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Leverkusen (/ˈlvərkzən/, German: [ˈleːvɐˌkuːzn̩] (About this soundlisten), also [leːɐˈkuːzn̩])[2] is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine. To the south, Leverkusen borders the city of Cologne and to the north is the state capital Düsseldorf.

Leverkusen
Morsbroich Museum
Flag of Leverkusen
Flag
Coat of arms of Leverkusen
Coat of arms
Leverkusen within North Rhine-Westphalia
North rhine w LEV.svg
Leverkusen is located in Germany
Leverkusen
Leverkusen
Leverkusen is located in North Rhine-Westphalia
Leverkusen
Leverkusen
Coordinates: 51°02′N 06°59′E / 51.033°N 6.983°E / 51.033; 6.983Coordinates: 51°02′N 06°59′E / 51.033°N 6.983°E / 51.033; 6.983
CountryGermany
StateNorth Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. regionKöln
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • MayorUwe Richrath (SPD)
 • Governing partiesCDU / SPD / Bürgerliste
Area
 • Total78.85 km2 (30.44 sq mi)
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[1]
 • Total163,838
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Dialling codes0214, 02171 & 02173
Vehicle registrationLEV and OP
Websitewww.leverkusen.de

With about 161,000 inhabitants, Leverkusen is one of the state's smaller cities. The city is known for the pharmaceutical company Bayer and its associated sports club Bayer 04 Leverkusen.

HistoryEdit

The heart of what is now Leverkusen was Wiesdorf, a village on the Rhine, which dates back to the 12th century.[3] With the surrounding villages which have now been incorporated, the area also includes the rivers Wupper and Dhünn,[4] and has suffered a lot from flooding, notably in 1571 and 1657, the latter resulting in Wiesdorf being moved East from the river to its present location.[3]

During the Cologne War, from 1583 to 1588 Leverkusen was ravaged by war. The entire area was rural until the late 19th century, when industry prompted the development that led to the city of Leverkusen, and to its becoming one of the most important centres of the German chemical industry.

The chemist Carl Leverkus, looking for a place to build a dye factory, chose Wiesdorf in 1860. He built a factory for the production of artificial ultramarine blue at the Kahlberg in Wiesdorf in 1861, and called the emerging settlement "Leverkusen" after his family home in Lennep. The factory was taken over by the Bayer company in 1891; Bayer moved its headquarters to Wiesdorf in 1912. After asset confiscation at the end of the First World War, it became IG Farben. The city of Leverkusen proper was founded in 1930 by merging Wiesdorf, Schlebusch, Steinbüchel and Rheindorf, and was posthumously named for Carl Leverkus.[4]

During the Second World War, the IG Farben factories were bombed by the RAF on 22 August 1943,[5] again by the RAF during bombing campaigns on 19/20 November, the USAAF Eighth Air Force on 1 December 1943,[6] and finally once again by the RAF on 10/11 December 1943.

In 1975, Opladen (including Quettingen and Lützenkirchen since 1930), Hitdorf and Bergisch Neukirchen joined Leverkusen. The present city is made up of former villages, originally called Wiesdorf, Opladen, Schlebusch, Manfort, Bürrig, Hitdorf, Quettingen, Lützenkirchen, Steinbüchel, Rheindorf and Bergisch-Neukirchen.[4]

DemographicsEdit

Population development since 1832:[7]

YearPop.±%
183211,442—    
187115,507+35.5%
190024,974+61.0%
191044,088+76.5%
192561,404+39.3%
193367,260+9.5%
193975,171+11.8%
194684,646+12.6%
195098,867+16.8%
1961137,516+39.1%
1970161,808+17.7%
1987154,692−4.4%
2000161,426+4.4%
2010161,132−0.2%
2017166,737+3.5%

Coat of ArmsEdit

The coat of arms consists of the two-tailed rampant red lion of the Bergisches Land with a blue crown on a silver background and an embattled line in front.[4]

