Christopher David Steele (born 24 June 1964) is a British former intelligence officer with the Secret Intelligence Service MI6 from 1987 until his retirement in 2009. He ran the Russia desk at MI6 headquarters in London between 2006 and 2009. In 2009, he co-founded Orbis Business Intelligence, a London-based private intelligence firm.
|Education||Girton College, Cambridge (BA)|
|Occupation||Secret Intelligence Service (1987–2009)|
Private intelligence consultant
Trump and his supporters have claimed that U.S. intelligence community probes into Russian interference in the 2016 election were launched due to Steele's dossier. The House Intelligence Committee, then in Republican control, concluded in an April 2018 report that the probe had been triggered based on information on Trump adviser George Papadopoulos; meanwhile the February 2018 Nunes memo written by staff members for that committee reached the same conclusion.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Private sector
- 4 Steele dossier
- 4.1 Background and information gathering
- 4.2 Whistleblower
- 4.3 Post-election work on the dossier
- 4.4 Revealed identity
- 4.5 Disclosure and reactions
- 5 Personal life
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Christopher David Steele was born in the Yemeni city of Aden (then part of the Federation of South Arabia), on 24 June 1964. His parents, Perris and Janet, had met while working at the Met Office, the United Kingdom's national weather service. His paternal grandfather was a coal miner from Pontypridd in Wales. Steele spent time growing up in Aden, the Shetland Islands, and Cyprus, as well as at Wellington College, Berkshire.
Steele matriculated at Girton College, Cambridge in 1982. While at the University of Cambridge, he wrote for the student newspaper, Varsity. In the Easter term of 1986, Steele was President of the Cambridge Union debating society. He graduated with a degree in Social and Political Sciences in 1986.
Steele was recruited by MI6 directly following his graduation from Cambridge and worked for MI6 for 22 years. He worked in London at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) from 1987 to 1989. From 1990 to 1993, Steele worked under diplomatic cover as an MI6 agent in Moscow, serving at the Embassy of the United Kingdom in Moscow. Steele was an "internal traveller", visiting newly-accessible cities such as Samara and Kazan.
He returned to London in 1993, working again at the FCO until his posting with the British Embassy in Paris in 1998, where he served under diplomatic cover until 2002. But Steele's identity as an MI6 officer and a hundred and sixteen other British spies had their cover blown by an anonymously published list that Her Majesty's Government attempted to suppress through a DSMA-Notice in 1999.
In 2003, Steele was sent to Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan as part of an MI6 team, briefing Special Forces on "kill or capture" missions for Taliban targets, and also spent time teaching new MI6 recruits. Steele returned to London and between 2006 and 2009 he headed the Russia Desk at MI6.
Steele's expertise on Russia remained valued, and he served as a senior officer under John Scarlett, Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), from 2004 to 2009. Steele was a counterintelligence specialist and was selected as case officer for Alexander Litvinenko and participated in the investigation of the Litvinenko poisoning in 2006. It was Steele who quickly realised that Litvinenko's death "was a Russian state 'hit'". Twelve years later he allegedly was included himself into a hit list of the Russian Federal Security Service, along with Sergei Skripal who was poisoned in 2018 by a binary chemical weapon Novichok in Britain.
Since 2009 Steele has not been to Russia, or visited any former Soviet states and in 2012, an Orbis informant quoted an FSB-agent describing him as an "enemy of Mother Russia". Steele has refrained from travelling to the United States since his identity became public, citing the political and legal situation.
Steele has worked with Oleg Deripaska.
In March 2009, Steele with his fellow MI6-retiree Chris Burrows co-founded the private intelligence agency Orbis Business Intelligence, Ltd., based in Grosvenor Square Gardens. Between 2014 and 2016, Steele created over 100 reports on Russian and Ukrainian issues, which were read within the United States Department of State, and he was viewed as credible by the United States intelligence community. The business was commercially successful, grossing approximately $20,000,000 in the first nine years of operation.
Steele ran an investigation dubbed "Project Charlemagne", which noted Russian interference in the domestic politics of France, Italy, Germany, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Steele concluded in April 2016 that Russia was engaged in an information warfare campaign with the goal of destroying the European Union.
In 2017, Steele established a new company called Chawton Holdings, again with Christopher Burrows. In November 2018, Steele sued the German industrial group Bilfinger, alleging that the company owed €150,000 for an investigation into Bilfinger's activities in Nigeria and Sakhalin.
In 2010, The Football Association (FA), England's domestic football governing body, organized a committee in hopes of hosting the 2018 or 2022 World Cups. The FA hired Steele's company to investigate FIFA (International Federation of Association Football). In advance of the FBI launching its 2015 FIFA corruption case, members of the FBI's Eurasian Organized Crime Task Force met with Steele in London to discuss allegations of possible corruption in FIFA. Steele's research indicated that Russian Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin had rigged the bidding of the 2018 World Cups by employing bribery.
