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The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

Athletics
100 metres
London 2012 Olympic 100m final start.jpg
Start of the men's 100 metres final at the 2012 Olympic Games.
Men's records
World Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
Olympic Jamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
World United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.49 (1988)
Olympic United States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.62 (1988)
Women's 100M Final - 28th Summer Universiade 2015

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world". The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. American Justin Gatlin and Tori Bowie are the reigning world champions; Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson are the Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have also dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times.

Contents

Race dynamicsEdit

StartEdit

 
Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[1][2][3]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[4] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[5] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[6][7]

Mid-raceEdit

Runners normally reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[8] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

FinishEdit

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[9] When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditionsEdit

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A".[10]

10-second barrierEdit

Sex and ethnicityEdit

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (an Indigenous Australian with Irish heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[11][12][13][14]

In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier. In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.

Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting.[15] Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[16] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[17]

Record performancesEdit

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[18] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final in Berlin, Germany on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[19] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, at the 1988 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988[20] breaking Evelyn Ashford's four-year-old world record by .27 seconds. The extraordinary nature of this result and those of several other sprinters in this race raised the possibility of a technical malfunction with the wind gauge which read at 0.0 m/s- a reading which was at complete odds to the windy conditions on the day with high wind speeds being recorded in all other sprints before and after this race as well as the parallel long jump runway at the time of the Griffith-Joyner performance. All scientific studies commissioned by the IAAF and independent organizations since have confirmed there was certainly an illegal tailwind of between 5 m/s - 7 m/s at the time. This should have annulled the legality of this result, although the IAAF has chosen not to take this course of action. The legitimate next best wind legal performance would therefore be Griffith-Joyner's 10.61s performance in the final the next day.[21]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Greene were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental recordsEdit

Updated 5 July 2015.[22]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba   Nigeria 10.78 +1.6 Murielle Ahoure   Ivory Coast
Asia (records) 9.91 +1.8 Femi Ogunode   Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei   People's Republic of China
9.91 +0.6 Femi Ogunode   Qatar
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu   Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron   France
9.86 +1.3 Jimmy Vicaut   France
9.86 +1.8 Jimmy Vicaut   France
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt   Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner   United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson   Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen   Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva   Brazil 11.01 +1.4 Ana Cláudia Lemos   Brazil

NotesEdit

All-time top 25 menEdit

 
Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
  • Correct as of June 2017.[24]
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Place Ref
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain Bolt   Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay   United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
−0.1 Yohan Blake   Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell   Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne
5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin   United States 15 May 2015 Doha
6 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter   Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti
7 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene   United States 16 June 1999 Athens
8 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings   Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene
9 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson   Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain
+1.3 Christian Coleman   United States 7 June 2017 Eugene [25]
11 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey   Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin   Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.3 Trayvon Bromell   United States 25 June 2015 Eugene
+1.6 3 July 2016 [26]
14 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell   United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba   Nigeria 12 May 2006 Doha
+1.3 Mike Rodgers   United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
17 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis   United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks   Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon   Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu   Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman   Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut   France 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis
23 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie   United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
−0.2 Obadele Thompson [A]   Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
25 9.88 +1.8 Shawn Crawford   United States 19 June 2004 Eugene
+1.0 Walter Dix   United States 8 August 2010 Nottwil
+0.9 Ryan Bailey   United States 29 August 2010 Rieti
+1.0 Michael Frater   Jamaica 30 June 2011 Lausanne
9.88 A +0.2 Sydney Siame   Zambia 8 April 2017 Lusaka [27]

More facts about these male runnersEdit

  • Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record). He also ran times of 9.63 (2012), 9.69, 9.72 (2008), 9.76 (2008, 2011, 2012), 9.77 (2008, 2013), 9.79 (2009, 2012, 2015), 9.80 (2013), 9.81 (2009, 2016), 9.82 (2010, 2012), 9.83 (2008), 9.84 (2010), 9.85 (2008, 2011, 2013), 9.86 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2016), 9.87 (2012, 2015) and 9.88 (2011, 2016)
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006. He also ran times of 9.74 (2015), 9.75 (2015), 9.77 (2014), 9.78 (2015), 9.79 (2012), 9.80 (2014, 2015, 2016), 9.82 (2014), 9.83 (2014, 2015), 9.85 (2004, 2013), 9.86 (2014), 9.88 (2005)
  • Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognised as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
  • Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
  • Dwain Chambers time of 9.87 (+2.0) on 14 September 2002 in Paris was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.
  • Jimmy Vicaut also ran 9.86 and 9.88 in June 2016.

