up to his inauguration, Donald J. Trump and at least 17 campaign officials and advisers had numerous contacts with Russian nationals, with WikiLeaks, or with intermediaries between the two. As of January 28, The New York Times had tallied over 100 in-person meetings, phone calls, text messages, emails and private messages on Twitter between the Trump Campaign and Russians or WikiLeaks.
In spring of 2015, U.S. intelligence agencies started overhearing conversations in which Russian government officials discussed associates of Donald Trump. British and the Dutch intelligence have given information to United States intelligence about meetings in European cities between Russian officials, associates of Putin, and associates of then-President-elect Trump. American intelligence agencies also intercepted communications of Russian officials, some of them within the Kremlin, discussing contacts with Trump associates. Multiple Trump associates were reported to have had contacts with senior Russian intelligence officials during 2016, although in February 2017 U.S. officials said that they did not have evidence that Trump's campaign had co-operated with the Russians to influence the election. As of March 2017[update], the FBI was investigating Russian involvement in the election, including alleged links between Trump's associates and the Russian government.
In particular, Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak has met several Trump campaign members and administration nominees; the people involved have dismissed those meetings as routine conversations in preparation for assuming the presidency. Trump's team has issued at least twenty denials concerning communications between his campaign and Russian officials; several of these denials turned out to be false. In the early months of 2017, Trump and other senior White House officials asked the Director of National Intelligence, the NSA director, the FBI director, and two chairs of congressional committees to publicly dispute the news reports about contacts between Trump associates and Russia.
Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort had several contacts with senior Russian intelligence officials during 2016, which he denied. Intercepted communications during the campaign show that Russian officials believed they could use Manafort to influence Trump. Federal prosecutors have accused Manafort of sharing polling data in 2016 with Ukrainian political consultant Konstantin Kilimnik, himself reportedly linked to Russian intelligence. The polling data was provided during a time when hundreds of Russian operatives were working to play on divisive issues in the U.S. targeting demographic/racial/regional groups, and the data could have been used to help Russia fine tune its messages to the target audiences.
In 2017 Manafort was indicted in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia on various charges arising from his consulting work for the pro-Russian government of Viktor Yanukovych in Ukraine before Yanukovych's overthrow in 2014, as well as in the Eastern District of Virginia for eight charges of tax and bank fraud. He was convicted of the fraud charges in August 2019 and sentenced to 47 months in prison by Judge T.S. Ellis. Although all of the 2017 charges arose from the Special Counsel investigation, none of them were for any alleged collusion to interfere with U.S. elections.
In December 2015, retired Army general Michael Flynn was photographed at a dinner seated next to Vladimir Putin. He was in Moscow to give a paid speech which he failed to disclose as is required of former high-ranking military officers. Also seated at the head table are Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein and members of Putin's inner circle, including Sergei Ivanov, Dmitry Peskov, Vekselberg, and Alexey Gromov.
In February 2016, Flynn was named as an advisor to Trump's presidential campaign. Later that year, in phone calls intercepted by U.S. intelligence, Russian officials were overheard claiming that they had formed a strong relationship with Trump advisor Flynn and believed they would be able to use him to influence Trump and his team.
In December 2016 Flynn, then Trump's designated choice to be National Security Advisor, and Jared Kushner met with Russian ambassador to the United States Sergey Kislyak and requested him to set up a direct, encrypted line of communication so that they could communicate directly with the Kremlin without the knowledge of American intelligence agencies. Three anonymous sources claimed that no such channel was actually set up.
On December 29, 2016, the day that President Obama announced sanctions against Russia, Flynn discussed the sanctions with Kislyak, urging that Russia not retaliate. Flynn initially denied speaking to Kislyak, then acknowledged the conversation but denied discussing the sanctions. When it was revealed in February 2017 that U.S. intelligence agencies had evidence, through monitoring of the ambassador's communications, that he actually did discuss the sanctions, Flynn said he couldn't remember if he did or not.
Upon Trump's inauguration on January 20, 2017, he appointed Flynn his National Security Advisor. On January 24, Flynn was interviewed by the FBI. Two days later, acting Attorney General Sally Yates informed the White House that Flynn was "compromised" by the Russians and possibly open to blackmail. Flynn was forced to resign as national security advisor on February 13, 2017.
On December 1, 2017, Flynn pleaded guilty to a single felony count of making "false, fictitious and fraudulent statements" to the FBI about his conversations with Kislyak. His plea was part of a plea bargain with special counsel Robert Mueller, under which Flynn also agreed to cooperate with Mueller's investigation.
On January 31, 2018, Mueller filed for and was granted a delay in Flynn's sentencing due to the status of the Russia investigation. On May 1, 2018, Mueller asked for a second delay in sentencing, requesting at least another two months. On July 10, Flynn's sentencing was again delayed, until at least late October.
In March 2016 Donald Trump named George Papadopoulos, an oil, gas, and policy consultant, as an unpaid foreign policy advisor to his campaign. Shortly thereafter Papadopoulos was approached by Joseph Mifsud, a London-based professor with connections to high-ranking Russian officials. Mifsud told him the Russians had "dirt" on Hillary Clinton in the form of "thousands of emails" "apparently stolen in an effort to try to damage her campaign". The two met several times in March 2016. In May 2016 at a London wine bar, Papadopoulos told the top Australian diplomat to the United Kingdom, Alexander Downer, that Russia "had a dirt file on rival candidate Hillary Clinton in the form of hacked Democratic Party emails". After the DNC emails were published by WikiLeaks in July, the Australian government told the FBI about Papadopoulos' revelation, leading the FBI to launch a counterintelligence investigation into the Trump campaign, known by its code name: Crossfire Hurricane, which has been criticized by Trump as a "witch hunt."
Papadopoulos' main activity during the campaign was attempting, unsuccessfully, to set up meetings between Russian officials (including Vladimir Putin) and Trump campaign officials (including Trump himself). In pursuit of this goal he communicated with multiple Trump campaign officials including Sam Clovis, Paul Manafort, Rick Gates, and Corey Lewandowski.
On January 27, 2017, Papadopoulos was interviewed by FBI agents. On July 27, he was arrested at Washington-Dulles International Airport, and he has since been cooperating with Special Counsel Robert Mueller in his investigation. On October 5, 2017, he pleaded guilty to one felony count of making false statements to FBI agents relating to contacts he had with agents of the Russian government while working for the Trump campaign. Papadopoulos's arrest and guilty plea became public on October 30, 2017, when court documents showing the guilty plea were unsealed. Papadopoulos was sentenced to 14 days in prison, 12 months supervised release, 200 hours of community service and was fined $9,500, on September 7, 2018.
In June 2016, Donald Trump Jr., Paul Manafort and Jared Kushner met with Russian attorney Natalia Veselnitskaya, who was accompanied by some others, including Russian-American lobbyist Rinat Akhmetshin, after Trump Jr. was informed that Veselnitskaya could supply the Trump campaign with incriminating information about Hillary Clinton such as her dealings with the Russians. The meeting was arranged following an email from British music publicist Rob Goldstone who was the manager of Emin Agalarov, son of Russian tycoon Aras Agalarov. In the email, Goldstone said that the information had come from the Russian government and "was part of a Russian government effort to help Donald Trump's presidential campaign". Trump Jr. replied with an e-mail saying "If it's what you say I love it especially later in the summer" and arranged the meeting. Trump Jr. went to the meeting expecting to receive information harmful to the Clinton campaign, but he said that none was forthcoming, and instead the conversation then turned to the Magnitsky Act and the adoption of Russian children.
The meeting was disclosed by The New York Times on July 8, 2017. On the same day, Donald Trump Jr. released a statement saying it had been a short introductory meeting focused on adoption of Russian children by Americans and "not a campaign issue". Later that month The Washington Post revealed that Trump Jr.'s statement had been dictated by President Donald Trump, who had overruled his staff's recommendation that the statement be transparent about the actual motivation for the meeting: the Russian government's wish to help Trump's campaign.
Other Trump associates
Attorney General Jeff Sessions, an early and prominent supporter of Trump's campaign, spoke twice with Russian ambassador Kislyak before the election – once in July 2016 at the Republican convention and once in September 2016 in Sessions' Senate office. In his confirmation hearings, Sessions testified that he "did not have communications with the Russians". On March 2, 2017, after this denial was revealed to have been false, Sessions recused himself from matters relating to Russia's election interference and deferred to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein.
Roger Stone, a former adviser to Donald Trump and business partner of Paul Manafort, stated that he had been in contact with Guccifer 2.0, a hacker persona believed to be a front for Russian intelligence operations, who had publicly claimed responsibility for at least one hack of the DNC. During the campaign, Stone had stated repeatedly and publicly that he had "actually communicated with Julian Assange"; he later denied having done so. In August 2016, Stone had cryptically tweeted "Trust me, it will soon [sic] the Podesta's time in the barrel" shortly after claiming to have been in contact with WikiLeaks and before WikiLeaks' release of the Podesta emails. Stone has denied having any advance knowledge of the Podesta e-mail hack or any connection to Russian intelligence, stating that his earlier tweet was actually referring to reports of the Podesta Group's own ties to Russia. Stone ultimately named Randy Credico, who had interviewed both Assange and Stone for a radio show, as his intermediary with Assange.
In June 2018 Stone disclosed that he had met with a Russian individual during the campaign, who wanted Trump to pay 2 million dollars for "dirt on Hillary Clinton". This disclosure contradicted Stone's earlier claims that he had not met with any Russians during the campaign. The meeting Stone attended was set up by Donald Trump's campaign aide, Michael Caputo and is a subject of Robert Mueller's investigation.
Oil industry consultant Carter Page had his communications monitored by the FBI under a FISA warrant beginning in 2014, and again beginning in October 2016, after he was suspected of acting as an agent for Russia. Page told The Washington Post that he considered that to be "unjustified, politically motivated government surveillance". Page spoke with Kislyak during the 2016 Republican National Convention, acting as a foreign policy adviser to Donald Trump. In 2013 he had met with Viktor Podobnyy, then a junior attaché at the Russian Permanent Mission to the United Nations, at an energy conference, and provided him with documents on the U.S. energy industry. Podobnyy was later charged with spying, but was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. The FBI interviewed Page in 2013 as part of an investigation into Podonyy's spy ring, but never accused Page of wrongdoing.
The Mueller Report also found that Abu Dhabi's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (MbZ) approached Richard Gerson, a financier and Jared Kushner's friend, to arrange his meetings with Trump. A Russian businessman Kirill Dmitriev, who was close to Vladimir Putin and Blackwater founder Erik Prince, discussed a “reconciliation plan” with Gerson for the US and Russia, which was later shared with Kushner. MbZ also advised Trump on the dangers of Iran and about Palestinian peace talks. On January 11, 2017, UAE officials organized a meeting in the Seychelles between Prince and Dmitriev. They discussed a back channel between Trump and Putin along with Middle East policy, notably about Syria and Iran. U.S. officials said that the FBI was investigating the meeting.
Donald Trump's son-in-law and senior advisor, Jared Kushner, on his application for top secret security clearance, failed to disclose numerous meetings with foreign officials, including Ambassador Kislyak and Sergei Gorkov, the head of the Russian state-owned bank Vnesheconombank. Kushner's lawyers called the omissions "an error". Vnesheconombank has said the meeting was business-related, in connection with Kushner's management of Kushner Companies. However, the Trump administration provided a different explanation, saying it was a diplomatic meeting.
On May 30, 2017, both the House and Senate congressional panels asked President Trump's personal lawyer Michael Cohen to "provide information and testimony" about any communications that Cohen had with people connected to the Kremlin. Cohen had attempted to contact Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov during the 2016 campaign, asking for help in advancing plans for a Trump Tower in Moscow.
In May 2017 longtime Republican operative Peter W. Smith confirmed to The Wall Street Journal that during the 2016 campaign he had been actively involved in trying to obtain emails he believed had been hacked from Hillary Clinton's computer server. In that quest he contacted several known hacker groups, including some Russian groups. He claimed he was working on behalf of Trump campaign advisor (later national security advisor) Michael Flynn and Flynn's son. At around the same time, there were intelligence reports that Russian hackers were trying to obtain Clinton's emails to pass to Flynn through an unnamed intermediary. Five of the hacker groups Smith contacted, including at least two Russian groups, claimed to have Clinton's emails. He was shown some information but was not convinced it was genuine, and suggested the hackers give it to WikiLeaks instead. A document describing Smith's plans claimed that Flynn, Kellyanne Conway, Steve Bannon, and other campaign advisors were coordinating with him "to the extent permitted as an independent expenditure". The White House, a campaign official, Conway, and Bannon all denied any connection with Smith's effort. British blogger Matt Tait said Smith had contacted him – "curiously, around the same time Trump called for the Russians to get Hillary Clinton's missing emails" – to ask him to help authenticate any materials that might be forthcoming. Ten days after his interview with The Wall Street Journal, Smith committed suicide in a Minnesota hotel room, citing declining health.