Background and information gatheringEdit
In September 2015, the Washington Free Beacon, a conservative publication, retained the services of Fusion GPS, a private Washington D.C. political research firm, to conduct research on several primary Republican Party candidates including Trump. The research was not primarily related to Russia and was ended once Trump was determined to be the presidential nominee.
The firm was subsequently hired by the Hillary Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee through their shared attorney at Perkins Coie, Marc Elias. Fusion GPS then hired Steele to investigate Trump's Russia-related activities, and it was this investigation that produced what became known as the Steele dossier.
In September 2016, Steele held a series of off the record meetings with journalists from The New York Times, The Washington Post, Yahoo! News, The New Yorker and CNN. In October 2016, Steele spoke about his discoveries to David Corn of the progressive American political magazine Mother Jones. Steele said he decided to pass his dossier to both British and American intelligence officials after concluding that the material should not just be in the hands of political opponents of Trump, but was a matter of national security for both countries. Corn's resulting 31 October article in Mother Jones was the first to publicly mention some information which became part of the dossier, although the article did not disclose Steele's identity. The magazine did not publish the dossier itself, however, or detail its allegations, since they could not be verified.
Steele's reaction to the revelations from his sources has been described as that of a whistleblower. Steele has stated that he soon found "troubling information indicating connections between Trump and the Russian government". According to his sources, "there was an established exchange of information between the Trump campaign and the Kremlin of mutual benefit". According to Harding, "Steele was shocked by the extent of collusion his sources were reporting", and told his friends: "For anyone who reads it, this is a life-changing experience." Steele felt that what he had unearthed "was something of huge significance, way above party politics." American reporter Howard Blum described Steele's rationale for becoming a whistleblower: "The greater good trumps all other concerns."
On his own initiative, Steele decided to also pass the information to British and American intelligence services because he believed the findings were a matter of national security for both countries. According to Simpson's testimony, Steele, who enjoyed a good working reputation "for the knowledge he had developed over nearly 20 years working on Russia-related issues for British intelligence, approached the FBI because he was concerned that Trump, then a candidate, was being blackmailed by Russia, and he became "very concerned about whether this represented a national security threat".
In relation to a defamation lawsuit filed by Aleksej Gubarev against BuzzFeed, regarding their publication of the dossier, Senior Master Barbara Fontaine said Steele was "in many respects in the same position as a whistle-blower" because of his actions "in sending part of the dossier to Senator John McCain and a senior government national security official, and in briefing sections of the US media."
Post-election work on the dossierEdit
Steele continued to work for Fusion GPS on the dossier without a client to pay him. After the election, Steele's dossier "became one of Washington's worst-kept secrets, and journalists worked to verify the allegations. On 18 November 2016, Sir Andrew Wood, British ambassador to Moscow from 1995 to 2000, met with U.S. Senator John McCain at the Halifax International Security Forum in Canada, and told McCain about the existence of the collected materials about Trump. Wood vouched for Steele's professionalism and integrity. In early December, McCain obtained a copy of the dossier from David J. Kramer, a former U.S. State Department official working at Arizona State University. On 9 December 2016, McCain met personally with FBI Director James Comey to pass on the information.
In a second memo Steele wrote in November 2016, after the termination of his contract with Fusion, he reported that Russian officials had claimed that Russia had blocked Donald Trump from nominating Mitt Romney to be his Secretary of State, due to Romney's hawkishness on Russia.
On 11 January 2017, The Wall Street Journal revealed that Steele was the author of the dossier about Trump, citing "people familiar with the matter". Although the dossier's existence had been "common knowledge" among journalists for months at that point and had become public knowledge during the previous week, Steele's name had not been revealed. The Telegraph asserted that Steele's anonymity had been "fatally compromised" after CNN published his nationality.
The Independent reported that Steele left his home in England several hours before his name was published as the author of the dossier, as he was fearful of retaliation by Russian authorities. In contrast, The Washington Post reported that he left after he had been identified earlier in the day by the initial Wall Street Journal report.
Christopher Burrows, director of Orbis Business Intelligence, Ltd., said he would not "confirm or deny" that Orbis had produced the dossier.
Steele's relationship with the FBI ended, variously associated with either the public revelation of Steele's identity, or Steele's release of information to the press, or Steele's denial to the FBI of having spoken to the press. One source dates this event to late October 2016.
