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100 metres

  (Redirected from 100-meter dash)

The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.

Athletics
100 metres
London 2012 Olympic 100m final start.jpg
Start of the men's 100 metres final at the 2012 Olympic Games.
Men's records
WorldJamaica Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)
OlympicJamaica Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)
Women's records
WorldUnited States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.49[a] (1988)
OlympicUnited States Florence Griffith-Joyner 10.62 (1988)
Women's 100M Final – 28th Summer Universiade 2015

The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world". The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Christian Coleman and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world champions; Usain Bolt and Elaine Thompson are the men's and women's Olympic champions.

On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. There are three instructions given to the runners immediately before and at the beginning of the race: ready, set, and the firing of the starter's pistol. The runners move to the starting blocks when they hear the 'ready' instruction. The following instruction, to adopt the 'set' position, allows them to adopt a more efficient starting posture and isometrically preload their muscles: this will help them to start faster. A race-official then fires the starter's pistol to signal the race beginning and the sprinters stride forwards from the blocks. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50 and 60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.

The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.[a]

The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

US athletes have won the men's Olympic 100 metres title more times than any other country, 16 out of the 28 times that it has been run. US women have also dominated the event winning 9 out of 21 times.

Race dynamicsEdit

StartEdit

 
Male sprinters await the starter's instructions

At the start, some athletes play psychological games such as trying to be last to the starting blocks.[3][4][5]

At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.2-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.

For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.

This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification.[6] This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work."[7] The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.[8][9]

Mid-raceEdit

Runners normally reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m.[10] Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.

FinishEdit

The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line.[11] There is therefore no requirement for the entire body to cross the finish line. When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.

Climatic conditionsEdit

Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal".

Furthermore, sprint athletes perform a better run at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts. While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A".[12]

10-second barrierEdit

EthnicityEdit

Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (an Indigenous Australian with Irish heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.[13][14][15][16]

In 2010, French sprinter Christophe Lemaitre became the first Caucasian to break the 10-second barrier,[16] and in 2017, Azerbaijani-born naturalized Turkish Ramil Guliyev followed.[17] In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian of China ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first East Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. On 22 June 2018, Su improved his time in Madrid with a time of 9.91.[18] On 9 September 2017, Yoshihide Kiryū became the first man from Japan to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 metres, running a 9.98 (+1.8) at an intercollegiate meet in Fukui. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier.[citation needed]

Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles,[19] noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.[20]

Record performancesEdit

Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.

The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977.[21] The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final in Berlin, Germany on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s.[22] The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, at the 1988 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988[23] breaking Evelyn Ashford's four-year-old world record by .27 seconds. The extraordinary nature of this result and those of several other sprinters in this race raised the possibility of a technical malfunction with the wind gauge which read at 0.0 m/s- a reading which was at complete odds to the windy conditions on the day with high wind speeds being recorded in all other sprints before and after this race as well as the parallel long jump runway at the time of the Griffith-Joyner performance. All scientific studies commissioned by the IAAF and independent organisations since have confirmed there was certainly an illegal tailwind of between 5 m/s – 7 m/s at the time. This should have annulled the legality of this result, although the IAAF has chosen not to take this course of action. The legitimate next best wind legal performance would therefore be Griffith-Joyner's 10.61s performance in the final the next day.[24]

Some records have been marred by prohibited drug use – in particular, the scandal at the 1988 Summer Olympics when the winner, Canadian Ben Johnson was stripped of his medal and world record.

Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Greene were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.

Continental recordsEdit

Updated 29 November 2018.[25]

Area Men Women
Time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 9.85 +1.7 Olusoji Fasuba   Nigeria 10.78 +1.6 Murielle Ahouré   Ivory Coast
Asia (records) 9.91 +1.8 Femi Ogunode   Qatar 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei   China
+0.6
+0.2 Su Bingtian   China
+0.8
Europe (records) 9.86 +0.6 Francis Obikwelu   Portugal 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron   France
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut   France
+1.8
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
9.58 WR +0.9 Usain Bolt   Jamaica 10.49 WR 0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner   United States
Oceania (records) 9.93 +1.8 Patrick Johnson   Australia 11.11 +1.9 Melissa Breen   Australia
South America (records) 10.00[A] +1.6 Robson da Silva   Brazil 10.91 −0.2 Rosângela Santos   Brazil