Assisted marksEdit

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (9.80 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.45 (+20 m/s) in 2011 on the Japanese TV show Kasupe! assisted by wind machines blowing at speeds over 25 meters per second.[28]
  • Tyson Gay (USA) ran 9.68 (+4.1 m/s) on 29 June 2008 during the U.S. Olympic Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon[29]
  • Andre De Grasse (CAN) ran 9.69 (+4.8 m/s) on 18 June 2017 during Diamond League in Stockholm[30] and 9.75 (+2.7 m/s) on 12 June 2015 at the NCAA Championships in Eugene, Oregon.
  • Obadele Thompson (BAR) ran 9.69 (+5.7 m/s) in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100 metres time for 12 years.
  • Richard Thompson (TTO) ran a wind-assisted 9.74 (exact wind unknown) in Clermont on 31 May 2014.
  • Darvis Patton (USA) ran 9.75 (+4.3 m/s) in Austin, Texas on 30 March 2013.
  • Churandy Martina (AHO) ran 9.76 at altitude (+6.1 m/s) in El Paso on 13 May 2006.
  • Trayvon Bromell (USA) ran 9.76 (+3.7 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015.
  • Carl Lewis (USA) ran 9.78 (+5.2 m/s) at the 1988 U.S. Olympic Trials in Indianapolis.
  • Andre Cason (USA) twice ran 9.79 (+4.5 m/s) and (+5.3 m/s) in Eugene, Oregon on 16 June 1993.

All-time top 25 womenEdit

 
Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.
  • Correct as of June 2017.[31]
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner   United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter   United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones   United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce   Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
+0.3 Elaine Thompson   Jamaica 1 July 2016 Kingston [32]
6 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron   France 19 August 1998 Budapest
7 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey   Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
+1.0 English Gardner   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
9 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart   Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
10 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford   United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown   Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
12 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova   Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova   Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
14 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell   United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards   United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
+1.6 Murielle Ahoure   Ivory Coast 11 June 2016 Montverde [33]
+1.0 Tianna Bartoletta   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
+1.0 Tori Bowie   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [26]
19 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei   People's Republic of China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller   United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare   Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
22 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr   East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
−0.3 Dafne Schippers   Netherlands 24 August 2015 Beijing [34]
24 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers   United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+1.5 7 July 1993 Lausanne
-0.3 16 August 1993 Stuttgart
+0.4 Gwen Torrence   United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block   Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson   Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston
+0.9 Michelle-Lee Ahye   Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain [35]

More facts about these female runnersEdit

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's world record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[36] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognised as a world record".[37] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[38]

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 10.77:

  • As well as the 10.61 (1988) and 10.62 (1988) mentioned in the more facts section, Florence Griffith-Joyner also ran 10.70 (1988).
  • Carmelita Jeter also ran 10.67 (2009), 10.70 (2011).
  • Marion Jones also ran 10.70 (1999), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.71 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.75 (1998), 10.76 (1997, 1999), 10.77 (1998).
  • Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce also ran 10.71 (2013), 10.72 (2013), 10.73 (2009), 10.74 (2015), 10.75 (2012), 10.76 (2015), 10.77 (2013).
  • Elaine Thompson also ran 10.71 (2016, 2017), 10.72 (2016).
  • Kerron Stewart also ran 10.75 (August 2009).