On 7 March 2017, as some members of the United States Congress were expressing interest in meeting with or hearing testimony from Steele, he reemerged after weeks in hiding, appearing publicly on camera and stating, "I'm really pleased to be back here working again at the Orbis's offices in London today".
Disclosure and reactionsEdit
In early January 2017, a two-page summary of the dossier was presented to President Barack Obama and incoming President Donald Trump in meetings with Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, FBI Director James Comey, CIA Director John Brennan, and NSA Director Admiral Mike Rogers.
On 10 January 2017, BuzzFeed was the first media outlet to publish the full 35-page dossier. In publishing the Trump dossier, BuzzFeed said it had been unable to verify or corroborate the allegations. The UK issued a DSMA notice on 10 January 2017, requesting that the media not release Steele's identity, although the BBC and other UK news media released the information in news stories the same day. Trump vigorously denied the dossier's allegations, calling it “fake news” during a press conference. Vladimir Putin also dismissed the claims.
Ynet, an Israeli online news site, reported that American intelligence advised Israeli intelligence officers to be cautious about sharing information with the incoming Trump administration, until the possibility of Russian influence over Trump, suggested by Steele's report, has been fully investigated.
Former British ambassador to Russia, Sir Tony Brenton, read Steele's report. Speaking on Sky News he said, "I've seen quite a lot of intelligence on Russia, and there are some things in it which look pretty shaky". Brenton expressed some doubts due to discrepancies in how the dossier described aspects of the hacking activities, as well as Steele's ability to penetrate the Kremlin and Russian security agencies, given that he is an outsider.
On 15 March 2017, former Acting CIA Director Michael Morell raised questions about the dossier. He was concerned about the accuracy of the information, due to the approach taken by Steele to gather it. Steele gave money to intermediaries and the intermediaries paid the sources. Morell said, "Unless you know the sources, and unless you know how a particular source acquired a particular piece of information, you can't judge the information—you just can't." Morell continues to believe that Russia attempted to influence the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
Role in the origins of the FBI's Russia investigationEdit
Although the dossier later became one factor among many in the Russia investigation, it had no role in the start of the investigation. This fact has been the subject of intense discussion and controversy, largely fueled by false claims made by Trump and his supporters.
In early February 2018, the Nunes memo, written by aides of Republican U.S. Representative Devin Nunes (who was at the time the Chair of the House Intelligence Committee), described that the information on George Papadopoulos "triggered the opening of" the original FBI investigation in late July 2016 into links between the Trump campaign and Russia. In late February 2018, a rebuttal memo by Democrats in the House Intelligence Committee stated that "Christopher Steele's reporting ... played no role in launching the counterintelligence investigation ... In fact, Steele's reporting did not reach the counterintelligence team investigating Russia at FBI headquarters until mid-September 2016, more than seven weeks after the FBI opened its investigation, because the probe's existence was so closely held within the FBI."
In April 2018, the House Intelligence Committee, then under Republican control, released a final report on Russian interference in the 2016 election; the report said the House Intelligence Committee had found that "in late July 2016, the FBI opened an enterprise CI [counterintelligence] investigation into the Trump campaign following the receipt of derogatory information about foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos".
Role in subsequent investigationsEdit
In the summer of 2017, two Republican staffers for the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence travelled to London to investigate the dossier, visiting the office of Steele's lawyer but not meeting with Steele. In August 2018, Representative Devin Nunes, Chair of the House Intelligence Committee, travelled to London in an attempt to meet with the heads of MI5, MI6, and GCHQ for information about Steele, but was rebuffed by the three agencies.
Steele reportedly revealed the identities of the sources used in the dossier to the FBI. Investigators from Robert Mueller's Special Counsel investigation team met with Steele in September 2017 to interview him about the dossier's claims. The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is in continued contact with lawyers representing Steele.
Over the course of two days in June 2019, Steele was interviewed in London by investigators from the United States Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General regarding the Trump–Russia dossier. They found his testimony surprising and his "information sufficiently credible to have to extend the investigation".
In August 2017, lawyers for Gubarev demanded Steele give a deposition regarding the dossier, as part of a libel lawsuit against BuzzFeed News filed in February. Steele objected to testifying but his objections were rejected by U.S. District Court Judge Ursula Mancusi Ungaro, who allowed the deposition to proceed.
In April 2018, Mikhail Fridman, Petr Aven, and German Khan—the owners of Alfa Bank—filed a libel suit against Steele, who mentioned the bank in the Trump–Russia dossier. The lawsuit is filed in Washington D.C. The lawsuit was dismissed by Judge Anthony C. Epstein on August 20, 2018.