NotesEdit

All-time top 25 menEdit

 
Usain Bolt breaking the world and Olympic records at the 2008 Beijing Olympics
 
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Place Ref
1 9.58 +0.9 Usain Bolt   Jamaica Aug 16 August 2009 Berlin [29]
2 9.69 +2.0 Tyson Gay   United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai [30]
−0.1 Yohan Blake   Jamaica 23 August 2012 Lausanne [31]
4 9.72 +0.2 Asafa Powell   Jamaica 2 September 2008 Lausanne [32]
5 9.74 +0.9 Justin Gatlin   United States 15 May 2015 Doha [33]
6 9.76 +0.6 Christian Coleman   United States 28 September 2019 Doha [34]
7 9.78 +0.9 Nesta Carter   Jamaica 29 August 2010 Rieti [35]
8 9.79 +0.1 Maurice Greene   United States 16 June 1999 Athens [36]
9 9.80 +1.3 Steve Mullings   Jamaica 4 June 2011 Eugene [37]
10 9.82 +1.7 Richard Thompson   Trinidad and Tobago 21 June 2014 Port of Spain [38]
11 9.84 +0.7 Donovan Bailey   Canada 27 July 1996 Atlanta
+0.2 Bruny Surin   Canada 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.3 Trayvon Bromell   United States 25 June 2015 Eugene
+1.6 3 July 2016 [39]
14 9.85 +1.2 Leroy Burrell   United States 6 July 1994 Lausanne [40]
+1.7 Olusoji Fasuba   Nigeria 12 May 2006 Doha
+1.3 Mike Rodgers   United States 4 June 2011 Eugene
17 9.86 +1.2 Carl Lewis   United States 25 August 1991 Tokyo [41]
−0.7 Frankie Fredericks   Namibia 3 July 1996 Lausanne
+1.8 Ato Boldon   Trinidad and Tobago 19 April 1998 Walnut
+0.6 Francis Obikwelu   Portugal 22 August 2004 Athens
+1.4 Keston Bledman   Trinidad and Tobago 23 June 2012 Port of Spain
+1.3 Jimmy Vicaut   France 4 July 2015 Saint-Denis [42]
+0.9 Noah Lyles   United States 18 May 2019 Shanghai [43]
+0.8 Divine Oduduru   Nigeria 7 June 2019 Austin [44]
25 9.87 +0.3 Linford Christie   United Kingdom 15 August 1993 Stuttgart
9.87[A] −0.2 Obadele Thompson   Barbados 11 September 1998 Johannesburg
9.87 −0.1 Ronnie Baker   United States 22 August 2018 Chorzów [45]