Christopher Steele, a former MI6 agent, was hired by Fusion GPS to produce opposition research on Donald Trump. In the beginning, the research was funded by Trump's political opponents, and Steele did not know the identities of the ultimate clients. His reports, based in part on information provided by Russian sources, included alleged kompromat that may make Trump vulnerable to blackmail from Russia. A 33-page compilation was shared with Mother Jones magazine in October 2016 but was not published by mainstream media who doubted the material's credibility. In December 2016, two more pages were added alleging efforts by Trump's lawyer to pay those who had hacked the DNC and arranging to cover up any evidence of their deeds. On January 5, 2017, U.S. intelligence agencies briefed President Obama and President-elect Trump on the existence of these documents. Eventually, the dossier was published in full by BuzzFeed on January 10.
In 2016, the FBI used the dossier as part of its justification to obtain a FISA warrant to resume monitoring of former Trump foreign policy advisor Carter Page during the summer of 2016. However, officials would not say exactly what or how much was actually corroborated.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Commentary and reactions
Polls conducted in early January 2017 showed that 55% of respondents believed that Russia interfered in the election; 51% believed Russia intervened through hacking. As of February 2017[update] public-opinion polls showed a partisan split on the importance of Russia's involvement in the 2016 election. At that time, however, the broader issue of the Trump administration's relationship with Russia didn't even register among the most important problems facing the U.S. An NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll found that 53 percent wanted a Congressional inquiry into communications in 2016 between the Trump campaign and Russian officials. Quinnipiac University found that 47 percent thought it was very important. A March 2017 poll conducted by the Associated Press and NORC found about 62% of respondents say they are at least moderately concerned about the possibility that Trump or his campaign had inappropriate contacts with Russia during the 2016 campaign.
A January 2017 poll conducted by the Levada Center, Russia's largest independent polling organization, showed that only 12% of Russian respondents believed that Russia "definitely" or "probably" interfered in the U.S. election. A December 2017 survey conducted by the Levada Center found that 31% of Russian respondents thought that their government tried to influence U.S. domestic affairs in a significant way.
A Quinnipiac University poll conducted in late March and early April 2017 found that 68% of voters supported "an independent commission investigating the potential links between some of Donald Trump's campaign advisors and the Russian government". An April 2017 NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll found that respondents had little confidence in Congress's investigation into the Russian interference in the election. The poll found that approximately 73% supported a "nonpartisan, independent commission" to look into Russia's involvement in the election. An ABC News/Washington Post poll conducted in April 2017 found that 56 percent of respondents thought that Russia tried to influence the election.
A May 2017 Monmouth University poll, conducted after the dismissal of James Comey, found that "nearly 6-in-10 Americans thought it was either very (40%) or somewhat (19%) likely that Comey was fired in order to slow down or stop the FBI investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election and possible links with the Trump campaign." Like other recent opinion polls, a majority, 73%, said that the FBI investigation should continue.
A June 2017 NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll found that respondents were more likely to believe James Comey over Trump when it came to their differing accounts behind the reasons for Comey's dismissal. The survey found that 45% of respondents were more likely to believe Comey than Trump. The poll also found that the number of respondents disapproving of Trump's decision to fire Comey- 46%- was higher than when the same question was asked in May of the same year. 53% of respondents said that they believed that Russia interfered in the 2016 presidential election, however the number changes by party affiliation. 78% of Democrats said that they believed there was interference, versus 26% of Republicans who agreed. An NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist College poll conducted in late June 2017 found that 54% of respondents believed that Trump either did "something illegal" or "something unethical, but not illegal" in his dealings with Russian President Vladimir Putin. The poll found that 73% of Republicans said Trump himself has done "nothing wrong" while 41% of Democrats believed that Trump did something that was illegal. In addition, 47% said that they thought Russia was a major threat to future U.S. elections, while 13% of respondents said that Russia posed no threat at all.
A July 2017 ABC News/Washington Post poll found that 63% of respondents said that it "was inappropriate for Trump's son, son-in-law and campaign manager to have met with a Russian lawyer during the campaign." The poll also found that six in ten overall who think that Russia tried to influence the election, with 72% saying that they thought that Trump benefited and that "67 percent thought that members of his campaign intentionally helped those efforts."
Polls conducted in August 2017 found widespread disapproval and distrust of Trump's handling of the investigation. A CNN/SSRS poll conducted in early August found that only 31% of respondents approved of Trump's handling of the matter. The poll also noted that 60% of adults "thought that it was a serious matter that should be fully investigated." On party lines, the poll found that 15% of Democrats and 56% of Republicans approved of Trump's handling of the matter. A Gallup poll from the same month found similar trends. The poll found that 25% of respondents said Trump acted illegally in dealings with the Russians. The poll found that 6% of Republicans and Republican-leaners thought that Trump did something illegal in his dealings with the Russians. A poll conducted by the Public Religion Research Institute found that 58% of respondents expressed a negative view of Russia, while 25% had a favorable view of the country. The poll also found that 48% believed that "there is clear evidence that Russia interfered in the 2016 election to help the Trump campaign." The broader issue of the Trump administration's relationship with Russia, however, was not identified by more than 1% of respondents in Gallup tracking of 'Most Important Problem' at any point since February 2017. (As of July 2018, it was <0.5%.)
On December 15, 2016, Hillary Clinton said she partially attributed her loss in the 2016 election to Russian meddling organized by Putin. Clinton said Putin had a personal grudge against her, and linked his feelings to her criticism of the 2011 Russian legislative election, adding that he felt she was responsible for fomenting the 2011–13 Russian protests. She drew a specific connection from her 2011 assertions as U.S. Secretary of State that Putin rigged the elections that year, to his actions in the 2016 U.S. elections. During the third debate, Clinton stated that Putin favored Trump, "because he'd rather have a puppet as president of the United States". Clinton said that by personally attacking her through meddling in the election, Putin additionally took a strike at the American democratic system. She said the cyber attacks were a larger issue than the effect on her own candidacy and called them an attempt to attack the national security of the United States. Clinton noted she was unsuccessful in sufficiently publicizing to the media the cyber attacks against her campaign in the months leading up to the election. She voiced her support for a proposal put forth by U.S. Senators from both parties, to set up an investigative panel to look into the matter akin to the 9/11 Commission.
Republican National Committee
The RNC said there was no intrusion into its servers, while acknowledging email accounts of individual Republicans (including Colin Powell) were breached. Over 200 emails from Colin Powell were posted on the website DC Leaks. Priebus appeared on Meet the Press on December 11, 2016, and discounted the CIA conclusions. Priebus said the FBI had investigated and found that RNC servers had not been hacked.
Prior to his presidential run, Donald Trump made statements to Fox News in 2014 in which he agreed with an assessment by then FBI director James Comey about hacking against the U.S. by Russia and China. Trump was played a clip of Comey from 60 Minutes discussing the dangers of cyber attacks. Trump stated he agreed with the problem of cyber threats posed by China, and went on to emphasize there was a similar problem towards the U.S. posed by Russia.
In September 2016, during the first presidential debate, Trump said he doubted whether anyone knew who hacked the DNC, and disputed Russian interference. During the second debate, Trump said there might not have been hacking at all, and questioned why accountability was placed on Russia.
During the third debate, Trump rejected Clinton's claim that Putin favored Trump. Trump's words "our country has no idea" and "I doubt it" were deeply shocking to the British because "all NATO allies" and "all of America's intelligence agencies" were "sure Russia was behind the hacking". Trump denied these conclusions "based on absolutely nothing. ... That he would so aggressively fight to clear Putin and cast aspersions on all Western intelligence agencies, left the British officials slack-jawed."
After the election, Trump rejected the CIA analysis and asserted that the reports were politically motivated to deflect from the Democrats' electoral defeat. Trump's transition team said in a brief statement: "These are the same people that said Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction." However, the intelligence analysts involved in monitoring Russian activities are different from those who assessed that Iraq had stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction, while post–Iraq War reforms have made it less likely for similar errors to reach the highest levels of the U.S. intelligence community. Trump dismissed reports of Russia's interference, calling them "ridiculous"; he placed blame on Democrats upset over election results for publicizing these reports, and cited Julian Assange's statement that "a 14-year-old kid could have hacked Podesta". After Obama expelled 35 Russian diplomats and announced further sanctions on Russia, Trump commended Putin for refraining from retaliatory measures against the United States until the Trump administration would lay out its policy towards Russia.
On January 6, 2017, after meeting with members of U.S. intelligence agencies, Trump released a statement saying: cyberwarfare had no impact on the election and did not harm voting machines. In the same statement, he vowed to form a national cybersecurity task force to prepare an anti-hacking plan within 90 days of taking office. Referring to the Office of Personnel Management data breach in 2015, Trump said he was under a "political witch hunt" and wondered why there was no focus on China. Two days later, Reince Priebus said that Trump had begun to acknowledge that "entities in Russia" were involved in the DNC leaks. On January 11, 2017, Trump conceded that Russia was probably the source of the leaks, although he also said it could have been another country.
On November 11, 2017, after meeting Vladimir Putin at a summit in Vietnam, Trump said, "I just asked him again. He said he absolutely did not meddle in our election. ... Every time he sees me he says: 'I didn't do that,' and I really believe that when he tells me that, he means it." Trump went on to contrast Putin's "very strongly, vehemently" spoken denials with the word of former intelligence officials who he termed as "political hacks": John Brennan, James Clapper, and the "liar" and "leaker" James Comey. A day later, when asked to clarify his comments, Trump said, "As to whether I believe it or not, I'm with our [intelligence] agencies, especially as currently constituted." Brennan and Clapper, appearing on CNN, expressed concern that Trump was "giving Putin a pass" and showing the Russian leader that "Donald Trump can be played by foreign leaders who are going to appeal to his ego and try to play upon his insecurities."
In 2019, The Washington Post revealed that in May 2017 Trump privately told Russian officials Sergey Lavrov and Sergey Kislyak that he wasn't concerned about Russia interfering in American elections.
Trump viewed as under Putin's influence
The Steele dossier alleges that the Russians possess kompromat on Trump which can be used to blackmail him, and that the Kremlin promised him that the kompromat will not be used as long as he continues his cooperation with them. Trump's actions at the Helsinki summit in 2018 "led many to conclude that Steele's report was more accurate than not.... Trump sided with the Russians over the U.S. intelligence community's assessment that Moscow had waged an all-out attack on the 2016 election,... The joint news conference,.. cemented fears among some that Trump was in Putin's pocket and prompted bipartisan backlash."
At the joint news conference, when asked directly about the subject, Putin denied that he had any kompromat on Trump. Even though Trump was reportedly given a "gift from Putin" the weekend of the pageant, Putin argued "that he did not even know Trump was in Russia for the Miss Universe pageant in 2013 when, according to the Steele dossier, video of Trump was secretly recorded to blackmail him."
In reaction to Trump's actions at the summit, Senator Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) spoke in the Senate:
Millions of Americans will continue to wonder if the only possible explanation for this dangerous and inexplicable behavior is the possibility — the very real possibility — that President Putin holds damaging information over President Trump.
Several operatives and lawyers in the U.S. intelligence community reacted strongly to Trump's performance at the summit. They described it as "subservien[ce] to Putin" and a "fervent defense of Russia's military and cyber aggression around the world, and its violation of international law in Ukraine" which they saw as "harmful to US interests". They also suggested that he was either a "Russian asset" or a "useful idiot" for Putin, and that he looked like "Putin's puppet". Former Director of National Intelligence James Clapper wondered "if Russians have something on Trump", and former CIA director John O. Brennan, who has accused Trump of "treason", tweeted: "He is wholly in the pocket of Putin."
Former acting CIA director Michael Morell has called Trump "an unwitting agent of the Russian federation", and former CIA director Michael V. Hayden said Trump was a "useful fool" who is "manipulated by Moscow". House Speaker Nancy Pelosi questioned Trump's loyalty when she asked him: "[Why do] all roads lead to Putin?"
Ynet, an Israeli online news site, reported on January 12, 2017, that U.S. intelligence advised Israeli intelligence officers to be cautious about sharing information with the incoming Trump administration, until the possibility of Russian influence over Trump, suggested by Steele's report, has been fully investigated.