Senate Republicans' referral for a criminal investigationEdit
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
On 5 January 2018, Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley, joined by senior Republican member Lindsey Graham, issued a criminal referral regarding Steele to the Justice Department for it to investigate whether Steele had lied to the FBI about his interactions with the media. Because the referral is based on classified FBI documents, the context in which the Republican senators allege Steele to have lied is limited to references that he discussed the dossier with media outlets. Both Grassley and Graham declared that they were not alleging Steele "had committed any crime. Rather, they had passed on the information for 'further investigation only'".
The referral was met with skepticism from legal experts, as well as members of both parties on the Judiciary Committee. Fusion GPS lawyer Joshua A. Levy said the referral was just another effort to discredit the investigation into Russian interference in the election and that: "After a year of investigations into Donald Trump's ties to Russia, the only person Republicans seek to accuse of wrongdoing is one who reported on these matters to law enforcement in the first place". Veteran prosecutor Peter Zeidenberg called the referral "nonsense" because "the FBI doesn't need any prompting from politicians to prosecute people who have lied to them." Another former federal prosecutor, Justin Dillon, said that "it was too early to assume the letter was simply a political attack". The senior Democrat on the Committee, Dianne Feinstein, said that the referral was made without consultation of any Democrats on the committee and released a five-page rebuttal. A Republican aide said Grassley and Graham were "carrying water for the White House"; that their actions did not reflect the views of the committee as a whole; and that other members were upset with Grassley over the matter.
In an opinion-editorial for Politico, former CIA official John Sipher said the attacks on Steele, a private citizen who provided information to the FBI that alarmed him, will make future tipsters less likely to approach American law enforcement with information that bears on national security.
U.S. Inspector General findingsEdit
On December 9, 2019, U.S. Inspector General Michael Horowitz testified to the House Judiciary Committee that despite making 17 mistakes in their applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISA), the FBI showed no political bias during the investigation of Trump and the Russian government. A redacted version of his report was released the same day.
Steele had been a paid confidential human source for the FBI before preparing the Steele dossier, and the FBI found "Steele's information to be valuable and that it warranted compensation", with Steele receiving $95,000 from the FBI between 2014 and 2016 for information on previous matters unrelated to Trump. From information in the report, ABC News determined that Steele and Ivanka Trump had had a business and personal relationship from 2007 for a number of years.
One of the report's findings related to conflicting accounts of sourced content in the dossier. When one of Steele's sources was later interviewed by the FBI about the allegations sourced to them, they gave accounts which conflicted with Steele's renderings in the dossier. They indicated that Steele "misstated or exaggerated" the source's statements.
The IG found it difficult to discern the causes for the discrepancies between some dossier allegations and explanations later provided to the FBI by the sources for those allegations. The IG attributed the discrepancies to three possible factors: miscommunication between Steele and the sources, "exaggerations or misrepresentations" by Steele, or misrepresentations by the sources when questioned by the FBI.
Another factor was described by the Supervisory Intel Analyst, who believed that someone described as "one of the key sources" for the dossier "may have been attempting to minimize his/her role in the election reporting following its release to the public." That person had been the source for "the alleged meeting between Carter Page and Igor Divyekin" and the "allegations concerning Michael Cohen and events in Prague".
His first wife, Laura, with whom he had three children, died in 2009 after a long illness. He remarried in 2012; he and his second wife Katherine had one child and are raising all four children together. He currently lives in Farnham, Surrey.
- "Trump dossier: Christopher Steele, ex-MI6 officer, named as author". The Guardian. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Bradley, Hope; Rothfeld, Michael; Cullison, Alan (11 January 2017). "Christopher Steele, Ex-British Intelligence Officer, Said to Have Prepared Dossier on Trump". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Robertson, Lori (27 March 2019). "Dossier Not What 'Started All of This'". factcheck.org. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Kiely, Eugene (27 February 2018). "Trump's Spin on Democratic Memo". factcheck.org. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Dilanian, Ken (23 July 2018). "Why Trump is wrong about Carter Page, the dossier and the FISA warrant". NBC News. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Yen, Hope; Woodward, Calvin; Tucker, Eric (1 April 2019). "AP Fact Check: Trump's exaggerations about the Russia probe". Associated Press. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Qiu, Linda (21 May 2018). "Trump Falsely Claims Russia Investigation Started Because of Steele Dossier". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Mayer, Jane (12 March 2018). "Christopher Steele, the Man Behind the Trump Dossier". The New Yorker. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
- The Diplomatic Service List. H.M. Stationery Office. 1996. p. 235.
Steele, Christopher David; Second later First Secretary FCO since April 1993; born 24.6.64; FCO 1987; Second Secretary (Chancery) Moscow 1990; FCO 1987; m 1990 Laura Katharine Hunt.