More facts about these male runnersEdit

  • Usain Bolt also holds the world record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/h). This was achieved in a 150 metres race during the BUPA Great City Games in Manchester on 17 May 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a world record).[46] He also ran 9.63 (2012), 9.69 (2008), 9.72 (2008), 9.76 (2008, 2011, 2012), 9.77 (2008, 2013), 9.79 (2009, 2012, 2015), 9.80 (2013), 9.81 (2009, 2016), 9.82 (2010, 2012), 9.83 (2008), 9.84 (2010), 9.85 (2008, 2011, 2013), 9.86 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2016) and 9.87 (2012, 2015).
  • Tyson Gay also ran 9.71 (2009), 9.77 (2008, 2009), 9.78 (2010), 9.79 (2010, 2011), 9.84 (2006, 2007, 2010), 9.85 (2007, 2008), 9.86 (2012), and 9.87 (2015).
  • Asafa Powell also ran 9.74 (2007), 9.77 (2005, 2006, 2008), 9.78 (2007, 2011), 9.81 (2015), 9.82 (2008, 2009, 2010), 9.83 (2007, 2008, 2010), 9.84 (2005, 2007, 2009, 2015), 9.85 (2005, 2006, 2009, 2012), 9.86 (2006, 2011), and 9.87 (2004, 2008, 2014, 2015).
  • Yohan Blake also ran 9.75 (2012), 9.76 (2012), 9.82 (2011), 9.84 (2012), and 9.85 (2012).
  • Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006. He also ran 9.75 (2015), 9.77 (2014, 2015), 9.78 (2015), 9.79 (2012), 9.80 (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016), 9.82 (2012, 2014), 9.83 (2014, 2016), 9.85 (2004, 2013) 9.86 (2014), and 9.87 (2012, 2014, 2019).
  • Tim Montgomery ran 9.78 in Paris on 14 September 2002, which was at the time ratified as a world record.[47] However, the record was rescinded in December 2005 following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges.[48] The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.[49]
  • Ben Johnson ran 9.79 in Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded.
  • Christian Coleman also ran 9.79 (2018), 9.81 (2019), 9.82 (2017), 9.85 (2019), and 9.86 (2019).
  • Maurice Greene also ran 9.80 (1999), 9.82 (2001), 9.85 (1999), 9.86 (1997, 2000), and 9.87 (1999, 2000, 2004).
  • Trayvon Bromell also ran 9.84 (2016).
  • Nesta Carter also ran 9.85 (2010), 9.86 (2010), and 9.87 (2013).
  • Richard Thompson also ran 9.85 (2011).
  • Ato Boldon also ran 9.86 (1998, 1999) and 9.87 (1997).
  • Keston Bledman also ran 9.86 (2015).
  • Mike Rodgers also ran 9.86 (2015).
  • Jimmy Vicaut also ran 9.86 (2016).
  • Frankie Fredericks also ran 9.87 (1996).
  • Dwain Chambers ran 9.87 in Paris on 14 September 2002, which at the time equaled the European record. He tested positive for tetrahydrogestrinone in October 2003, and was given a two-year suspension in February 2004. Originally he claimed innocence, but after his suspension ended in November 2005 he admitted to doping during the 2002 and 2003 seasons. His record was subsequently rescinded in June 2006.[50]
  • Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.[51]

Assisted marksEdit

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (9.80 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

All-time top 25 womenEdit

 
Christine Arron (left) wins the 100 m at the Weltklasse meeting.
Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 10.49 0.0[a] Florence Griffith-Joyner   United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis
2 10.64 +1.2 Carmelita Jeter   United States 20 September 2009 Shanghai
3 10.65 [A] +1.1 Marion Jones   United States 12 September 1998 Johannesburg
4 10.70 +0.6 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce   Jamaica 29 June 2012 Kingston
+0.3 Elaine Thompson   Jamaica 1 July 2016 Kingston [57]
6 10.73 +2.0 Christine Arron   France 19 August 1998 Budapest
7 10.74 +1.3 Merlene Ottey   Jamaica 7 September 1996 Milan
+1.0 English Gardner   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [39]
9 10.75 +0.4 Kerron Stewart   Jamaica 10 July 2009 Rome
+1.6 Sha'Carri Richardson   United States 8 June 2019 Austin [58]
11 10.76 +1.7 Evelyn Ashford   United States 22 August 1984 Zürich
+1.1 Veronica Campbell-Brown   Jamaica 31 May 2011 Ostrava
13 10.77 +0.9 Irina Privalova   Russia 6 July 1994 Lausanne
+0.7 Ivet Lalova   Bulgaria 19 June 2004 Plovdiv
15 10.78 [A] +1.0 Dawn Sowell   United States 3 June 1989 Provo
10.78 +1.8 Torri Edwards   United States 26 June 2008 Eugene
+1.6 Murielle Ahouré   Ivory Coast 11 June 2016 Montverde [59]
+1.0 Tianna Bartoletta   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [39]
+1.0 Tori Bowie   United States 3 July 2016 Eugene [39]
20 10.79 0.0 Li Xuemei   China 18 October 1997 Shanghai
−0.1 Inger Miller   United States 22 August 1999 Seville
+1.1 Blessing Okagbare   Nigeria 27 July 2013 London
23 10.81 +1.7 Marlies Göhr   East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin
−0.3 Dafne Schippers   Netherlands 24 August 2015 Beijing [60]
25 10.82 −1.0 Gail Devers   United States 1 August 1992 Barcelona
+1.5 7 July 1993 Lausanne
−0.3 16 August 1993 Stuttgart
+0.4 Gwen Torrence   United States 3 September 1994 Paris
−0.3 Zhanna Block   Ukraine 6 August 2001 Edmonton
−0.7 Sherone Simpson   Jamaica 24 June 2006 Kingston
+0.9 Michelle-Lee Ahye   Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain [61]