In an interview on February 14, 2018, Pence said, "Irrespective of efforts that were made in 2016 by foreign powers, it is the universal conclusion of our intelligence communities that none of those efforts had any impact on the outcome of the 2016 election." Actually, in January 2017 the intelligence community had published a statement saying, "We did not make an assessment of the impact that Russian activities had on the outcome of the 2016 election." Pence added, "It doesn't mean that there weren't efforts, and we do know there were — there were efforts by Russia and likely by other countries. We take that very seriously."
The CIA assessment, and Trump's dismissal of it, created an unprecedented rupture between the president-elect and the intelligence community. On December 11, 2016, U.S. intelligence officials responded to Trump's denunciation of their findings in a written statement, and expressed dismay that Trump disputed their conclusions as politically motivated or inaccurate. They wrote that intelligence officials were motivated to defend U.S. national security. Members of the intelligence community feared reprisals from Donald Trump once he took office.
Former CIA Director Michael Morell said foreign interference in U.S. elections was an existential threat. Former CIA spokesman George E. Little condemned Trump for dismissing the CIA assessment, saying that the president-elect's atypical response was disgraceful and denigrated the courage of those who serve in the CIA at risk to their own lives.
Former NSA director and CIA director Michael V. Hayden posited that Trump's antagonizing the Intelligence Community signaled the administration would rely less on intelligence for policy-making. Independent presidential candidate and former CIA intelligence officer Evan McMullin criticized the Republican leadership for failing to respond adequately to Russia's meddling in the election process. McMullin said Republican politicians were aware that publicly revealed information about Russia's interference was likely the tip of the iceberg relative to the actual threat. Former NSA director Michael V. Hayden has stated that Russia's interference in the 2016 presidential election is the "most successful covert influence operation in history". Hayden went further saying that Trump was a "useful fool ... manipulated by Moscow".
A January 2017 report by the Director of National Intelligence said that the intelligence community did "not make an assessment of the impact that Russian activities had on the outcome of the 2016 election". Despite this, CIA Director Mike Pompeo claimed that "the Russian meddling that took place did not affect the outcome of the election" at an event hosted by the Foundation for Defense of Democracies on October 19, 2017. CIA agency spokesman Dean Boyd withdrew his remarks the next day stating that they were made in error.
On December 10, 2016, ten electors, headed by Christine Pelosi, daughter of former United States Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-CA), wrote an open letter to the Director of National Intelligence James Clapper demanding an intelligence briefing on investigations into foreign intervention in the presidential election. Fifty-eight additional electors subsequently added their names to the letter, bringing the total to 68 electors from 17 different states. The Clinton campaign supported the call for a classified briefing for electors. On December 16, 2016, the briefing request was denied.
The Russian government initially issued categorical denials of any involvement in the U.S. presidential election. By June 2016 Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied any connection of Russian government to the DNC hacks that had been blamed on Russia. At the Valdai Discussion Club forum in October 2016, Putin denounced American "hysteria" over alleged Russian interference.
When a new intelligence report surfaced in December 2016, Sergey Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, rejected the accusations again. During a press conference, Putin deflected questions on the issue by accusing the U.S. Democratic Party of scapegoating Russia after losing the presidential election. When ABC News wrote that Russian President Vladimir Putin was directly involved in the covert operation, Peskov called the report "rubbish" and called on the U.S. government to cease discussion of the topic unless they provided evidence to back up their assertions.
In June 2017, Putin said that "patriotically minded" Russian hackers could have been responsible for the cyberattacks against the U.S. during the 2016 campaign, while continuing to deny government involvement. Putin's comments echoed similar remarks that he had made earlier the same week to the French newspaper Le Figaro. A few days later he said, "Presidents come and go, and even the parties in power change, but the main political direction does not change. That’s why, in the grand scheme of things, we don’t care who’s the head of the United States. We know more or less what is going to happen. And so in this regard, even if we wanted to, it wouldn’t make sense for us to interfere." Putin also invoked whataboutism and criticized U.S. foreign policy, saying, "Put your finger anywhere on a map of the world, and everywhere you will hear complaints that American officials are interfering in internal electoral processes."
In March 2018 Putin suggested that "Ukrainians, Tatars, Jews, just with Russian citizenship" might have been to blame for interfering with U.S. elections, and suggested that "maybe it was the Americans who paid them for this work". Putin's statement was criticized by the Anti-Defamation League and the American Jewish Committee, which both likened Putin's comments to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an antisemitic hoax first published in Russia in the early 20th century. Boruch Gorin, a prominent rabbi in Moscow, said that the translation of Putin's comment into English lacked critical nuance and that Russian Jews were largely indifferent to it.
- Second Cold War
- Russia–United States relations
- Cyberwarfare by Russia
- Foreign electoral intervention
- Russian espionage in the United States
- Russian interference in the 2016 Brexit referendum
- Russia involvement in regime change
- Russia investigation origins conspiracy theory
- Russian interference in the 2018 United States elections
- Russian interference in the 2020 United States elections
- Social media in the 2016 United States presidential election
- 1996 United States campaign finance controversy
- The Plot to Hack America
- Trump: The Kremlin Candidate?
- Breuninger, Kevin (March 22, 2019). "MUELLER PROBE IS OVER: Special counsel submits Russia report to Attorney General William Barr". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Clayton, Mark (June 17, 2014). "Ukraine election narrowly avoided 'wanton destruction' from hackers". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Watkins, Ali (August 14, 2017). "Obama team was warned in 2014 about Russian interference". Politico. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Kramer, Andrew E.; Higgins, Andrew (August 16, 2017). "In Ukraine, a Malware Expert Who Could Blow the Whistle on Russian Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
- Doroshev, Anton; Arkhipov, Ilya (October 27, 2016). "Putin Says U.S. Isn't Banana Republic, Must Get Over Itself". Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Scott, Eugene (July 16, 2018). "Trump dismissed the idea that Putin wanted him to win. Putin just admitted that he did". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- Ross, Brian; Schwartz, Rhonda; Meek, James Gordon (December 15, 2016). "Officials: Master Spy Vladimir Putin Now Directly Linked to US Hacking". ABC News. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Pegues, Jeff (December 14, 2016). More details on U.S. probe of Russian hacking of DNC. CBS News. Retrieved December 15, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Arkin, William M.; Dilanian, Ken; McFadden, Cynthia (December 14, 2016). "U.S. Officials: Putin Personally Involved in U.S. Election Hack". NBC News. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- "Putin turned Russia election hacks in Trump's favor: U.S. officials". Reuters. December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Battlefield Washington: Trump's Russia Connections". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Barbara Starr; Pamela Brown; Evan Perez; Jim Sciutto; Elise Labott (December 15, 2016). "Intel analysis shows Putin approved election hacking". CNN. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- "White House suggests Putin involved in hacking, ups Trump criticism". Fox News. Associated Press. December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- "ODNI Statement on Declassified Intelligence Community Assessment of Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections" (Press release). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. January 6, 2017. Archived from the original on April 13, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections" (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. January 6, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Englund, Will (July 28, 2016). "The roots of the hostility between Putin and Clinton". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
- "The top four reasons Vladimir Putin might have a grudge against Hillary Clinton". National Post. December 16, 2016.
- "Key quotes from Congress' hearing on Russia and the U.S. election". Reuters. March 20, 2017.
- "Why Putin hates Hillary". Politico. July 26, 2016.
- "'Pro-Kremlin youth groups' could be behind DNC hack". Deutsche Welle. July 27, 2016.
- "Moscow denies Russian involvement in U.S. DNC hacking". Reuters. June 14, 2016.
- Mills, Curt (December 15, 2016). "Kremlin Denies Putin's Involvement in Election Hacking". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Andrew Higgins, Putin Hints at U.S. Election Meddling by 'Patriotically Minded' Russians, The New York Times (June 1, 2017).
- Murray, Stephanie (July 16, 2018). "Putin: I wanted Trump to win the election". Politico. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Porter, Tom (November 28, 2016). "How US and EU failings allowed Kremlin propaganda and fake news to spread through the West". International Business Times. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Schindler, John R. (November 5, 2015). "Obama Fails to Fight Putin's Propaganda Machine". New York Observer. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Stengel, Richard (April 29, 2014). "Russia Today's Disinformation Campaign". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Parker, Ned; Landay, Jonathan; Walcott, John (April 20, 2017). "Exclusive: Putin-linked think tank drew up plan to sway 2016 U.S. election – documents". Reuters. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- Lagunina, Irina; Maternaya, Elizabeth (April 20, 2017). "Trump and secret documents of the Kremlin" Трамп и тайные документы Кремля (in Russian). Radio Svoboda. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Stubbs, Jack; Pinchuk, Denis (April 21, 2017). King, Larry (ed.). "Russia denies Reuters report think tank drew up plan to sway U.S. election". Reuters. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- Shane, Scott; Mazzetti, Mark (February 16, 2018). "Inside a 3-Year Russian Campaign to Influence U.S. Voters". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- McKew, Molly (February 16, 2018). "DID RUSSIA AFFECT THE 2016 ELECTION? IT'S NOW UNDENIABLE". Wired. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Fishel, Justin. "Fact Check Friday: The Mueller Edition". ABC News. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- "Main points of Mueller report". Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on April 20, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
- Harris, Shane; Nakashima, Ellen; Timberg, Craig (April 18, 2019). "Through email leaks and propaganda, Russians sought to elect Trump, Mueller finds". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (April 18, 2019). "Mueller: Russia sought to help Trump win but did not collude with campaign". The Hill. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Lindstrom, Natasha. "Why Pittsburgh is mentioned in the Mueller report". triblive.com. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Broderick, Ryan. "Here's Everything The Mueller Report Says About How Russian Trolls Used Social Media". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- "Probe reveals stunning stats about fake election headlines on Facebook". CBS News: CBS Interactive. November 17, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
- Ward, Alex (December 17, 2018). "4 main takeaways from new reports on Russia's 2016 election interference". Vox. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Scott Shane; Sheera Frankel (December 17, 2018). "Russian 2016 Influence Operation Targeted African-Americans on Social Media". New York Times.
- Prohov, Jennifer. "Fake Tennessee GOP Twitter account cited as example in Mueller report". WBIR. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Kiely, Eugene; Robertson, Lori (April 24, 2019). "Kushner Distorts Scope of Russia Interference". Factcheck.org. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
- Timberg, Craig (October 5, 2017). "Russian propaganda may have been shared hundreds of millions of times, new research says". Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Benedictus, Leo (November 6, 2016). "Invasion of the troll armies: from Russian Trump supporters to Turkish state stooges". The Guardian. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Facebook Says Russian Accounts Bought $100,000 in Ads During the 2016 Election". Time. September 6, 2017.
- "New Studies Show Pundits Are Wrong About Russian Social-Media Involvement in US Politics". The Nation. December 28, 2018.
- "Trump and Clinton spent $81M on US election Facebook ads, Russian agency $46K". TechCrunch. November 1, 2017.
- Weisburd, Andrew; Watts, Clint (August 6, 2016). "Trolls for Trump – How Russia Dominates Your Twitter Feed to Promote Lies (And, Trump, Too)". The Daily Beast. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- Ali Watkins; Sheera Frenkel (November 30, 2016). "Intel Officials Believe Russia Spreads Fake News". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Andrew Weisburd; Clint Watts; JM Berger (November 6, 2016). "Trolling for Trump: How Russia is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy". War on the Rocks. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- "U.S. officials defend integrity of vote, despite hacking fears". WITN-TV. November 26, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Dougherty, Jill (December 2, 2016). "The reality behind Russia's fake news". CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Howard, Philip N.; Gorwa, Robert (May 20, 2017). "Facebook could tell us how Russia interfered in our elections. Why won't it?". The Washington Post.
- "Facebook says 126 million Americans may have seen Russia-linked political posts". Reuters. October 31, 2017.
- Goel, Vindu; Shane, Scott (September 6, 2017). "Fake Russian Facebook Accounts Bought $100,000 in Political Ads". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Samuelsohn, Darren (September 7, 2017). "Facebook faces backlash over Russian meddling". Politico. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- Salzman, Ari (June 7, 2017). "Facebook's Fake Accountability". Barron's. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Salzman, Ari (May 5, 2017). "Facebook, Tesla Realize Technology Can't Solve Everything". Barron's. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Boot, Max (July 24, 2018). "Without the Russians, Trump wouldn't have won". Washington Post. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Leonnig, Carol; Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, and Rosalind. "Facebook says it sold political ads to Russian company during 2016 election". Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
- Julian Borger (October 4, 2017). "Top Senate intelligence duo: Russia did interfere in 2016 election". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "Facebook gives election ad data to U.S. special counsel: source". Reuters. September 7, 2017. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- Gambino, Lauren (October 3, 2017). "Facebook says up to 10 m people saw ads bought by Russian agency". Theguardian.com.