- Harding, Luke (15 November 2017). "How Trump walked into Putin's web". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017.
- Dawson, Hannah (13 January 2017). "Everything we know about Christopher Steele, the Cambridge MI6 spy". The Tab. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017.
- Parkinson, Stephen (2009). Arena of Ambition: A History of the Cambridge Union. Icon. p. 368. ISBN 978-1848310612.
- Blum, Howard (April 2017). "How Ex-Spy Christopher Steele Compiled His Explosive Trump-Russia Dossier". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- The Cambridge University List of Members
- Harding, Luke; Sabbagh, Dan (1 November 2019). "Trump-Russia dossier author gave evidence to UK intrusion inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- Rayner, Gordon (13 January 2017). "Who is Christopher Steele, the former British spy who created the Donald Trump Russia dossier?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Cox, Joseph (13 January 2017). "UK Asks Journalists to Not Name Ex-Agent Allegedly Behind Trump Report". Vice News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017.
- "List of MI6 Officers". Cryptome. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017.
Christopher David Steele: 90 Moscow; dob 1964.
- Norton-Taylor, By Richard (13 May 1999). "MI6: The nightmare scenario as a rogue agent goes public". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- Behar, Richard (11 January 2017). "Could This Be The British Ex-MI6 Agent Behind The Trump FBI Memos?". Forbes. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
A diplomatic service list published by the British government shows that Steele, 52, was posted to the U.K.'s Moscow embassy in 1990 with the title of "Second Secretary (Chancery)."
- "Ex-MI6 officer Christopher Steele in hiding after Trump dossier". BBC News. 12 January 2017. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017.
- Diplomatic Service Administration Office (1999). The Diplomatic Service List. p. 297.
Steele, Christopher David; First Secretary (Financial) Paris since September 1998; born 24.6.64; FCO 1987; Second Secretary (Chancery) Moscow 1990; Second later First Secretary FCO 1993; First Secretary Bangkok 1998; m 1990 Laura Katharine Hunt (2s 1996, 1998).
- Nick Hopkins & Luke Harding (12 January 2017). "Donald Trump dossier: intelligence sources vouch for author's credibility". The Guardian.
Over a career that spanned more than 20 years, Steele performed a series of roles, but always appeared to be drawn back to Russia; he was, sources say, head of MI6's Russia desk.
- "Russian ex-spy says he was on Kremlin 'hit list' along with poisoned Skripal".
- Haynes, Deborah (10 October 2018). "Ex-MI6 spy's veiled swipe at Donald Trump revealed". Sky News. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018.
The former intelligence officer indicated he is unable to travel to the US at a time of deep divisions between Republicans and Democrats over the Russia probe.
- Bertrand, Natasha. "Senate Intelligence Committee summons mysterious British security consultant". POLITICO. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
- Hosenball, Mark (12 January 2017). "Former MI-6 spy known to U.S. agencies is author of reports on Trump in Russia". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017.
After he left the spy service, Steele supplied the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) with information on corruption at FIFA, international soccer's governing body.
- Silvera, Ian (28 June 2017). "British spy behind Donald Trump dossier creates new company with a Jane Austen link". International Business Times.
Public records show that Steele has set up Chawton Holdings with his business partner and fellow former intelligence officer, Christopher Burrows.
- Harding, Luke (8 November 2018). "Trump dossier author suing engineering firm for alleged unpaid work". The Guardian.
- Bensinger, Ken (6 June 2018). "Did Russia Steal the World Cup?". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Isikoff, Michael (11 January 2017). "The British ex-spy behind the Trump dossier was an FBI asset". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017.
- Rayner, Gordon (12 January 2017). "Former MI6 officer Christopher Steele, who produced Donald Trump Russian dossier, 'terrified for his safety' and went to ground before name released". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Krieg, Gregory (28 October 2017). "Clinton, the DNC and the making of the 'Trump dossier'—what we know". CNN. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- "Donald Trump dossier casts a shadow over MI6 and Christopher Steele, the man it trusted in Moscow". The Telegraph. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Corn, David (31 October 2016). "A Veteran Spy Has Given the FBI Information Alleging a Russian Operation to Cultivate Donald Trump". Mother Jones.
- Taibbi, Matt (13 January 2017). "The Russia Story Reaches a Crisis Point". Rolling Stone.