More facts about these female runnersEdit

  • Florence Griffith-Joyner's world record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present;[62] since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognised as a world record".[63] It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her legal 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder.[64]

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 10.82:

  • As well as the 10.61 (1988) and 10.62 (1988) mentioned in the more facts section, Florence Griffith-Joyner also ran 10.70 (1988).
  • Carmelita Jeter also ran 10.67 (2009), 10.70 (2011), 10.78 (2011, 2012), 10.81 (2012), and 10.82 (2010).
  • Marion Jones also ran 10.70 (1999), 10.71 (1998), 10.72 (1998), 10.75 (1998), 10.76 (1997, 1999), 10.77 (1998), 10.78 (2000), 10.79 (1998), 10.80 (1998, 1999), 10.81 (1997, 1998), and 10.82 (1998).
  • Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce also ran 10.71 (2013, 2019), 10.72 (2013), 10.73 (2009, 2019), 10.74 (2015, 2019), 10.75 (2012), 10.76 (2015), 10.77 (2013), 10.78 (2008, 2019), 10.79 (2009, 2015), 10.80 (2019), 10.81 (2015, 2019), and 10.82 (2010, 2015).
  • Elaine Thompson also ran 10.71 (2016, 2017), 10.72 (2016), 10.73 (2019), and 10.78 (2016, 2017).
  • Kerron Stewart also ran 10.75 (2009) and 10.80 (2008).
  • Merlene Ottey also ran 10.78 (1990, 1994), 10.79 (1991), 10.80 (1992), and 10.82 (1990, 1993).
  • Veronica Campbell-Brown also ran 10.78 (2010), 10.81 (2012), and 10.82 (2012).
  • Evelyn Ashford also ran 10.79 (1983) and 10.81 (1988).
  • English Gardner also ran 10.79 (2015) and 10.81 (2016).
  • Tori Bowie also ran 10.80 (2014, 2016), 10.81 (2015), and 10.82 (2015).
  • Blessing Okagbare also ran 10.80 (2015).
  • Christine Arron also ran 10.81 (1998).
  • Inger Miller also ran 10.81 (1999).
  • Murielle Ahouré also ran 10.81 (2015).
  • Irina Privalova also ran 10.82 (1992).
  • Gail Devers also ran 10.82 (1993).
  • Gwen Torrence also ran 10.82 (1996).

Assisted marksEdit

Any performance with a following wind of more than 2.0 metres per second is not counted for record purposes. Below is a list of the fastest wind-assisted times (10.82 or better). Only times that are superior to legal bests are shown.