Assisted marksEdit

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (10.82 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

  • Tori Bowie of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+3.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2015 and 10.74 (+3.1) on July 3 2016.
  • Tawanna Meadows of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.72 (+4.5) in Lubbock, Texas on 6 May 2017.
  • Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria ran a wind-assisted 10.75 (+2.2) in Eugene, Oregon on 1 June 2013.
  • Marshevet Hooker of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.76 (+3.4) in Eugene, Oregon on 27 June 2008.
  • Gail Devers of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in San Jose, California on 28 May 1994.
  • Ekateríni Thánou of Greece ran a wind-assisted 10.77 (+2.3) in Rethimnó, Greece on 29 May 1999.
  • Gwen Torrence of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+5.0) in Indianapolis, Indiana on 16 July 1988.
  • Muna Lee of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.78 (+3.3) in Eugene, Oregon on 26 June 2009.
  • Marlies Göhr of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.79 (+3.3) in Cottbus, East Germany on 16 July 1980.
  • Kelli White of the USA ran a wind assisted 10.79 (+2.3) in Carson, California on June 1, 2001. This performance was later annulled due to doping offence.
  • Pam Marshall of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.80 (+2.9) in Eugene, Oregon on 20 June 1986.
  • Jenna Prandini of the USA ran a wind-assisted 10.81 (+3.6) in Eugene, Oregon on 2 July 2016.
  • Silke Gladisch of East Germany ran a wind-assisted 10.82 (+2.2) in Rome, Italy on 30 August 1987.

Best Year PerformancesEdit

Top 10 Junior (under-20) menEdit

Updated 24 June 2017[39]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell   United States 13 June 2014 Eugene
2 10.00 +1.6 Trentavis Friday   United States 5 July 2014 Eugene
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown   Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis
+1.6 Jeff Demps   United States 28 June 2008 Eugene
+0.9 [40] Yoshihide Kiryu   Japan 29 April 2013 Hiroshima
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland   United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain
7 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry   United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre   France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad
+1.9 Abdullah Abkar Mohammed   Saudi Arabia 15 April 2016 Norwalk [41]
10 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili   Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona
+0.5 Abdul Hakim Sani Brown   Japan 24 June 2017 Osaka 18 years, 110 days [42]
-0.6 4 August 2017 London 18 years, 151 days [43]

NotesEdit

  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
  • Nigerian sprinter Davidson Ezinwa ran 10.05 (4 January 1990), but without wind gauge.
  • Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships[44]

Top 10 Junior (under-20) womenEdit

Updated 30 June 2017

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr   East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden
2 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe   East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin
3 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill   United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [45]
4 10.99 +0.9 Ángela Tenorio   Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto [46]
5 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller   East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
+0.6 English Gardner   United States 14 May 2011 Tucson
7 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams   United States 5 June 1999 Boise
8 11.06 +0.9 Khalifa St. Fort   Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain 19 years, 131 days [47]
9 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight   United States 27 June 2008 Eugene
10 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead   United States 21 June 1976 Eugene

Top 15 Youth (under-18) boysEdit

Updated 31 March 2017

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Ref
1 10.15 +2.0 Anthony Schwartz   United States 31 March 2017 Gainesville [48]
2 10.18 +1.1 Khairul Hafiz Jantan   Malaysia 27 July 2016 Kuching [49]
3 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu   Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi
4 10.20 +1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela   South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia [50]
5 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo   Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu
+1.2 Rynell Parson   United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis
7 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown   Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown
8 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels   United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville
+1.6 Jeff Demps   United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville
+0.9 Jhevaughn Matherson   Jamaica 5 March 2016 Kingston [51]
11 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom   United States 21 July 1994 Lisboa
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel   Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi
13 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas   United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk
+1.6 Curtis Johnson   United States 30 June 1990 Fresno
+1.0 Ivory Williams   United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy   Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay
+1.9 Raheem Chambers   Jamaica 20 April 2014 Fort-de-France

Top 10 Youth (under-18) girlsEdit

Updated 20 June 2015

Rank Fastest time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill   United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline [45]
2 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney   United States 5 July 2014 Eugene [52]
3 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough   United States 21 June 1976 Eugene
4 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones   United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk
−0.5 Angela Williams   United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville
6 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo   United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
7 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen   United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs
8 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle   Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City
9 11.24 -1.0 Ewa Swoboda   Poland 4 June 2015 Sankt Pölten
10 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh   United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis
+0.8 Jodie Williams   Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford

Paralympic menEdit

 
Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated to September 2017[53]