- Corn, David (31 October 2016). "A Veteran Spy Has Given the FBI Information Alleging a Russian Operation to Cultivate Donald Trump". Mother Jones. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Borger, Julian (15 November 2017). "Christopher Steele believes his dossier on Trump-Russia is 70-90% accurate". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
- Blum, Howard (30 March 2017). "How Ex-Spy Christopher Steele Compiled His Explosive Trump-Russia Dossier". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
- Levine, Mike (12 January 2018). "FBI vets: What many are missing about the infamous 'dossier' amid Russia probe". ABC News. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
Chris said he was very concerned about whether this represented a national security threat and said ... he thought we were obligated to tell someone in government, in our government about this information," Glenn Simpson, the man who hired Steele to conduct opposition research on Trump, told Senate staffers in a transcript released Tuesday. "He said he was professionally obligated to do it.
- Sengupta, Kim (13 January 2017). "Ex-MI6 agent so worried by his Donald Trump discoveries he started working without pay". The Independent. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, Rosalind S. (28 February 2017). "FBI once planned to pay former British spy who authored controversial Trump dossier". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
- Herb, Jeremy; Raju, Manu; Cohen, Marshall (10 January 2018). "Fusion co-founder: Dossier author feared Trump was being blackmailed". CNN. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
Chris said he was very concerned about whether this represented a national security threat and said he wanted to -- he said he thought we were obligated to tell someone in government, in our government about this information," Simpson said. "He thought from his perspective there was an issue -- a security issue about whether a presidential candidate was being blackmailed."
- "Former British spy to provide evidence for BuzzFeed libel trial in US". Bailiwick Express. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
- Confessore, Scott Shane, Nicholas; Rosenberg, Matthew (11 January 2017). "How a Sensational, Unverified Dossier Became a Crisis for Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Edwards, Jim (11 January 2017). "Timeline: That Russian Trump blackmail dossier has been making the rounds for months—here is how it finally came to light". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Sengupta, Kim (12 January 2017). "Revealed: former British ambassador Sir Andrew Wood's key role in Trump investigation". The Independent. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- Barry, Rob; Holliday, Shelby (8 March 2018). "Russian Trolls Tried to Torpedo Mitt Romney's Shot at Secretary of State". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018.
According to the report, Mr. Steele created another, previously unreleased memo in late November 2016, which said the Kremlin "intervened to block" Mr. Trump's choice of Mr. Romney for secretary of state. The memo is attributed to a single source described as "a senior Russian official."
- Adam, Karla (12 January 2017). "This former British spy was identified as the Trump dossier source. Now he is in hiding". The Washington Post.
- Nichols, Hans. "Former British Spy Christopher Steele Prepared Explosive Trump Memo". NBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, Rosalind S. (28 February 2017). "FBI once planned to pay former British spy who authored controversial Trump dossier". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Lavender, Paige (2 February 2018). "Read The GOP's Controversial Secret FISA Memo". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Andrew C. McCarthy. Grassley–Graham Memo Affirms Nunes Memo—Media Yawns. National Review. 10 February 2018.
- "Ex-British spy Christopher Steele breaks silence over Trump Russia dossier". The Independent. 7 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
- Robson, Steve; Bucktin, Christopher; Sassoon, Louise (12 January 2017). "CIA 'believes Russia has more than one Donald Trump sex tape and second source claims it DOES exist'". Mirror Online.
- Gessen, Masha (14 January 2017). "Lessons From Russia: Verify Everything, Don't Publish Rumors". The New York Times.
- "The Register on Twitter". Twitter. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
US media names ex-MI6 agent as source of the CNN/BuzzFeed dossier on Trump. UK media gets a D-Notice ...
- Jamieson, Amber (11 January 2017). "'You are fake news': Trump attacks CNN and BuzzFeed at press conference". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Chaplain, Chloe (18 January 2017). "Vladimir Putin: Russian prostitutes are the best in the world". Evening Standard. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Bergman, Ronen (12 January 2017). "US intel sources warn Israel against sharing secrets with Trump administration". Ynet.
- "Trump dossier 'shaky'—former British envoy". Sky News. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Dilanian, Ken (16 March 2017). "Clinton Ally Michael Morell says no evidence of Trump–Russia collusion". NBC News. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Rupar, Aaron (22 March 2019). "Fox News has normalized a lie about the origins of the Russia investigation". Vox.
- Cassidy, John (2 February 2018). "The Nunes Memo Undermines the Right's Trump-Russia Conspiracy Theory". The New Yorker. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Multiple sources:
- "We annotated the full Nunes memo on the Russia probe". PBS. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
The memo underscores the intensifying partisan debate over special counsel Robert Mueller's probe into the Trump campaign's possible ties to Russia. ... The Papadopoulos information triggered the opening of an FBI counterintelligence investigation in late July 2016 by FBI agent Pete Strzok.