- "These Are the Ads Russia Bought on Facebook in 2016". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Mackey, Robert; Risen, James; Aaronson, Trevor (April 18, 2019). "Annotating special counsel Robert Mueller's redacted report". The Intercept. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- Dunleavy, Jerry (April 18, 2019). "Mueller says Russia's GRU stole Clinton, DNC emails and gave them to WikiLeaks". Washington Examiner. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- Mueller Report, vol. I, p. 4: "At the same time that the IRA operation began to focus on supporting candidate Trump in early 2016, the Russian government employed a second form of interference: cyber intrusions (hacking) and releases of hacked materials damaging to the Clinton Campaign. The Russian intelligence service known as the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Russian Army (GRU) carried out these operations. In March 2016, the GRU began hacking the email accounts of Clinton Campaign volunteers and employees, including campaign chairman John Podesta. In April 2016, the GRU hacked into the computer networks of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) and the Democratic National Committee (DNC). The GRU stole hundreds of thousands of documents from the compromised email accounts and networks. Around the time that the DNC announced in mid-June 2016 the Russian government's role in hacking its network, the GRU began disseminating stolen materials through the fictitious online personas 'DCLeaks' and 'Guccifer 2.0'. The GRU later released additional materials through the organization WikiLeaks."
- Meyer, Josh; Moe, Alex; Connor, Tracy (July 29, 2016). "Hack of Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee 'Similar' to DNC Breach". NBC news. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
- Brewington, Autumn; Fogel, Mikhaila; Hennessey, Susan; Kahn, Matthew; Kelley, Katherine (July 13, 2018). "Russia Indictment 2.0: What to Make of Mueller's Hacking Indictment". lawfare. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- Mayer, Jane (October 1, 2018). "How Russia Helped Swing the Election for Trump". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Matishak, Martin (July 18, 2018). "What we know about Russia's election hacking". Politico. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "18 revelations from Wikileaks' hacked Clinton emails". BBC News. October 27, 2016.
- Popper, Nathaniel (July 13, 2018). "How Russian Spies Hid Behind Bitcoin in Hacking Campaign". NYT. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
- Sciutto, Jim (June 28, 2017). "How one typo let Russian hackers in". Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- Harding, Luke (December 14, 2016). "Top Democrat's emails hacked by Russia after aide made typo, investigation finds". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Johnstone, Liz (December 18, 2016). "John Podesta: FBI Spoke to Me Only Once About My Hacked Emails". Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security". p2016. Department Of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Sharockman, Aaron (December 18, 2016). "It's True: WikiLeaks dumped Podesta emails hour after Trump video surfaced". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- "18 revelations from WikiLeaks' hacked Clinton emails". Reuters. October 27, 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Cohen, Marshall (October 7, 2017). "Access Hollywood, Russian hacking and the Podesta emails: One year later". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Smith, David (October 8, 2016). "WikiLeaks releases what appear to be Clinton's paid Wall Street speeches". Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Huang, Gregor Aisch, Jon; Kang, Cecilia (December 10, 2016). "Dissecting the #PizzaGate Conspiracy Theories". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016.
- Samuelson, Kate (December 5, 2016). "What to Know About Pizzagate, the Fake News Story With Real Consequences". Time. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016.
- Siddiqui, Sabrina; Gambino, Lauren; Roberts, Dan (July 25, 2016). "DNC apologizes to Bernie Sanders amid convention chaos in wake of email leak". The Guardian.
- Kiely, Eugene (June 7, 2017). "Timeline of Russia Investigation". factcheck.org. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
- Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections": The Analytic Process and Cyber Incident Attribution (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. January 6, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
- "'Lone Hacker' Claims Responsibility for Cyber Attack on Democrats". NBC News. Reuters. June 16, 2016.
- ""Guccifer" leak of DNC Trump research has a Russian's fingerprints on it". June 16, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- "The 4 Most Damaging Emails From the DNC WikiLeaks Dump". ABC News. July 25, 2016.
- "Leaked DNC emails reveal details of anti-Sanders sentiment". The Guardian. July 24, 2016.
- McCarthy, Kieren. "WikiLeaks fights The Man by, er, publishing ordinary people's personal information". The Register. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Andrea Peterson, Snowden and WikiLeaks clash over leaked Democratic Party emails, Washington Post (July 28, 2016).
- Carney, Jordain (July 22, 2016). "Wasserman Schultz called top Sanders aide a 'damn liar' in leaked email". The Hill. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "FBI Investigating DNC Hack Some Democrats Blame on Russia". Bloomberg Politics. July 25, 2016.
- "Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee". June 15, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Alperovitch, Dmitri (June 15, 2016). "Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee". CrowdStrike. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
- Poulsen, Kevin (January 6, 2017). "How the U.S. Hobbled Its Hacking Case Against Russia and Enabled Truthers". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
- "Threat Group 4127 Targets Hillary Clinton Presidential Campaign". SecureWorks. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Thielman, Sam (July 26, 2016). "DNC email leak: Russian hackers Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear behind breach". The Guardian.
- "Cyber researchers confirm Russian government hack of Democratic National Committee". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Lipton, Eric; Sanger, David E.; Shane, Scott (December 13, 2016). "The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S". Nytimes.com.
- "The Dukes Whitepaper" (PDF).
- U.S. Department of Homeland Security and Federal Bureau of Investigation (December 29, 2016). "GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity" (PDF). United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- "Does a BEAR Leak in the Woods?". ThreatConnect. August 12, 2016.
- "Threat Group-4127 Targets Hillary Clinton Presidential Campaign". SecureWorks. June 16, 2016. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
- Gallagher, Sean (December 12, 2016). "Recapping the facts—Did the Russians 'hack' the election? A look at the established facts". ArsTechnica. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- "Dutch agencies provide crucial intel about Russia's interference in US-elections". Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "Russia Hacker Indictments Should Make the Kremlin Squirm". Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "From the Start, Trump Has Muddied a Clear Message: Putin Interfered". Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security". Department of Homeland Security. October 7, 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Wilkie, Christina (July 13, 2018). "5 key takeaways from the latest indictment in Mueller's Russia probe". Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- "12 Russian Agents Indicted in Mueller Investigation". NY Times. July 13, 2018. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "The Republicans' defensiveness about Russian hacking is revealing". The Economist. July 21, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Kathryn Watson (April 13, 2017). "CIA director calls WikiLeaks Russia-aided "non-state hostile intelligence service"". CBS News.
- McKirdy, Euan (January 4, 2017). "WikiLeaks' Assange: Russia didn't give us emails". CNN. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Alex Johnson, "WikiLeaks' Julian Assange: 'No Proof' Hacked DNC Emails Came From Russia", NBC News (July 25, 2016).
- "WikiLeaks' Assange denies Russia behind Podesta hack". Politico. November 3, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- "U.S. intel report identifies Russians who gave emails to WikiLeaks -officials". Reuters. January 6, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- BOWDEN, JOHN (February 14, 2018). "Leaked Twitter messages indicate WikiLeaks bias against Clinton: report". The Hill. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Lee, Micah; Currier, Cora (February 14, 2018). "In Leaked Chats, WikiLeaks Discusses Preference for GOP Over Clinton, Russia, Trolling, and Feminists They Don't Like". The Intercept. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
- Lipton, Eric; Shane, Scott (December 13, 2016). "Democratic House Candidates Were Also Targets of Russian Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Schreck, Carl (January 10, 2017). "FBI Director: No Evidence Russia Successfully Hacked Trump Campaign". RFERL. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
- Sanger, David E.; Shane, Scott (December 9, 2016). "Russian Hackers Acted to Aid Trump in Election, U.S. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Rossoll, Nicki (December 11, 2016). "Reince Priebus: 'RNC Was Not Hacked'". ABC News. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- cf. Tau, Byron (September 14, 2016). "Colin Powell Blasts Donald Trump, Criticizes Hillary Clinton in Leaked Messages". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Johnstone, Liz (December 11, 2016). "Priebus: "I Don't Know Whether It's True" Russia Is Responsible for Election Hacks". Meet the Press. NBC News. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Pearson, Rick. "FBI told state GOP in June its emails had been hacked". Chicago Tribune.
- Bacon, John (July 4, 2018). "Lawsuit linking Trump to Russian Hackers, leak of Democratic emails tossed out". USA Today.
- Parker, Ashley; Sanger, David E. (July 27, 2016). "Donald Trump Calls on Russia to Find Hillary Clinton's Missing Emails". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
- Donald Trump [@realDonaldTrump] (July 27, 2016). "If Russia or any other country or person has Hillary Clinton's 33,000 illegally deleted emails, perhaps they should share them with the FBI!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Toosi, Nahal; Kim, Seung Min (July 27, 2016). "'Treason'? Critics savage Trump over Russia hack comments". Politico. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- "Trump: Russia remarks on Clinton emails were sarcasm". BBC News. July 28, 2016.
- Lesniewski, Niels (July 28, 2016). "Reid Says Trump Should Get Fake Intel Briefings". Roll Call. United States. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Noble, Jason (July 28, 2016). "Trump's Russia comments could be a felony, Vilsack charges". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Kelly, Caroline (July 28, 2016). "Former Obama mentor: Trump's Russian hack 'jokes' could 'constitute treason'". Politico. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Swaine, Jon (July 3, 2018). "Russians tried to hack Clinton server on day Trump urged email search". The Guardian. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "Katy Tur on Trump's CPAC Claim About 'Russia, If You're Listening…' Line: No, He Wasn't Joking".
- Fitzpatrick, Kevin. "Trump Claims Call for Russia to Hack Clinton Emails Was Just "A Joke"". The Hive.
- Jamieson, Kathleen Hall (October 3, 2018). Cyberwar: How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President What We Don't, Can't, and Do Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190915810.
- The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency. Renée DiResta, Dr. Kris Shaffer, Becky Ruppel, David Sullivan, Robert Matney, Ryan Fox (New Knowledge); Dr. Jonathan Albright (Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia University); Ben Johnson (Canfield Research, LLC
- Dilanian, Ken; Popken, Ben (December 17, 2018). "Russia favored Trump, targeted African-Americans with election meddling, reports say". nbcnews. Retrieved January 7, 2019.
- Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Cyberwar - How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President What We Don't, Can't, and Do Know (PDF). Slideshare.net.
- Rosenthal, Max J. (September 29, 2016). "The Trump Files: Listen to Donald Brag About His Affairs—While Pretending to Be Someone Else". Mother Jones. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Eder, Steve; Philipps, Dave (August 1, 2016). "Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet". New York Times. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- RUSSIAN, ALE (October 28, 2016). "Trump Boasted of Avoiding STDs While Dating: Vaginas Are 'Landmines ... It Is My Personal Vietnam'". People Magazine. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "How come this veteran gets nothing while this illegal gets everything? Like and share if you think this is a disgrace". me.me. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
- Riley, Michael; Robertson, Jordan (June 13, 2017). "Russian Hacks on U.S. Voting System Wider Than Previously Known". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- Tal Kopan, FBI director: Hackers 'poking around' voter systems, CNN (September 28, 2016).
- U.S. official: Hackers targeted voter registration systems of 20 states, Associated Press (September 30, 2016).
- Robert Windrem, William M. Arkin, and Ken Dilanian, Russians Hacked Two U.S. Voter Databases, Officials Say, NBC News (August 30, 2016).
- Mike Levine & Pierre Thomas, Russian Hackers Targeted Nearly Half of States' Voter Registration Systems, Successfully Infiltrated 4, ABC News (September 29, 2016).
- Fessler, Pam (September 20, 2017). "10 Months After Election Day, Feds Tell States More About Russian Hacking". NPR. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- Mulvihill, Geoff (September 22, 2017). "The federal government is telling election officials in 21 states that hackers targeted their systems last year, although in most cases the systems were not breached". Associated Press. Retrieved September 22, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- Mulvihill, Geoff. "Hackers targeted election voting systems in 21 states, US government reveals". The Independent. The Independent. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- "Russia did not hack our voting systems, says California". The Independent. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
- Karoun Demirjian, Senate Intelligence Committee releases interim report on election security, Washington Post (May 8, 2018).
- Russian Targeting of Election Infrastructure During the 2016 Election: Summary of Initial Findings and Recommendations, Senate Intelligence Committee, May 8, 2018.