Class Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown   United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.66 −0.4 Elchin Muradov   Azerbaijan 19 June 2010 Imola
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth   Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 0.0 Martin McDonagh   Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 16.81 +0.8 Ahmad Almutairi   Kuwait 20 October 2014 Incheon
T34 15.33 +1.2 Walid Ktila   Tunisia 27 February 2014 Sharjah
T35 12.22 +0.7 Ihor Tsvietov   Ukraine 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [54]
T36 11.90 -0.5 Evgenii Shvetcov   Russia 22 July 2013 Lyon
T37 11.42 +0.2 Charl du Toit   South Africa 10 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [55]
T38 10.74 –0.3 Hu Jianwen   China 13 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [56]
T42 12.11 +1.2 Heinrich Popow   Germany 12 July 2013 Leverkusen
T43 10.57 +1.9 Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira   Brazil 28 July 2013 London
T44 10.61 +1.4 Richard Browne   United States 29 October 2015 Doha [57]
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento   Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T47 10.53 +0.1 Petrucio Ferreira dos Santos   Brazil 15 July 2017 London [58]
T51 21.11 +1.2 Toni Piispanen   Finland 17 May 2012 Pratteln
T52 16.73 +0.4 Paul Nitz   United States 20 May 2012 Nottwil
T53 14.17 +1.0 Brent Lakatos   Canada 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti   Finland 1 September 2012 London

Paralympic womenEdit

Updated to April 2017[59]

Classification Record Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 11.91 +0.7 Libby Clegg   Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [60]
T12 11.40 +0.2 Omara Durand   Cuba 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [61]
T13 11.79 +0.5 Leilia Adzhametova   Ukraine 11 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [62]
T32 37.67 0.0 Lindsay Wright   United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 21.59 −0.4 Kristen Messer   United States 31 August 2012 London
T34 17.31 +1.0 Hannah Cockroft   United Kingdom 17 May 2014 Nottwil
T35 13.63 +2.0 Isis Holt   Australia 29 October 2015 Doha [63]
T36 13.82 +0.3 Wang Fang   People's Republic of China 16 September 2008 Beijing
T37 13.13 +1.6 Georgina Hermitage   Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [64]
T38 12.60 +1.6 Sophie Hahn   Great Britain 22 October 2015 Doha [65]
T42 14.61 -0.2 Martina Caironi   Italy 30 October 2015 Doha [66]
T43 12.80 +1.0 Marlou van Rhijn   Netherlands 29 October 2015 Doha [67]
T44 12.93 –0.4 Sophie Kamlish   Great Britain 17 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [68]
T45 14.00 0.0 G Cole   Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo   Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 32.08 0.0 V Hill   United States 27 August 1989 Stoke Mandeville
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell   Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.19 +1.0 Huang Lisha   China 8 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [69]
T54 15.82 +0.5 Wenjun Liu   People's Republic of China 8 September 2012 London