- Emmons, Alex; Aaronson, Trevor (2 February 2018). "Nunes memo accidentally confirms the legitimacy of the FBI's investigation". The Intercept. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
Despite rhetoric that could help to undermine Mueller's investigation, the Nunes memo specifically says that George Papadopoulos sparked the counterintelligence investigation that ultimately led to the resignation of National Security Adviser Michael Flynn, the firing of FBI Director James Comey, and the appointment of Mueller as special counsel.
- French, David (2 February 2018). "The Big Flaw in the Memo". National Review. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
Well, if the newly released Nunes memo is correct, House Republicans and the Trump administration just confirmed the Times' scoop ... Ironically enough, the memo in fact confirms the necessity of the Special Counsel Robert Mueller.
- Yuhas, Alex. "What is the Devin Nunes memo about and how does it affect Trump?". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
The four-page document released on Friday is at the heart of a firestorm over Donald Trump, Russia and special counsel Robert Mueller. What's in it? ... the memo acknowledges that Papadopoulos, not Page, "triggered the opening of an FBI counterintelligence investigation in late July 2016".
- Easley, Jonathan. "Memo: Papadopoulos info triggered FBI's Russia investigation". The Hill. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
according to the memo released Friday by House Intelligence Committee Republicans ... Russia investigation itself—and by extension, special counsel Robert Mueller's probe—was launched from ... 'information' about Papadapoulos, rather than the dossier.
- Levitz, Eric. "6 Quick Takeaways From the Nunes Memo". New York. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
But the memo doesn't just fail to discredit the investigation into the Trump campaign—it actually confirms its validity. The core of the GOP's argument against the Mueller probe has been that it was based on unsubstantiated allegations gathered by a Clinton operative. The memo suggests this might be true of the Carter Page warrant—but not of the broader investigation.
- Tucker, Eric; Jalonick, Mary; Day, Chad. "Trump claims memo 'totally vindicates' him in Russia probe". Associated Press. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
Even as Democrats described it as inaccurate, some Republicans quickly cited the memo—released over the objections of the FBI and Justice Department—in their arguments that Mueller's investigation is politically tainted. A closer read presents a far more nuanced picture ... the memo confirms the FBI's counterintelligence investigation into the Trump campaign began in July 2016, months before the surveillance warrant was sought, and was "triggered" by information concerning campaign aide George Papadopoulos.
- "We annotated the full Nunes memo on the Russia probe". PBS. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- Philips, Amber (24 February 2018). "Read the Democratic rebuttal to the Nunes memo, annotated". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- Prokop, Andrew (24 February 2018). "Read: Democrats' response to the Nunes memo was just released". Vox. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Report on Active Russian Measures" (PDF). House Intelligence Committee. 22 March 2018. p. 47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- Watkins, Ali (4 August 2017). "Hunt for Trump dossier author inflames Russia probe". Politico. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- Bertrand, Natasha (28 August 2018). "Devin Nunes's Curious Trip to London". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018.
- Hosenball, Mark (28 August 2018). Graff, Peter (ed.). "Congressman Nunes sought meeting with UK spy chiefs in London". Reuters.
- Sampathkumar, Mythili (23 August 2017). "Trump-Russia dossier sources revealed to the FBI by Christopher Steele". The Independent. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017.
The 35-page document contained several unsubstantiated allegations about Mr Trump, specifically a 2013 trip to Moscow and Mr Steele provided names of the sources of those claims, ABC News reported.
- Lanktree, Graham (6 October 2017). "Robert Mueller's Team Interview Trump Dossier's Christopher Steele". Newsweek.
- Perez, Evan; Prokupecz, Shimon; Brown, Pamela (5 October 2017). "Exclusive: Mueller's team met with Russia dossier author". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017.
Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigators met this past summer with the former British spy whose dossier on alleged Russian efforts to aid the Trump campaign spawned months of investigations that have hobbled the Trump administration, according to two people familiar with the matter.
- Loop, Emma. "The Senate Intel Committee Is In Regular Contact With The Trump–Russia Dossier Author". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018.
- Bertrand, Natasha (9 July 2019). "Trump dossier author Steele gets 16-hour DOJ grilling". Politico.
- Hosenball, Mark (9 July 2019). Drawbaugh, Kevin; Grebler, Dan (eds.). "Trump 'dossier' author grilled by Justice Department watchdogs: sources". Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019.
- Hall, Kevin G.; Goldstein, David; Gordon, Greg (3 February 2017). "BuzzFeed sued over its publication of uncorroborated Trump dossier". McClatchyDC. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- Gerstein, Josh (10 August 2017). "Legal fight breaks out over deposition of Trump dossier author Christopher Steele". Politico. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- Aleksej Gubarev, XBT Holdings S.A., and Webzilla, Inc. v. BuzzFeed, Inc, and Ben Smith (United States District Court, Southern District of Florida, Miami Division 10 August 2017). Text
- Ungaro, Ursula (10 August 2017). "Aleksej Gubarev, XBT Hodings S.A., and Webzilla, Inc. v. BuzzFeed, Inc. and Ben Smith - Request for International Judicial Assistance" (PDF). Retrieved 21 August 2018 – via Politico.