- Stone, Peter; Gordon, Greg (January 18, 2017). "FBI, 5 other agencies probe possible covert Kremlin aid to Trump". McClatchy.
- Michael S. Schmidt; Matthew Rosenberg; Adam Goldman; Matt Apuzzo (January 19, 2017). "Intercepted Russian Communications Part of Inquiry Into Trump Associates". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Stone, Peter; Gordon, Greg (January 18, 2018). "FBI investigating whether Russian money went to NRA to help Trump". McClatchy DC. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Savransky, Rebecca (January 18, 2018). "FBI looking into whether Russian banker gave money to NRA to support Trump: report". The Hill. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Spies, Mike (November 9, 2016). "The NRA Placed Big Bets on the 2016 Election, and Won Almost All of Them". Open Secrets. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Sheth, Sonam (May 26, 2018). "The FBI has obtained wiretaps of a Putin ally tied to the NRA who met with Trump Jr. during the campaign". Business Insider. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Delk, Josh (May 26, 2018). "FBI obtained wiretap conversations of Kremlin-linked banker who met with Trump Jr: report". The Hill. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Porter, Tom (May 26, 2018). "Trump Jr. Should Be 'concerned': Putin Ally's Wiretapped Calls Sent to FBI, Says Spanish Prosecutor". Newsweek. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Mak, Tim (February 23, 2017). "The Kremlin and GOP Have a New Friend—and Boy, Does She Love Guns". The Daily Beast. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Pavlich, Katie (May 6, 2014). "Part 1: Meet the Woman Working With the NRA and Fighting For Gun Rights in Russia". Townhall. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Mak, Tim (March 1, 2018). "Depth Of Russian Politician's Cultivation Of NRA Ties Revealed". NPR. Archived from the original on July 15, 2018.
- Fandos, Nicholas (December 3, 2017). "Operative Offered Trump Campaign 'Kremlin Connection' Using N.R.A. Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "Russian National Charged in Conspiracy to Act as an Agent of the Russian Federation Within the United States". Justice.gov. July 16, 2018. Archived from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Scannell, Kara; Prokupecz, Shimon (April 5, 2018). "Exclusive: Mueller's team questioning Russian oligarchs". CNN. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- Goldman, Adam; Protess, Ben; Rashbaum, William K. (May 4, 2018). "Viktor Vekselberg, Russian Billionaire, Was Questioned by Mueller's Investigators". Nytimes.com. The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Kara Scannell; Shimon Prokupecz. "Mueller's team questions Russian oligarch about payments to Cohen". Cnn.com. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- Harding, Luke; Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Hopkins, Nick (April 13, 2017). "British spies were first to spot Trump team's links with Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Lichtblau, Eric (April 6, 2017). "C.I.A. Had Evidence of Russian Effort to Help Trump Earlier Than Believed". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Miller, Greg (June 23, 2017). "Putin denied meddling in the U.S. election. The CIA caught him doing just that". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Rosenberg, Matthew; Goldman, Adam; Apuzzo, Matt (May 24, 2017). "Top Russian Officials Discussed How to Influence Trump Aides Last Summer". The New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- LoBianco, Tom (May 23, 2017). "Ex-CIA chief John Brennan: Russians contacted Trump campaign". CNN.
- "Key lawmakers accuse Russia of campaign to disrupt U.S. election". Washington Post.
- "Feinstein, Schiff Statement on Russian Hacking". United States Senator for California.
- "Vladimir Putin Wins the Election No Matter Who The Next President Is". The Daily Beast. November 4, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Spy Agency Consensus Grows That Russia Hacked D.N.C." The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Ackerman, Spencer; Thielman, Sam. "US officially accuses Russia of hacking DNC and interfering with election". The Guardian. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- Sciutto, Jim; Raju, Manu (December 2, 2016). "Democrats want Russian hacking intelligence declassified". CNN.
- "Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security". Department of Homeland Security. October 7, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- "Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections" (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. January 6, 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
- Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Miller, Greg (December 9, 2016). "Secret CIA assessment says Russia was trying to help Trump win White House". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Mazzetti, Mark; Lichtblau, Eric (December 11, 2016). "C.I.A. Judgment on Russia Built on Swell of Evidence". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- "Secret FBI source for Russia investigation met with three Trump advisers during campaign". Washington Post.
- Re, Gregg (June 24, 2018). "FBI sends classified letter to House GOP on use of informants in Trump campaign". Fox News.
- Bouchard, Mikayla (May 16, 2018). "The Russia Investigation Is Complicated. Here's What It All Means" – via NYTimes.com.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Mazzetti, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt (December 30, 2017). "How the Russia Inquiry Began: A Campaign Aide, Drinks and Talk of Political Dirt". New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Pearson, Rick. "FBI told state GOP in June its emails had been hacked". Chicago Tribune.
- Lichtblau, Eric; Myers, Steven Lee (October 31, 2016). "Investigating Donald Trump, F.B.I. Sees No Clear Link to Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Nakashima, Ellen; Entous, Adam (December 10, 2016). "FBI and CIA give differing accounts to lawmakers on Russia's motives in 2016 hacks". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- Lederman, Josh; Klapper, Bradley (December 16, 2016). "Official: FBI Backs CIA Conclusion on Russian Hacking Motive". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Strohm, Chris (December 30, 2016). "Russia 'Grizzly Steppe' Hacking Started Simply, U.S. Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- "Joint DHS, ODNI, FBI Statement on Russian Malicious Cyber Activity", FBI National Press Office (December 29, 2016).
- Sanger, David E. (December 29, 2016). "Obama Strikes Back at Russia for Election Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- Brühl, Jannis; Tanriverdi, Hakan (December 30, 2016). "Viele Indizien gegen Russland, aber kaum Beweise". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- Harding, Luke (May 10, 2017). "What do we know about alleged links between Trump and Russia?". the Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Collinson, Stephen (March 20, 2017). "Comey confirms FBI investigating Russia, Trump ties". CNN.
- Wilber, Del Quentin; Cloud, Davis S. (March 20, 2017). "Comey says FBI began investigation into Russia meddling in July". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- Rosenberg, Matthew (March 20, 2017). "Comey Confirms FBI Investigation". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
- Carroll, Lauren. "17 intelligence organizations or 4? Either way, Russia conclusion still valid". Politifact. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Miller, Greg; Entous, Adam (January 6, 2017). "Declassified report says Putin 'ordered' effort to undermine faith in U.S. election and help Trump". The Washington Post.
- Sanger, David E. (January 6, 2017). "Putin Ordered 'Influence Campaign' Aimed at U.S. Election, Report Says". The New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- "Top intelligence officials stop short of providing evidence of Russian hacking at Senate hearing". PBS News Hour. January 10, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Hess, Peter (January 6, 2017). "RT America Is Put in the Spotlight on Damning Intelligence Report". Inverse.
- "Meet The Press 03-05-17". NBC. March 5, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- "'This Week' Transcript 5-14-17: The Firing of Director Comey". ABC News. May 14, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
- "James Clapper: I didn't know about Papadopoulos, Trump Tower meetings when I said there was no Trump-Russia collusion".
- Lardner, Richard; Riechmann, Deb (June 21, 2017). "Intel officials detail how Russian cyberattacks sought to interfere with U.S. elections". PBS Newshour. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
- Comey, James (June 7, 2017). "Statement for the Record – Senate Select Committee on Intelligence" (PDF). Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- Schofield, Matthew (June 8, 2017). "Did Russia interfere in the 2016 elections? No doubt, Comey says". McClatchy DC Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Politico Staff (June 8, 2017). "Full text: James Comey testimony transcript on Trump and Russia". Politico. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- Graff, Garrett M. (December 17, 2018). "A Complete Guide to All 17 (Known) Trump and Russia Investigations". Wired.com. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
- Miller, Kevin (December 1, 2016). "Angus King: Russian involvement in U.S. election 'an arrow aimed at the heart of democracy'". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "McCain to Trump on Russian hacking: 'The facts are there' – CBS". Reuters. December 11, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Meyer, Theodoric (December 11, 2016). "McCain wants select committee to investigate Russian hacking". Politico. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
- Theodore Schleifer; Deirdre Walsh. "McCain: Russian cyberintrusions an 'act of war'". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- Carney, Jordain (January 24, 2017). "Senate committee moving forward with Russia hacking probe". The Hill. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Senate Intelligence Committee votes to give leaders solo subpoena power". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- U.S. Senator Richard Burr of North Carolina. "Notification: Senate Intel Committee Grants Chairman and Vice Chairman Authority to Issue Subpoenas" (Press release). Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- "Senate Intelligence Committee requests Trump campaign documents". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Demirjian, Karoun (December 18, 2017). "Senate intel committee investigating Jill Stein campaign for 'collusion with the Russians'". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
- Karoun Demirjian, Russia favored Trump in 2016, Senate panel says, breaking with House GOP, Washington Post (May 16, 2018).
- "U.S. Senator Ben Cardin Releases Report Detailing Two Decades of Putin's Attacks on Democracy, Calling for Policy Changes to Counter Kremlin Threat Ahead of 2018, 2020 Elections | U.S. Senator Ben Cardin of Maryland". Cardin.senate.gov. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- "Democratic report warns of Russian meddling in Europe, US". New York Times.
- Howard, Philip N.; Ganesh, Bharath; Liotsiou, Dimitra; Kelly, John; François, Camille (2018). The IRA, Social Media and Political Polarization in the United States, 2012-2018 (PDF). Computational Propaganda Research Project. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Harris, Shane (December 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Fuels Rift With CIA Over Russian Hack". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer (December 12, 2016). "McConnell and Ryan Back Russia Inquiries, Raising Potential Clash With Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Wright, Austin (January 25, 2017). "Second Hill panel to probe possible ties between Russia, Trump campaign". Politico. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Fandos, Nicholas; LaFraniere, Sharon (April 27, 2018). "Republicans on House Intelligence Panel Absolve Trump Campaign in Russian Meddling". Nytimes.com. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- Singman, Brooke; Berger, Judson (April 27, 2018). "House panel's Russia report finds 'no evidence' of collusion, Trump says probe 'MUST END NOW'". Fox News. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Wang, Amy (February 25, 2017). "Top Republican says special prosecutor should investigate Russian meddling in Trump's election". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "GOP Congressman: Special Prosecutor Needed for Russia Probe". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 25, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "Top intel Democrat: "Circumstantial evidence of collusion" between Trump and Russia". NBC News. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- Koenig, Kailani (March 22, 2017). "Schiff: 'More Than Circumstantial Evidence' Trump Associates Colluded With Russia". NBC News. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
- Demirjian, Karoun (April 6, 2017). "House Intelligence Chairman Devin Nunes recuses himself from Russia probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- "Rep. Devin Nunes cleared of accusations of disclosing classified intel".
- Zengerle, Patricia (March 12, 2018). "Republicans shut down House Russia probe over Democratic objections". Reuters. Retrieved March 12, 2018.
- Ewing, Philip (March 15, 2018). "House Intel Republicans Have Cleared Trump. So Are The Russia Investigations Over?". NPR. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Nicholas Fandos (March 12, 2018). "Despite Mueller's Push, House Republicans Declare No Evidence of Collusion". New York Times.
- Karoun Demirjian, Intel panel Republicans seem to back away from finding that Russia was not trying to help Trump, Washington Post (March 13, 2018).
- Memoli, Mike (March 12, 2018). "House Republicans say investigation found no evidence of Russia-Trump collusion". NBC News. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Memoli, Mike (April 27, 2018). "House Intelligence Committee releases full report on Russia investigation". NBC News. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
- "House intelligence Democrats outline how to keep their Russia investigation alive". CNN. March 15, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Kopan, Tal; Liptak, Kevin; Sciutto, Jim (December 9, 2016). "Obama orders review of Russian election-related hacking". CNN. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Detrow, Scott (December 15, 2016). "Obama On Russian Hacking: 'We Need To Take Action. And We Will'". NPR. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Obama says he told Putin to 'cut it out' on Russia hacking". Politico. December 16, 2016.
- Arkin, William M.; Dilanian, Ken; McFadden, Cynthia (December 19, 2016). "What Obama Said to Putin on the Red Phone About the Election Hack". NBC News. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Sanger, David E.; Shane, Scott (December 9, 2016). "Russian Hackers Acted to Aid Trump in Election, U.S. Says". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2017.
- Weise, Elizabeth; Korte, Gregory (December 9, 2016). "Obama orders review of foreign attempts to hack U.S. election". USA Today. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Josh Gerstein; Jennifer Scholtes; Eric Geller; Martin Matishak (December 9, 2016). "Obama orders 'deep dive' of election-related hacking". Politico. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Elise Labott, "Official: Probe 'solely about lessons learned' on foreign hacking", CNN (December 10, 2016).