Olympic medallistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
  Thomas Burke (USA)   Fritz Hofmann (GER)   Francis Lane (USA)
  Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
  Frank Jarvis (USA)   Walter Tewksbury (USA)   Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
  Archie Hahn (USA)   Nathaniel Cartmell (USA)   William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
  Reggie Walker (RSA)   James Rector (USA)   Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
  Ralph Craig (USA)   Alvah Meyer (USA)   Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
  Charley Paddock (USA)   Morris Kirksey (USA)   Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
  Harold Abrahams (GBR)   Jackson Scholz (USA)   Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
  Percy Williams (CAN)   Jack London (GBR)   Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
  Eddie Tolan (USA)   Ralph Metcalfe (USA)   Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
  Jesse Owens (USA)   Ralph Metcalfe (USA)   Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
  Harrison Dillard (USA)   Barney Ewell (USA)   Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
  Lindy Remigino (USA)   Herb McKenley (JAM)   McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
  Bobby Morrow (USA)   Thane Baker (USA)   Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
  Armin Hary (EUA)   Dave Sime (USA)   Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
  Bob Hayes (USA)   Enrique Figuerola (CUB)   Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
  Jim Hines (USA)   Lennox Miller (JAM)   Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
  Valeriy Borzov (URS)   Robert Taylor (USA)   Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
  Hasely Crawford (TRI)   Don Quarrie (JAM)   Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
  Allan Wells (GBR)   Silvio Leonard (CUB)   Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Sam Graddy (USA)   Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[70][71]
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Linford Christie (GBR)   Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
  Linford Christie (GBR)   Frankie Fredericks (NAM)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
  Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Frankie Fredericks (NAM)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Ato Boldon (TRI)   Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Francis Obikwelu (POR)   Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Richard Thompson (TRI)   Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Yohan Blake (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Andre De Grasse (CAN)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
  Betty Robinson (USA)   Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)   Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)   Hilda Strike (CAN)   Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
  Helen Stephens (USA)   Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)   Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
details
  Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)   Dorothy Manley (GBR)   Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
  Marjorie Jackson (AUS)   Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)   Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
details
  Betty Cuthbert (AUS)   Christa Stubnick (EUA)   Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
  Wilma Rudolph (USA)   Dorothy Hyman (GBR)   Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
details
  Wyomia Tyus (USA)   Edith McGuire (USA)   Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
  Wyomia Tyus (USA)   Barbara Ferrell (USA)   Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
details
  Renate Stecher (GDR)   Raelene Boyle (AUS)   Silvia Chivás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
details
  Annegret Richter (FRG)   Renate Stecher (GDR)   Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
  Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)   Marlies Göhr (GDR)   Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
  Evelyn Ashford (USA)   Alice Brown (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
details
  Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)   Evelyn Ashford (USA)   Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
  Gail Devers (USA)   Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)   Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
  Gail Devers (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)   Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[72]   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
  Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
  Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)   Lauryn Williams (USA)   Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)   Sherone Simpson (JAM) none awarded
  Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)   Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
  Elaine Thompson (JAM)   Tori Bowie (USA)   Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)

World Championship medallistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Calvin Smith (USA)   Emmit King (USA)
1987 Rome
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Raymond Stewart (JAM)   Linford Christie (GBR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Leroy Burrell (USA)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Linford Christie (GBR)   Andre Cason (USA)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Bruny Surin (CAN)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
1997 Athens
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Tim Montgomery (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Bruny Surin (CAN)   Dwain Chambers (GBR)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Bernard Williams (USA)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Kim Collins (SKN)   Darrel Brown (TRI)   Darren Campbell (GBR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Michael Frater (JAM)   Kim Collins (SKN)
2007 Osaka
details
  Tyson Gay (USA)   Derrick Atkins (BAH)   Asafa Powell (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Tyson Gay (USA)   Asafa Powell (JAM)
2011 Daegu
details
  Yohan Blake (JAM)   Walter Dix (USA)   Kim Collins (SKN)
2013 Moscow
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Nesta Carter (JAM)
2015 Beijing
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Trayvon Bromell (USA)
  Andre De Grasse (CAN)
2017 London
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Christian Coleman (USA)   Usain Bolt (JAM)