- Gerstein, Josh (15 August 2017). "Judge denies Trump dossier author's bid to scuttle deposition". Politico. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Bolado, Carolina (15 August 2017). "UK Man Tied To Trump Dossier Must Testify In BuzzFeed Row". Law360. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
A Florida federal judge declined Tuesday to allow a British security company director who is widely believed to have compiled a dossier alleging Russia has compromising information on President Donald Trump to intervene in a Russian technology executive's defamation suit against BuzzFeed over the publication of his name in the dossier.
- Polantz, Katelyn (20 April 2018). "3 Russian oligarchs sue Christopher Steele". CNN. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Harding, Luke (21 August 2018). "Author of Trump-Russia dossier wins libel case in US court". The Guardian.
On Monday, a judge in the District of Columbia, Anthony C Epstein, upheld a motion by Steele to have the oligarchs' case thrown out.
- Epstein, Anthony C. (20 August 2018). "Khan v Orbis - Order 082018" (PDF). Superior Court of the District of Columbia. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- Grassley, Charles E.; Graham, Lindsey O. (2 February 2018). "Referral of Christopher Steele for Potential Violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1001" (PDF). United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2018.
- Bernstein, Aaron P. (5 January 2018). "Grassley, Graham Refer Dossier Author Christopher Steele for Criminal Investigation". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
In a shocking move Friday afternoon, GOP Senators Chuck Grassley and Lindsey Graham referred the so-called "Trump dossier" writer Christopher Steele for criminal investigation. They are referring him to the Justice Department for what they say are potential violations regarding inconsistencies Steele made in statements provided to authorities.
- Barrett, Devlin; Hamburger, Tom (5 January 2018). "Senior Republican refers Trump dossier author for possible charges". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
Their letter makes what's called a criminal referral to the Justice Department, suggesting they investigate the dossier author, former British spy Christopher Steele, for possibly lying to the FBI.
- Fandos, Nicholas; Rosenberg, Matthew (5 January 2018). "Republican Senators Raise Possible Charges Against Author of Trump Dossier". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- "Senators urge Trump dossier author probe". BBC News. 5 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Analysis Refutes Criminal Referral of Christopher Steele" (PDF). United States Senate. 9 February 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018.
- "The Smearing of Christopher Steele". Politico. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- "Read the full text: Justice Department watchdog report into origins of Russia probe". NBC News.
- Barrett, Devlin; security, closeDevlin BarrettReporter focusing on national; Zapotosky, law enforcementEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollowMatt; Demirjian, closeMatt ZapotoskyNational security reporter covering the Justice DepartmentEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollowKaroun; reporterEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollow, closeKaroun DemirjianCongressional reporter focusing on national securityEmailEmailBioBioFollowFollowEllen Nakashima closeEllen NakashimaNational security. "FBI was justified in opening Trump campaign probe, but case plagued by 'serious failures,' inspector general finds". Washington Post.
- Breuninger, Kevin (9 December 2019). "Justice Department watchdog finds Trump-Russia probe was not tainted by political bias". CNBC.
- Lynch, Sarah N.; Sullivan, Andy; Hosenball, Mark (9 December 2019). "Mistakes, but no political bias in FBI probe of Trump campaign: watchdog". Reuters. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Justice (9 December 2019). "Review of Four FISA Applications and Other Aspects of the FBI's Crossfire Hurricane Investigation" (PDF). Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Haynes, Deborah (10 December 2019). "'Trump hater' ex-MI6 officer who compiled Russia dossier was a friend of Ivanka". Sky News. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Macfarlane, Julia (9 December 2019). "'Dossier' author Chris Steele met Ivanka Trump years before Russia scandal, source says". ABC News. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Harding, Luke (9 December 2019). "Steele had 'personal' relationship with Ivanka Trump, DoJ report reveals". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Sipher, John (5 February 2018). "The Smearing of Christopher Steele." Politico.
- Hamburger, Tom; Helderman, Rosalind S. (6 February 2018). "Hero or hired gun? How a British former spy became a flash point in the Russia investigation." The Washington Post.
- Mayer, Jane (12 March 2018). "Christopher Steele, the Man Behind the Trump Dossier". The New Yorker.
- Bensinger, Ken (2018): Red Card: How the U.S. Blew the Whistle on the World's Biggest Sports Scandal, Simon and Schuster.