- Griffiths, Brent (December 12, 2016). "White House rails against Trump for not accepting evidence of Russia hacking". Politico. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Shear, Michael D.; Landler, Mark (December 16, 2016). "Obama Says He Told Putin: 'Cut It Out' on Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Fabian, Jordan (December 16, 2016). "Obama turns down temperature on Trump fight". The Hill. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Rosenberg, Matthew; Goldman, Adam; Schmidt, Michael S. (March 2, 2017). "Obama Administration Rushed to Preserve Intelligence of Russian Election Hacking". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Greenberg, Andy. "US Hits Russia With Biggest Spying Retaliation "Since the Cold War"". Wired.
- "Obama Strikes Back at Russia for Election Hacking". The New York Times. December 29, 2016.
- Cowan, Richard (December 31, 2016). "Trump praises Putin for holding back in U.S.-Russia spy dispute". Reuters. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Russia retaliates against US 'spy' expulsions". The Guardian. March 22, 2001. Retrieved February 28, 2017.
- Mark Mazzetti & Michael S. Schmidt, "Two Russian Compounds, Caught Up in History's Echoes", The New York Times (December 29, 2016).
- Ian Duncan, "Shut down Russian Eastern Shore retreat offers glimpse at spy battles", The Baltimore Sun (December 30, 2016).
- "U.S. shuts Russian compounds in Maryland, New York over hacking". CBS News. Associated Press. December 30, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "U.S. imposes sanctions on Russia over election interference". CBS News. December 29, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- "US expels 35 Russian diplomats, closes two compounds: report". Deutsche Welle. December 29, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- Evan Perez and Daniella Diaz. "Russia sanctions announced by White House". CNN.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Obama authorises US sanctions against Russia". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. December 29, 2016.
- Russia, mulling expulsions, says too many U.S. spies work in Moscow Reuters, June 14, 2017.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (December 30, 2016). "Vladimir Putin Won't Expel U.S. Diplomats as Russian Foreign Minister Urged". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- "Plane with Russian diplomats expelled from US lands in Moscow". Russian News Agency TASS. January 2, 2017.
- Crabtree, Justina (May 19, 2017). "There's a mad house, not a house of cards on Capitol Hill, says Russian bank CEO". CNBC. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- "Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned US sanctions on Russia". Deutsche Welle. June 16, 2017.
- "Menendez Statement on U.S. Treasury Russia Sanctions for Election Meddling, Cyber Attacks". United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. March 15, 2018.
- "Russia sanctions may force US to punish key allies". CNN. February 8, 2018.
- "Why Punishing India on Russia Would Be a Mistake for the United States". The Diplomat. May 17, 2018.
- "Trump administration holds off on new Russia sanctions, despite law". Reuters. January 30, 2018.
- "US sanctions on Russia could harm India. Congress is wrestling over a fix". Defense News. July 18, 2018.
- Senate overwhelmingly passes new Russia and Iran sanctions WP, June 15, 2017.
- Senate GOP, Dems agree on new sanctions on Russia AP, June 13, 2017.
- Democrats introduce new bill on Russia and Iran sanctions Reuters, July 12, 2017.
- Marcos, Cristina (July 25, 2017). "House passes Russia sanctions deal". The Hill. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- Etehad, Melissa. "The Russia sanctions bill, explained: 'Putin is kind of giving up hope'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Europe 'stands ready to act' if US sanctions on Russia affect its oil and gas supplies The Independent, July 26, 2017.
- "France says U.S. sanctions on Iran, Russia look illegal". Reuters. July 26, 2017.
- "White House says there's no need for new Russia sanctions". Washington Post. January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
- Putin: Russia promises retaliation as Senate passes sanctions bill The Guardian, July 28, 2017.
- Roth, Andrew (July 30, 2017). "Putin orders cut of 755 personnel at U.S. missions". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- Putin confirms 755 US diplomatic staff must leave BBC, July 30, 2017.
- Silver, Nate (February 16, 2018). "How Much Did Russian Interference Affect The 2016 Election?". 538. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Keith, Tamara (March 6, 2018). "Trump Says U.S. Working To Counteract Russian Election Interference In 2018 Midterms". NPR. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- "Mike Pence: No evidence foreign meddling efforts 'had any impact' on 2016 election outcome". Washington Examiner. February 14, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
- CROWLEY, MICHAEL (October 19, 2017). "CIA director rebuked for false claim on Kremlin's election meddling". Politico. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Chait, Jonathan. "Mike Pence Says U.S. Intel Found That Russia Didn't Elect Trump. He Is Lying". New York. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
- Cohen, Zachary; Sciutto, Jim (October 20, 2017). "CIA corrects director's Russian election meddling claim". CNN. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Watts, Clint (2018). Messing with the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers ... HarperCollins. ISBN 9780062796011. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- Wagner, John (June 28, 2019). "Jimmy Carter says Trump wouldn't be president without help from Russia". Washington Post. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
- Jamieson, Kathleen Hall (November 1, 2018). "Why this author says it's 'highly probable' Russian interference swung the 2016 election". PBS Newshour (Interview). Interviewed by Judy Woodruff. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
- Michael D. Shear; Matt Apuzzo (May 10, 2017). "Trump Fires Comey amid Russia Inquiry—Clinton Email Investigation Cited—Democrats Seek Special Counsel". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Sommer, Will (May 9, 2017). "Sessions was told to find reasons to fire Comey: reports". The Hill. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Pramuk, Jacob (May 9, 2017). "Justice Department was told to come up with reasons to fire Comey, reports say". CNBC. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- Levy, Pema (May 19, 2017). "Deputy AG Confirms That Decision to Fire Comey Came From Trump, Not Him". Mother Jones.
- Smith, David (May 9, 2017). "Donald Trump fires FBI director Comey over handling of Clinton investigation". The Guardian. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "President Trump just completely contradicted the official White House account of the Comey firing". The Week. May 11, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Malloy, Allie (May 10, 2017). "Trump says he fired Comey because he wasn't "doing a good job"". CNN. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Kevin Liptak. "White House: Removing Comey will help bring Russia investigation to end". CNN. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Lauter, David; Memoli, Michael A. (May 9, 2017). "Trump fires Comey as FBI director; Democrats call for a special prosecutor in Russia investigation". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Wilstein, Matt (May 9, 2017). "CNN's Jeffrey Toobin Goes Off on Trump for Firing Comey: 'What Kind of Country Is This?'". The Daily Beast.
- Abbruzzese, Jason (May 9, 2017). "Everyone is comparing Donald Trump to Richard Nixon". The Silicon Times. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017.
- "Comey firing: Reaction from members of Congress on FBI director's dismissal". The Washington Post.
- Tucker, Eric; Werner, Erica (June 9, 2017). "Comey says he was fired over Russia probe, blasts 'lies'". Associated Press. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- Matt Apuzzo; Maggie Haberman; Matthew Rosenberg (May 19, 2017). "Trump Told Russians That Firing 'Nut Job' Comey Eased Pressure From Investigation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Harris, Shane; Dawsey, Josh; Nakashima, Ellen. "Trump told Russian officials in 2017 he wasn't concerned about Moscow's interference in U.S. election". The Washington Post. WP Company LLC. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
- Levine, Mike; Kelsey, Adam (May 17, 2017). "Robert Mueller appointed special counsel to oversee probe into Russia's interference in 2016 election". ABC News. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Williams, Pete; Dilanian, Ken (May 17, 2017). "Special Counsel Will Take Over FBI Russia Campaign Interference Investigation". NBC News. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- "Order 3915-2017: Appointment of Special Counsel to Investigate Russian Interference With the 2016 Election and Related Matters" (PDF). Office of the Deputy Attorney General, United States Department of Justice. May 17, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 17, 2017.
- Johnson, Kevin (May 17, 2017). "Justice Department taps former FBI Director Robert Mueller as special counsel for Russia investigation". USA Today. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
- Tanfani, Joseph (May 17, 2017). "Former FBI Director Robert Mueller named special prosecutor for Russia investigation". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Karimi, Faith; Perez, Evan (June 16, 2017). "Robert Mueller expands special counsel office, hires 13 lawyers". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Demick, Barbara (May 24, 2017). "Marc Kasowitz helped Trump through bankruptcy and divorce. Now he's taking on the biggest case of his career". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
- Jarrett, Laura; Perez, Evan (June 10, 2017). "Mueller staffing up Russia probe while Trump lawyer declares victory". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Green, Miranda; de Vogue, Ariane (June 16, 2017). "Trump adds lawyer John Dowd to Russia legal team". CNN. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Manchester, Julia (July 21, 2017). "Trump's personal lawyer resigns from top post amid legal team shakeup". TheHill. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Borger, Gloria. "Dowd resigns as Trump's lawyer amid disagreements on strategy". CNN. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
- "Source: Mueller Using D.C. Grand Jury In Russia Probe". NPR.org.
- Bump, Phillip (October 30, 2017). "Paul Manafort: A FAQ about Trump's indicted former campaign chairman". Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "Ex-Trump Adviser George Papadopoulos Pleads Guilty in Mueller's Russia Probe". NBC News. October 30, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- Uchill, Joe. "Timeline: Campaign knew Russia had Clinton emails months before Trump 'joke'". The Hill. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- "Trump's ex-campaign manager Manafort to turn himself in to Mueller: reports". ABC News. October 30, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Savage, Charlie (October 30, 2017). "What It Means: The Indictment of Manafort and Gates". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
- William, David (February 18, 2018). "Former Trump aide Rick Gates to plead guilty; agrees to testify against Manafort, sources say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
- CNN, Katelyn Polantz. "Search warrant reveals Mueller's interest in Manafort's actions during Trump campaign". cnn.com.
- Tillman, Zoe. "Paul Manafort Is Asking A Judge To Suppress Evidence That Agents Seized From His Home". Buzzfeed.com.
- Polantz, Katelyn (March 27, 2018). "New Gates tie alleged in special counsel filing on van der Zwaan sentencing". CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Mayer, Jane. "How Russia Helped Swing the Election for Trump". newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- "Special counsel issues indictment against 13 Russian nationals over 2016 election interference". CNN. February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- Indictment, United States v. Internet Research Agency LLC et al., docket entry 1, February 16, 2018, case no. 18-cr-00032-DLF, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.
- Lafranier, Sharon (February 16, 2018). "13 Russians Indicted by Special Counsel in First Charges on 2016 Election Interference". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- Horwitz, Sari; Barrett, Devlin; Timberg, Craig (February 16, 2018). "Russian troll farm, 13 suspects indicted for interference in U.S. election". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- "Mueller Announces Guilty Plea of California Man in Investigation". February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
- All of Robert Mueller’s indictments and plea deals in the Russia investigation so far that we know of, Vox, Andrew Prokopandrew, June 8, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- "Russian firm charged in election interference case pleads not guilty". May 9, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
- Paddock, Richard C. (March 5, 2018). "Escort Says Audio Recordings Show Russian Meddling in U.S. Election". The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- Paddock, Richard C. (August 31, 2018). "She Gambled on Her Claim to Link Russians and Trump. She Is Losing". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Kaewjinda, Kaweewit (August 20, 2018). "Belarusian Escort Says She Made a Deal With an Oligarch to Keep Quiet About Russian Meddling". Time. Associated Press. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Maza, Cristina (August 20, 2018). "Belarusian Escort Says She Gave Evidence of Russian Election Interference to Manafort-Linked Oligarch". Newsweek. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Barr, William (March 24, 2019), English: The Attorney General (PDF), retrieved March 24, 2019 – via Wikimedia Commons
- Cite error: The named reference
Herbwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Read Attorney General William Barr's Summary of the Mueller Report". The New York Times. March 24, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- "Mueller Report: Investigation finds no evidence of Russia conspiracy, leaves obstruction question open". USA Today. March 24, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- Barr, William (March 24, 2019), English: The Attorney General (PDF), retrieved March 24, 2019 – via Wikimedia Commons
- "Mueller Report Live Updates: No Trump-Russia Conspiracy". The New York Times. March 24, 2019. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- El-Bawab, Mike Calia, Nadine (April 17, 2019). "Attorney General William Barr will hold a press conference to discuss Mueller report at 9:30 am ET Thursday". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- LaFraniere, Sharon (April 17, 2019). "When Will the Mueller Report Come Out? Why the Redactions? And More". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- Inskeep, Steve; Detrow, Scott; Johnson, Carrie; Davis, Susan; Greene, David. "Redacted Mueller Report Released; Congress, Trump React". NPR. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
- "The Mueller Report". YaleGlobal Online. MacMillan Center.