Main sights and places of interestEdit

 
Japanese Garden in front of the Bayer tower
  • BayArena is the home stadium of Bayer Leverkusen, with a capacity of over 30,000.
  • The Bayer Cross Leverkusen is one of the largest illuminated advertisements in the world.[citation needed]
  • Freudenthaler Sensenhammer is an industrial museum.
  • Schloss Morsbroichmoated castle in the Baroque style, now a museum for contemporary art.
  • Water Tower Leverkusen-Bürrig – 72.45-metre-high (237.7 ft) water reservoir containing an observation deck.
  • Neuland Park – large park beside the Rhine.
  • Japanese Garden – a 1913 garden extended by Carl Duisberg in 1923.[8]
  • Colony of workers – historical area in the form of houses and other buildings constructed for employees and families of the chemical works at the end of the 19th and beginning of 20th century.[9]
  • Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit – historical boat bridge next to the Rhine, between Wiesdorf and Rheindorf.
  • Mausoleum of Carl Duisberg – mausoleum in the centre of the Carl Duisberg Park, next to the Casino.
  • NaturGut Ophoven – educational centre for nature in Leverkusen-Opladen.
Largest groups of foreign residents[10]
Nationality Population (2018)
  Turkey 3,776
  Italy 2,382
  Poland 2,159
  Macedonia 1,956
  Greece 1,254
  Croatia 1,015
Others: 12,096

SportsEdit

The city is home of the football team Bayer 04 Leverkusen and the basketball team Bayer Giants Leverkusen, which is the German record holder of national basketball championships . As of 2019, the team plays in the German ProA league and plays its home games in the Smidt-Arena.

The Smidt-Arena, previously known as Wilhelm Dopatka Halle, was one of the host arenas for the FIBA EuroBasket 1985 (the official European Basketball Championship).

International relationsEdit

 
BayArena

Leverkusen is twinned with:

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2018" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Leverkusen". Duden Online. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Braun, Detlef (2012). Leverkusen. Erfurt: Sutton. p. 17. ISBN 978-3866809703.
  4. ^ a b c d Braun, Detlef (2012). Leverkusen. Erfurt: Sutton. p. 6. ISBN 978-3866809703.
  5. ^ WW2 People's War - A Bedfordshire Bomb Aimer - Part Two. BBC. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  6. ^ 322nd Dailies from 1943 - 91st Bomb Group (H). 91st Bomb Group. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  7. ^ "Aktuelles". Stadtgeschichte Leverkusen (in German). Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  8. ^ Braun, Detlef (2012). Leverkusen. Erfurt: Sutton. p. 12. ISBN 978-3866809703.
  9. ^ Braun, Detlef (2012). Leverkusen. Erfurt: Sutton. p. 10-11. ISBN 978-3866809703.
  10. ^ http://www.leverkusen.com/newsbild/151127/Stadt01.pdf
  11. ^ "Ystävyyskaupungit (Twin Cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  12. ^ (Bracknell Town, part of the Bracknell Forest local authority twinned with Opladen in 1973, Opladen then incorporated with Leverkusen in 1975
  13. ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  14. ^ www.leverkusen.com, Andreas Born, Leverkusen. "Partnerschaftsinitiative Leverkusen-Ratibor e.V.: Der Partnerschaftsvertrag". www.leverkusen.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  15. ^ http://www.leverkusen.com/born, Andreas Born. "Leverkusen: Oberbürgermeister Buchhorn unterzeichnet Städtepartnerschaft mit Wuxi (Veröffentlicht am: 05.06.2014)". www.leverkusen.com. Retrieved 26 March 2018.

SourcesEdit

  • Blaschke, Stefan (1999): Unternehmen und Gemeinde: Das Bayerwerk im Raum Leverkusen 1891-1914 Cologne: SH-Verlag, ISBN 3-89498-068-0 (German)
  • Archive of Leverkusen (2005): Leverkusen. Geschichte einer Stadt am Rhein. Bielefeld: Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, ISBN 3-89534-575-X (German)
  • Franz Gruß (1987): Geschichte und Porträt der Stadt Leverkusen. Leverkusen: Verlag Anna Gruß, ISBN 3-930478-03-X (German)

External linksEdit