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR)   Marita Koch (GDR)   Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome
details
  Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)   Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Katrin Krabbe (GER)   Gwen Torrence (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Gail Devers (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)   Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Gwen Torrence (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)   Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens
details
  Marion Jones (USA)   Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)   Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville
details
  Marion Jones (USA)   Inger Miller (USA)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)   Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Torri Edwards (USA)   Chandra Sturrup (BAH)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Lauryn Williams (USA)   Veronica Campbell (JAM)   Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)   Lauryn Williams (USA)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)   Kerron Stewart (JAM)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Carmelita Jeter (USA)   Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)   Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Murielle Ahouré (CIV)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Dafne Schippers (NED)   Tori Bowie (USA)
2017 London
details
  Tori Bowie (USA)   Marie-Josée Ta Lou (CIV)   Dafne Schippers (NED)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  2. ^ The Day – 23 January 1983
  3. ^ http://www.athleticsweekly.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=3893
  4. ^ "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  5. ^ "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  6. ^ Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Sandre-Tom <!-i- BOT GENERATED AUTHOR -->. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164" (PDF). IAAF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  10. ^ 100 metres IAAF
  11. ^ Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  12. ^ The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  13. ^ Athlete Profiles – Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. ^ Jad, Adrian (July 2011). "Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) – Officially the Fastest White Man in History". adriansprints.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  15. ^ Demirel, Evin (8 August 2012). "What Made Arkansas' Record-Setting 2012 Track Team So Unique". The Sports Seer. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  16. ^ Who Do You Think You Are – Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  17. ^ Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
  18. ^ "Progression of 100 meters world record". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  19. ^ "100 Metres Results" (PDF). IAAF. 16 August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  20. ^ 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
  21. ^ Linthorne,N.(PHD)(1995)The 100m World Record by Florence Griffith Joyner at the 1988 U.S Olympic Trials. Report for the International Amateur Athletic Federation Department of Physics, University of Western Australia
  22. ^ 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
  23. ^ 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  24. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  25. ^ "100m Semifinal Results". ncaa.com. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
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  27. ^ Christopher Maduewesi (9 April 2017). "Zambia's Sydney Siame clocks 100m WL of 9.87s". makingofchamps.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. 
  28. ^ "Justin Gatlin Ran 9.45 With Crazy Wind-Aid on Japanese TV". flotrack.org. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  29. ^ Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008),"Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" New York Times
  30. ^ Ewing, Lori (The Canadian Press) (18 June 2017), [1] National Post
  31. ^ "All-time women's best 100m". IAAF. 13 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017. 
  32. ^ Sherdon Cowan (1 July 2016). "#NatlTrials: Elaine Thompson storms to 10.70s win in 100m". jamaicaobserver.com. Retrieved 3 July 2016. 
  33. ^ Cathal Dennehy (11 June 2016). "Ahoure powers to African 100m record of 10.78 in Florida". IAAF. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 
  34. ^ "100m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  35. ^ "100m Results". NAAATT. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  36. ^ Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). "Mathematical Models of Running". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  37. ^ Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008. 
  38. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=100/detail.html
  39. ^ "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  40. ^ Kiryu's 10.01 (+0.9 m/s) in 2013 is invalidated due to the type of wind-measuring .Jon Mulkeen (29 April 2013). "Kiryu equals World junior 100m record". IAAF. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  41. ^ "Mt. SAC Relays 2016 – Friday Track Results" (PDF). mtsacrelays.com. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016. 
  42. ^ "Sprinter Sani Brown outlcasses field in 100-meter final for first national title". japantimes.co.jp. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2017. 
  43. ^ "100m Heats Results" (PDF). IAAF. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017. 
  44. ^ Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
  45. ^ a b Jon Mulkeen (20 June 2015). "Hill breaks world youth 100m best and American junior record with 10.98". IAAF. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  46. ^ "100m Results" (PDF). results.toronto2015.org. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  47. ^ "100m Results". NAAATT. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  48. ^ "100m Results". deltatiming.com. 31 March 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  49. ^ "Malaysia's fastest man: Khairul Hafiz Jantan breaks Watson Nyambek's 100m record with 10.18s". nst.com.my. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  50. ^ Phil Minshull (7 September 2015). "Leotlela clocks second fastest ever youth 100m with 10.20 in Samoa". IAAF. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  51. ^ Raymond Graham (6 March 2016). "Matherson sprints to National Youth record". jamaica-gleaner.com. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  52. ^ "Florida's Whitney sets world junior 200 record". www.newsobserver.com. 7 July 2014. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  53. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records". IPC. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  54. ^ "Men's T35 100m Round 1 Heat 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  55. ^ "Men's 100m T37 Round 1 Heat 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 10 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  56. ^ "Men's 100m T38 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016. 
  57. ^ "Men's 100m T43/44 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  58. ^ "Men's 100m T47 Results" (PDF). paralympic.org. 15 July 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  59. ^ "IPC Athletics World Records". International Paralympic Committee. 8 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. 
  60. ^ "Women's 100m T11 Semifinal 2 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  61. ^ "Women's 100m T12 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  62. ^ "Women's 100m T13 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 11 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  63. ^ "Women's 100m T35 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  64. ^ "Women's 100m T37 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  65. ^ "Women's 100m T38 Results" (PDF). IPC. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015. 
  66. ^ "Women's 100m T42 Results" (PDF). IPC. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  67. ^ "Women's 100m T43/44 Results" (PDF). IPC. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  68. ^ "Women's 100m T43/44 Round 1 Heat 3 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 17 September 2016. Retrieved 29 September 2016. 
  69. ^ "Women's T53 100m – Round 1 Heat 1 Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  70. ^ Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
  71. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988. 
  72. ^ On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance-enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relinquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.

External linksEdit