- Gregorian, Dareh; Ainsley, Julia (April 18, 2019). "Mueller report found Trump directed White House lawyer to 'do crazy s---". NBC News. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- "Charging Trump was not an option, says Robert Mueller". BBC. May 29, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- Vesoulis, Abby (May 29, 2019). "How Mueller's Farewell Subtly Rebuked Trump". Time. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- "Trump Steps Up Calls for Investigation Into Origin of Russia Investigation". KTLA. Associated Press. May 23, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- Goldman, Adam; Savage, Charlie; Schmidt, Michael S. (May 13, 2019). "Barr Assigns U.S. Attorney in Connecticut to Review Origins of Russia Inquiry". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- Johnson, Kevin (May 14, 2019). "Attorney General taps top Connecticut federal prosecutor for review of Trump-Russia inquiry". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Balsamo, Michael (May 14, 2019). "AP source: Barr launches new look at origins of Russia probe". Associated Press. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
- Savage, Charlie; Goldman, Adam; Fandos, Nicholas (May 14, 2019). "Scrutiny of Russia Investigation Is Said to Be a Review, Not a Criminal Inquiry". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- "Trump orders intel agencies to cooperate with Barr probe into 'spying' on 2016 campaign". Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- Prokop, Andrew (September 30, 2019). "Trump and Barr have been urging foreign governments to help them investigate the Mueller probe's origins". Vox. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- YOURISH, KAREN; BUCHANAN, LARRY (January 26, 2019). "Trump and His Associates Had More Than 100 Contacts With Russians Before the Inauguration". New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Harris, Shane. "Russian Officials Overheard Discussing Trump Associates Before Campaign Began". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Mazzetti, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt (February 14, 2017). "Trump Campaign Aides Had Repeated Contacts With Russian Intelligence". The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- "Trump team issued at least 20 denials of contacts with Russia". USA Today. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- "A Who's Who of the Trump Campaign's Russia Connections". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
- Buzenberg, Bill (May 26, 2017). "How the Trump White House Has Tried to Interfere With the Russia Investigations". Mother Jones. Mother Jones and the Foundation for National Progress. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Miller, Greg, and Entous, Adam (February 24, 2017). "Trump administration sought to enlist intelligence officials, key lawmakers to counter Russia stories". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Haberman, Maggie (January 8, 2019). "Manafort Accused of Sharing Trump Polling Data With Russian Associate". New York Times. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
- Lynch, Sarah N. (March 7, 2019). "U.S. judge gives Trump ex-aide Manafort leniency: under four years in prison". Reuters. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- Windrem, Robert (April 18, 2017). "Guess Who Came to Dinner With Flynn and Putin". NBC News.
- Goldman, Adam; Protess, Ben; Rashbaum, William K. (May 4, 2018). "Viktor Vekselberg, Russian Billionaire, Was Questioned by Mueller's Investigators". New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
- Gloria Borger; Pamela Brown; Jim Sciutto; Marshall Cohen; Eric Lichtblau. "Sources: Russian officials bragged they could use Flynn to influence Trump". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- Logan, Bryan; Bertrand, Natasha (May 20, 2017). "Sources: Russian operatives reportedly bragged that they could use Mike Flynn to get to the White House". Business Insider. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- Allen, Nick; Graham, Chris (May 20, 2017). "James Comey to testify before Senate panel after Donald Trump called fired FBI boss a 'nut job'". The Telegraph. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- Michael S. Schmidt; Matthew Rosenberg; Matt Apuzzo (March 2, 2017). "Kushner and Flynn Met With Russian Envoy in December, White House Says". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
- "Russian ambassador told Moscow that Kushner wanted secret communications channel with Kremlin". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Mazzetti, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt; Haberman, Maggie (May 26, 2017). "Kushner Is Said to Have Discussed a Secret Channel to Talk to Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
- Prokop, Andrew (December 1, 2017). "What Michael Flynn has actually admitted to so far, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Dilanian, Ken (February 10, 2017). "Official: Flynn Discussed Sanctions With Russians Before Taking Office". NBC News. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Murray, Sara; Borger, Gloria; Diamond, Jeremy (February 14, 2017). "Flynn resigns amid controversy over Russia contacts". CNN. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Johnson, Kevin (May 8, 2017). "Sally Yates warned White House that Michael Flynn was vulnerable to Russian blackmail". USA Today. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
- Herb, Jeremy (December 1, 2017). "Flynn charged with one count of making false statement". CNN.
- Cone, Allen (February 1, 2018). "Mueller seeks delay in Flynn sentencing". UPI.
- SAMUELS, BRETT (May 1, 2018). "Mueller requests Flynn's sentencing be delayed at least two more months". The Hill.
- Press, Associated (July 11, 2018). "Michael Flynn 'eager' to put case behind him while Mueller team requests delay". the Guardian.
- Kutner, Max (October 31, 2017). "Who is Joseph Mifsud, the professor in the George Papadopoulos investigation?". Newsweek. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Herb, Jeremy; Cohen, Marshall. "Who is George Papadopoulos?". CNN. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Mazzetti, Mark; Apuzzo, Matt (December 30, 2017). "How the Russia Inquiry Began: A Campaign Aide, Drinks and Talk of Political Dirt". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
- Wroe, David (January 2, 2018). "Joe Hockey discussed Alexander Downer's Russia revelations with FBI". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Apuzzo, Matt; Goldman, Adam; Fandos, Nicholas (May 16, 2018). "Code Name Crossfire Hurricane: The Secret Origins of the Trump Investigation". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- Hamburger, Tom; Leonnig, Carol D.; Helderman, Rosalind S. (August 14, 2017). "Trump campaign emails show aide's repeated efforts to set up Russia meetings". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- Glaser, April (October 30, 2017). "The Trump Campaign Adviser Who Pleaded Guilty Was Very Bad at Facebook". Slate. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
- Apuzzo, Matt; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 30, 2017). "Trump Campaign Adviser Met With Russian to Discuss 'Dirt' on Clinton". The New York Times.
- "Guilty Plea". United States Department of Justice.
- "Statement of Facts of Guilt". United States Department of Justice.
- Tanfani, Joseph (October 30, 2017). "Former Trump campaign aide George Papadopoulos pleads guilty to lying to the FBI agents in Mueller probe". Los Angeles Times.
- "Ex-Trump Aide Papadopoulos Sentenced To 14 Days Jail For Lying To FBI". Headlines Today. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- Matt Apuzzo; Jo Becker; Adam Goldman; Maggie Haberman (July 10, 2017). "Trump Jr. Was Told in Email of Russian Effort to Aid Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- "Former Soviet counterintelligence officer at meeting With Donald Trump Jr. and Russian lawyer". NBC News. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
- Butler, Desmond (July 14, 2017). "Russian-American lobbyist says he was in Trump son's meeting". Associated Press. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
- Carter, Brandon (July 10, 2017). "Trump Jr. was told potential Clinton info came from Russian government: report". The Hill. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Bertrand, Natasha (July 10, 2017). "Meet the music publicist taking credit for setting up Donald Trump Jr.'s meeting with a Russian lawyer". Business Insider. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- Becker, Jo; Goldman, Adam; Apuzzo, Matt (July 11, 2017). "Russian Dirt on Clinton? 'I Love It," Donald Trump Jr. Said". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
- Borchers, Callum. "Donald Trump Jr.'s stunning admission to the New York Times". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- Becker, Jo; Apuzzo, Matt; Goldman, Adam (July 8, 2017). "Trump Team Met With Lawyer Linked to Kremlin During Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Becker, Jo; Apuzzo, Matt; Goldman, Adam (July 9, 2017). "Trump's Son Met With Russian Lawyer After Being Promised Damaging Information on Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
- Parker, Ashley; Leonnig, Carol D.; Rucker, Philip; Hamburger, Tom (July 31, 2017). "Trump dictated son's misleading statement on meeting with Russian lawyer". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Miller, Greg (March 1, 2017). "Sessions met with Russian envoy twice last year, encounters he later did not disclose". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
- Lichtblau, Eric; Shear, Michael D.; Savage, Charlie; Apuzzo, Matt; Haberman, Maggie; Schmidt, Michael S. (March 2, 2017). "Jeff Sessions Recuses Himself From Russia Inquiry". The New York Times.
- Matishak, Martin (March 20, 2017). "Roger Stone takes center stage as Congress lines up Russia probe witnesses". Politico. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Massie, Chris; McDermott, Nathan; Kaczynski, Andrew. "Trump adviser Roger Stone repeatedly claimed to know of forthcoming WikiLeaks dumps". CNN. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
- Danner, Chas. "Trump Adviser Roger Stone Admits Messaging With Alleged DNC Hacker". New York. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
- Farley, Robert (March 28, 2017). "Misrepresenting Stone's Prescience". FactCheck.org. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Bertrand, Natasha (September 26, 2017). "Top Trump confidant points to dubious report to justify conversation with Russian cyber spy". Business Insider. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Raju, Manu; Herb, Jeremy (November 29, 2017). "New York radio personality was Roger Stone's WikiLeaks contact". CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
- Thomsen, Jacqueline (June 17, 2018). "Roger Stone: Russian wanted Trump to pay $2M for dirt on Clinton during the campaign". thehill.com. Retrieved June 19, 2018.
- Evan Perez, Pamela Brown and Shimon Prokupecz. "One year into the FBI's Russia investigation, Mueller is on the Trump money trail". CNN. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- Savage, Charlie (February 2, 2018). "Read the Nunes Memo, Annotated". New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
- Nakashima, Ellen; Devlin Barrett; Adam Entous (April 11, 2017). "FBI obtained FISA warrant to monitor former Trump adviser Carter Page". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Julie Pace (March 6, 2017). "Senate committee calls on former Trump adviser Carter Page in Russia investigation". Associated Press.
- Marshall Cohen & Eli Watkins (March 4, 2016). "Who is Carter Page?". CNN.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Julie Pace (April 3, 2017). "Trump campaign adviser Carter Page met with Russian spy in 2013". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press.
- Adam Goldman, "Russian Spies Tried to Recruit Carter Page Before He Advised Trump", The New York Times (April 4, 2017).
- "The Most Powerful Arab Ruler Isn't M.B.S. It's M.B.Z." The New York Times. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- Adam Entous, Greg Miller, Kevin Sieff & Karen DeYoung, "Blackwater founder held secret Seychelles meeting to establish Trump-Putin back channel", The Washington Post (April 3, 2016).
- Filipov, David; Brittain, Amy; Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom (June 1, 2017). "Explanations for Kushner's meeting with head of Kremlin-linked bank don't match up". The Washington Post.
- "Russia inquiry expands to Trump lawyer Michael Cohen". BBC. May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Ross, Brian; Mosk, Matthew (May 30, 2017). "Congress expands Russia investigation to include Trump's personal attorney". ABC News. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- Helderman, Rosalind; Leonig, Carol; Hamburger, Tom (August 28, 2017). "Top Trump Organization executive asked Putin aide for help on business deal". Washington Post. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- Harris, Shane (June 29, 2017). "GOP Operative Sought Clinton Emails From Hackers, Implied a Connection to Flynn". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Cohn, Alicia (June 29, 2017). "GOP investigation sought connection between Clinton's emails and Russia: report". The Hill. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Borger, Julian (June 30, 2017). "Russia hackers discussed getting Clinton emails to Michael Flynn – report". The Guardian. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Prokop, Andrew (July 1, 2017). "New reports raise some big questions about Michael Flynn and Russian hackers". Vox. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Harris, Shane; Bender, Michael C.; Nicholas, Peter (July 1, 2017). "GOP Activist Who Sought Clinton Emails Cited Trump Campaign Officials". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Tait, Matt (June 30, 2017). "The Time I Got Recruited to Collude with the Russians". Lawfare. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
- Skiba, Katherine; Lighty, Todd; Heinzmann, David. "Peter W. Smith, GOP operative who sought Clinton's emails from Russian hackers, committed suicide, records show". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
- Corn, David (October 31, 2016). "A Veteran Spy Has Given the FBI Information Alleging a Russian Operation to Cultivate Donald Trump". Mother Jones. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Borger, Julian (April 28, 2017). "UK was given details of alleged contacts between Trump campaign and Moscow". The Guardian. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- Shane, Scott (January 11, 2017). "What We Know and Don't Know About the Trump-Russia Dossier". The New York Times. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- Wemple, Eric (January 10, 2017). "BuzzFeed's ridiculous rationale for publishing the Trump-Russia dossier". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Bensinger, Ken; Elder, Miriam; Schoofs, Mark (January 10, 2017). "These Reports Allege Trump Has Deep Ties To Russia". BuzzFeed. Retrieved December 24, 2017.
- Perez, Evan; Prokupecz, Shimon; Raju, Manu (April 18, 2017). "FBI used dossier allegations to bolster Trump-Russia investigation". CNN. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- "Feinstein releases transcript of interview with Fusion GPS co-founder". POLITICO. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Barrett, Devlin; Hamburger, Tom (January 9, 2018). "Fusion GPS founder told Senate investigators the FBI had a whistleblower in Trump's network". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "American Voters Back Sanctions For Russian Hacking, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds Israel, Palestinians Not Sincere About Peace, Voters Say". Quinnipiac University. January 13, 2017.
- Reid J. Epstein (January 17, 2017). "About Half of Americans Think Russia Interfered With Election Through Hacking, Poll Finds". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Shepard, Steven (March 3, 2017). "Russia investigations a 'witch hunt'? Not according to polls". Politico. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Most Important Problem". Gallup tracking poll. Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Dann, Carrie (February 24, 2017). "Majority of Americans Say Congress Should Probe Contact Between Trump, Russia: Poll". NBC News. Retrieved August 5, 2018.
- "Republicans Out Of Step With U.S. Voters On Key Issues, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Most Voters Support Legalized Marijuana". Quinnipiac University. February 23, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "The Trump Administration and Russia". The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research. April 14, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- "Donald Trump's election". Levada Center. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
- "More Russians are sure of the U.S. meddling in their politics than the other way around, poll finds". The Washington Post. February 7, 2018.
- "Two-Thirds Of U.S. Voters Take Climate Personally, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Opposition To The Wall Hits New High". Quinnipiac University. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Aaron Zitner (April 24, 2017). "Poll: Americans Doubtful of Congress's Ability to Probe Russia Meddling in U.S. Election". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Holyk, Gregory (April 26, 2017). "Republicans and Democrats split over Russia probes: Poll". ABC News. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "Does Trump-Russia Relationship Pose Security Threat? Public Split". Monmouth University. May 18, 2017.
- Mark Murray (June 23, 2017). "Poll: More Americans Believe Comey Over Trump". NBC News.
- Jessica Taylor (July 6, 2017). "Majority Of Americans Believe Trump Acted Either Illegally Or Unethically With Russia". NPR.
- Langer, Gary (July 16, 2017). "6 months in, record low job approval for Trump: Poll". ABC News.
- Jennifer Agiesta (August 10, 2017). "Poll: Trump finances fair game in Russia investigation". CNN.
- Jeffrey M. Jones (August 9, 2017). "1 in 4 Americans Say Trump Acted Illegally With Russia". Gallup. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
- "Support for Impeachment Grows; Half of Americans Believe Russia Interfered with Election". August 17, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2017.
- Keith, Tamara (December 16, 2016). "In Leaked Remarks, Hillary Clinton Explains Putin's 'Beef' With Her". NPR. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Abdullah, Halimah (December 16, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Singles Out Putin, Comey in Election Loss". NBC News. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Chozick, Amy (December 17, 2016). "Clinton Says 'Personal Beef' by Putin Led to Hacking Attacks". The New York Times. p. A12. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Blake, Aaron (October 19, 2016). "The final Trump-Clinton debate transcript, annotated". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Kaczynski, Andrew (December 19, 2016). "Trump said in 2014 that Russian hacking was a 'big problem'". CNN. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Pramuk, Jacob (September 26, 2016). "Trump: DNC hacker could have been 400 pounds and sitting in bed". CNBC. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Fox-Brewster, Thomas (October 10, 2016). "Clinton Claims Putin's Hackers Are Punting For Trump". Forbes. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Eichenwald, Kurt (November 4, 2016). "Why Vladimir Putin's Russia Is Backing Donald Trump". Newsweek. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Fandos, Nicholas (December 11, 2016). "Trump Links C.I.A. Reports on Russia to Democrats' Shame Over Election". The New York Times.
- Strohm, Chris (December 10, 2016). "Team Trump Mocks Suggestion of Russian Meddling in Election". Bloomberg News. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Kessler, Glenn (December 13, 2016). "The pre-war intelligence on Iraq: Wrong or hyped by the Bush White House?". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
- Flores, Reena (December 11, 2016). "Donald Trump weighs in on Russia hacking election, CIA intelligence". CBS News. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Gittens, Hasani; Dilanian, Ken (January 4, 2017). "Trump Takes Jab at 'Intelligence' Officials for Allegedly Delaying 'Russian Hacking' Briefing". NBC News. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- "Trump praises 'very smart' Putin for not expelling US diplomats". The Guardian. December 30, 2016.
- "Trump to order anti-hacking plan within 90 days of taking office – statement". Yahoo! News. January 6, 2017.
- "After Security Meeting, Trump Admits Possibility of Russian Hacking". The New York Times. January 6, 2017.
- Clarke, Toni; Volz, Dustin (January 8, 2017). "Trump acknowledges Russia role in U.S. election hacking: aide". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
- Shear, Michael D.; Weisman, Jonathan (January 11, 2017). "Trump Says 'I Think It Was Russia' That Hacked the Democrats". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Davis, Julie Hirschfeld; Haberman, Maggie (January 11, 2017). "Donald Trump Concedes Russia's Interference in Election". The New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
- Holmes, Oliver. "Trump on Putin's denial of meddling in US election: 'I believe him'". The Guardian. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- Liptak, Kevin; Merica, Dan. "Trump says he believes Putin's election meddling denials". CNN. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
- "Trump backs US spy agencies after Putin meddling remark". BBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- Wagner, John (November 12, 2017). "Former U.S. intelligence officials: Trump being 'played' by Putin". Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- Withnall, Adam; Sengupta, Kim (January 12, 2017). "The 10 key Donald Trump allegations from the classified Russia memos". The Independent. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Bertrand, Natasha (January 10, 2017). "Trump briefed on unverified claims that Russian operatives have compromising information on him". Business Insider. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- Bertrand, Natasha (September 30, 2019). "The Russia Hawk in the White House". Politico. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- Mackey, Robert (July 16, 2018). "Trump and Putin Met in Helsinki's Hall of Mirrors. Here Are the Highlights". The Intercept. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- Blake, Aaron (July 17, 2018). "The growing Trump-Putin kompromat question". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- Sheth, Sonam (August 30, 2019). "US spies say Trump's G7 performance suggests he's either a 'Russian asset' or a 'useful idiot' for Putin". Business Insider. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Sheth, Sonam (August 27, 2019). "Russia came out the winner of this year's G7 summit, and Trump looked like 'Putin's puppet'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- "Clapper: I wonder if Russians have something on Trump". CNN. July 19, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Sevastopulo, Demetri; Hille, Kathrin (July 20, 2018). "Trump-Putin: Will Helsinki prove a turning point for the Republicans?". Financial Times. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Boot, Max (January 13, 2019). "Here are 18 reasons Trump could be a Russian asset". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- DeBonis, Mike; Kim, Seung Min (October 17, 2019). "'All roads lead to Putin': Pelosi questions Trump's loyalty in White House clash". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Bergman, Ronen (January 12, 2017). "US intel sources warn Israel against sharing secrets with Trump administration". Ynetnews. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- Harris, Shane (December 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Fuels Rift With CIA Over Russian Hack". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Brian Ross; James Gordon Meek; Mike Levine; Justin Fishel (December 12, 2016). "Trump Engages CIA in War of Words Over Russian Election Hacking". ABC News. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Cassidy, John (December 12, 2016). "Trump Isolates Himself With C.I.A. Attack". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
- Ackerman, Spencer (December 11, 2016). "Intelligence figures fear Trump reprisals over assessment of Russia election role". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- "Morell calls Russia's meddling in U.S. elections 'political equivalent of 9/11'". Politico. December 13, 2016.
- Rebecca Savransky, "Former CIA spokesman: Trump's disrespect for intelligence community is 'shameful'", The Hill (December 12, 2016).
- Michael V. Hayden, "Trump is already antagonizing the intelligence community, and that's a problem", The Washington Post (December 12, 2016).
- Nelson, Louis (December 14, 2016). "McMullin: GOP ignored Russian meddling in presidential election". Politico. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Munslow, Julia (July 21, 2017). "Ex-CIA Director Hayden: Russia election meddling was 'most successful covert operation in history'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- Hayden, Michael (November 3, 2016). "Former CIA chief: Trump is Russia's useful fool". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
- Cheney, Kyle (December 12, 2016). "Electors demand intelligence briefing before Electoral College vote". Politico.
- Pelosi, Christine. "Bipartisan Electors Ask James Clapper: Release Facts on Outside Interference in U.S. Election".
- Pete Williams, "Coming Soon: The 'Real' Presidential Election", NBC News (December 15, 2016).
- * Gabriel Debenedetti & Kyle Cheney, "Clinton campaign backs call for intelligence briefing before Electoral College vote", Politico (December 12, 2016).
- Dan Merica, "Clinton campaign backs intelligence briefing for Electoral College electors", CNN (December 13, 2016).
- "Electors won't get intelligence briefing: report". The Hill. December 16, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Sanger, E.; Rick Corasaniti (June 14, 2016). "D.N.C. Says Russian Hackers Penetrated Its Files, Including Dossier on Donald Trump". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- Filipov, David (December 23, 2016). "Putin to Democratic Party: You lost, get over it". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Henry Meyer; Stepan Kravchenko (December 15, 2016). "Russia Rejects as 'Rubbish' Claims Putin Directed U.S. Hacking". Bloomberg News. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- Smith, Allan (December 16, 2016). "Russia responds to reports it hacked US election: Prove it". Business Insider. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Megyn Kelly Drills Vladimir Putin on Presidential Election Hack, Russia’s Ties With Trump (Video)". Yahoo News. June 5, 2017.
- Alexander Smith, Alexan Putin on U.S. election interference: 'I couldn't care less', NBC News (March 10, 2018).
- Putin says Jews, Ukrainians, Tatars could be behind U.S. election meddling, Associated Press (March 10, 2018).
- Alana Abramson, Putin Criticized for Remarks Insinuating Jews and Other Minority Groups Could Be Behind U.S. Election Interference, Time (March 11, 2018).
- Avi Selk, Putin condemned for saying Jews may have manipulated U.S. election, Washington Post (March 11, 2018).
- "Why some Jews in Russia don't think Putin's comment about them was anti-Semitic". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. March 12, 2018.
- Andrew Weisburd; Clint Watts; JM Berger (November 6, 2016). "Trolling for Trump: How Russia is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy". War on the Rocks.
- Nance, Malcolm (2016). The Plot to Hack America: How Putin's Cyberspies and WikiLeaks Tried to Steal the 2016 Election. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-5107-2332-0. OCLC 987592653.
- Lichtman, Allan J. (2017). The Case for Impeachment. Dey Street Books. ISBN 978-0-06-269682-3.
- Beauchamp, Zach; Zarracina, Javier; Mark, Ryan; Northrop, Amanda (December 1, 2017). A visual guide to the key events in the Trump-Russia scandal. Vox.
- Miller, Greg; Jaffe, Greg; Rucker, Philip (December 14, 2017). "Doubting the intelligence, Trump pursues Putin and leaves a Russian threat unchecked". The Washington Post.
- Entous, Adam; Nakashima, Ellen; Jaffe, Greg (December 26, 2017). "Kremlin trolls burned across the Internet as Washington debated options". The Washington Post.
- Frank, Thomas (January 12, 2018). "Secret Money: How Trump Made Millions Selling Condos To Unknown Buyers". BuzzFeed News.
- U.S. Department of Justice federal indictment against 13 Russian individuals and 3 Russian entities, February 16, 2016
- Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security, October 7, 2016
- McCain, Graham, Schumer, Reed Joint Statement on Reports That Russia Interfered with the 2016 Election, December 11, 2016
- James Comey's opening statement preceding the June 8, 2017 Senate Intelligence Committee hearing
- House Intelligence Committee Report Findings and Recommendations
- Chronological Listing of Donald Trump Jr.'s Email Exchange With Rob Goldstone
- Committee to Investigate Russia
- Indictment, July 13, 2018, indictment of 12 Russians for conspiracy, hacking, identity theft, and money laundering
- House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Report on Russian Active Measures: Majority Report, March 22, 2018—Final Report of the Republican majority
- House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Report on Russian Active Measures: Minority Views, March 26, 2018—a 98-page response by the Democratic minority
- Trump Stories: Collusion, NPR Embedded, February 8, 2018. Length: 1:06:31