Season's bestsEdit

Top 15 junior (under-20) menEdit

Updated 9 June 2019.[65]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 9.97 +1.8 Trayvon Bromell   United States 13 June 2014 Eugene 18 years, 338 days [66]
2 10.00 +1.6 Trentavis Friday   United States 5 July 2014 Eugene 19 years, 30 days
3 10.01 +0.0 Darrel Brown   Trinidad and Tobago 24 August 2003 Saint-Denis 18 years, 317 days
+1.6 Jeff Demps   United States 28 June 2008 Eugene 18 years, 172 days
+0.9 Yoshihide Kiryu   Japan 28 April 2013 Hiroshima 17 years, 134 days [67]
6 10.03 +0.7 Marcus Rowland   United States 31 July 2009 Port of Spain 19 years, 142 days
+1.7 Lalu Muhammad Zohri   Indonesia 19 May 2019 Osaka 18 years, 322 days [68]
8 10.04 +1.7 D'Angelo Cherry   United States 10 June 2009 Fayetteville 18 years, 313 days
+0.2 Christophe Lemaitre   France 24 July 2009 Novi Sad 19 years, 43 days
+1.9 Abdullah Abkar Mohammed   Saudi Arabia 15 April 2016 Norwalk 18 years, 319 days [69]
11 10.05 +0.1 Adam Gemili   Great Britain 11 July 2012 Barcelona 18 years, 279 days
+0.5 Abdul Hakim Sani Brown   Japan 24 June 2017 Osaka 18 years, 110 days [70]
−0.6 4 August 2017 London 18 years, 151 days [71]
13 10.06 0.0 Sunday Emmanuel   Nigeria 26 April 1997 Walnut 18 years, 200 days
+2.0 Dwain Chambers   Great Britain 25 July 1997 Ljubljana 19 years, 111 days
+1.5 Walter Dix   United States 27 May 2005 New York 19 years, 116 days

NotesEdit

  • Trayvon Bromell's junior world record is also the age-18 world record. He also recorded the fastest wind-assisted (+4.2 m/s) time for a junior or age-18 athlete of 9.77 seconds on 18 May 2014 (age 18 years, 312 days).[72]
  • Yoshihide Kiryu's time of 10.01 seconds matched the junior world record set by Darrel Brown and Jeff Demps, but was not ratified because of the type of wind gauge used.[73]
  • British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 4 August 2001 (age 18 years, 334 days), but the wind gauge malfunctioned.[74]
  • Nigerian sprinter Davidson Ezinwa recorded a time of 10.05 seconds on 4 January 1990 (age 18 years, 43 days), but with no wind gauge.[75]

Top 20 junior (under-20) womenEdit

Updated 21 June 2019[76]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 10.75 +1.6 Sha'Carri Richardson   United States 8 June 2019 Austin 19 years, 75 days [58]
2 10.88 +2.0 Marlies Göhr   East Germany 1 July 1977 Dresden 19 years, 102 days
3 10.89 +1.8 Katrin Krabbe   East Germany 20 July 1988 Berlin 18 years, 241 days
4 10.94 +0.6 Briana Williams   Jamaica 21 June 2019 Kingston 17 years, 92 days [77]
5 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill   United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline 16 years, 129 days [78]
6 10.99 +0.9 Ángela Tenorio   Ecuador 22 July 2015 Toronto 19 years, 176 days [79]
+1.7 Twanisha Terry   United States 21 April 2018 Torrance 19 years, 148 days [80]
8 11.02 +1.8 Tamara Clark   United States 12 May 2018 Knoxville 19 years, 123 days
9 11.03 +1.7 Silke Gladisch-Möller   East Germany 8 June 1983 Berlin 18 years, 353 days
+0.6 English Gardner   United States 14 May 2011 Tucson 19 years, 22 days
11 11.04 +1.4 Angela Williams   United States 5 June 1999 Boise 19 years, 126 days
+1.6 Kiara Grant   Jamaica 8 June 2019 Austin 18 years, 243 days [81]
13 11.06 +0.9 Khalifa St. Fort   Trinidad and Tobago 24 June 2017 Port of Spain 19 years, 131 days [82]
14 11.07 +0.7 Bianca Knight   United States 27 June 2008 Eugene 19 years, 177 days
15 11.08 +2.0 Brenda Morehead   United States 21 June 1976 Eugene 18 years, 260 days
16 11.09 NWI Angela Williams   Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 1984 Nashville 18 years, 335 days
17 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney   United States 5 July 2014 Eugene 16 years, 118 days
18 11.11 +0.2 Shakedia Jones   United States 2 May 1998 Westwood 19 years, 48 days
+1.1 Joan Uduak Ekah   Nigeria 2 July 1999 Lausanne 17 years, 224 days

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 11.02:

Top 15 Youth (under-18) boysEdit

Updated 30 November 2018[83]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Country Date Location Age Ref
1 10.15 +2.0 Anthony Schwartz   United States 31 March 2017 Gainesville 16 years, 207 days [84]
2 10.19 +0.5 Yoshihide Kiryu   Japan 3 November 2012 Fukuroi 16 years, 324 days
3 10.20 +1.4 Darryl Haraway   United States 15 June 2014 Greensboro 17 years, 87 days
+1.5 Tlotliso Leotlela   South Africa 7 September 2015 Apia 17 years, 118 days [85]
+2.0 Sachin Dennis   Jamaica 23 March 2018 Kingston 15 years, 233 days [86]
6 10.22 +1.0 Abdul Hakim Sani Brown   Japan 14 May 2016 Shanghai 17 years, 69 days
7 10.23 +0.8 Tamunosiki Atorudibo   Nigeria 23 March 2002 Enugu 17 years, 2 days
+1.2 Rynell Parson   United States 21 June 2007 Indianapolis 16 years, 345 days
9 10.24 +0.0 Darrel Brown   Trinidad and Tobago 14 April 2001 Bridgetown 16 years, 185 days
10 10.25 +1.5 J-Mee Samuels   United States 11 July 2004 Knoxville 17 years, 52 days
+1.6 Jeff Demps   United States 1 August 2007 Knoxville 17 years, 205 days
+0.9 Jhevaughn Matherson   Jamaica 5 March 2016 Kingston 17 years, 7 days [87]
13 10.26 +1.2 Deworski Odom   United States 21 July 1994 Lisbon 17 years, 101 days
−0.1 Sunday Emmanuel   Nigeria 18 March 1995 Bauchi 16 years, 161 days
15 10.27 +0.2 Henry Thomas   United States 19 May 1984 Norwalk 16 years, 314 days
+1.6 Curtis Johnson   United States 30 June 1990 Fresno 16 years, 188 days
+1.0 Ivory Williams   United States 8 June 2002 Sacramento 17 years, 37 days
−0.2 Jazeel Murphy   Jamaica 23 April 2011 Montego Bay 17 years, 55 days
+1.9 Raheem Chambers   Jamaica 20 April 2014 Fort-de-France 16 years, 196 days

Top 15 Youth (under-18) girlsEdit

Updated 21 June 2019[88]

Rank Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nation Date Location Age Ref
1 10.94 +0.6 Briana Williams   Jamaica 21 June 2019 Kingston 17 years, 92 days [77]
2 10.98 +2.0 Candace Hill   United States 20 June 2015 Shoreline 16 years, 129 days [78]
3 11.10 +0.9 Kaylin Whitney   United States 5 July 2014 Eugene 16 years, 118 days [89]
4 11.13 +2.0 Chandra Cheeseborough   United States 21 June 1976 Eugene 17 years, 163 days
+1.6 Tamari Davis   United States 9 June 2018 Montverde 15 years, 159 days
6 11.14 +1.7 Marion Jones   United States 6 June 1992 Norwalk 16 years, 238 days
−0.5 Angela Williams   United States 21 June 1997 Edwardsville 17 years, 142 days
8 11.16 +1.2 Gabrielle Mayo   United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis 17 years, 147 days
+0.9 Kevona Davis   Jamaica 23 March 2018 Kingston 16 years, 93 days
10 11.17 A +0.6 Wendy Vereen   United States 3 July 1983 Colorado Springs 17 years, 70 days
11 11.19 0.0 Khalifa St. Fort   Trinidad and Tobago 16 July 2015 Cali 17 years, 153 days
12 11.20 A +1.2 Raelene Boyle   Australia 15 October 1968 Mexico City 17 years, 144 days
13 11.24 −1.0 Ewa Swoboda   Poland 4 June 2015 Sankt Pölten 17 years, 313 days
14 11.24 +1.2 Jeneba Tarmoh   United States 22 June 2006 Indianapolis 16 years, 268 days
+0.8 Jodie Williams   Great Britain 31 May 2010 Bedford 16 years, 245 days

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other legal times equal or superior to 11.02:

Para world records menEdit

 
Jason Smyth (in lane five) breaking the men's T13 world record at the 2012 Paralympic Games in London.

Updated 6 October 2019[90]

Class Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 10.92 +1.8 David Brown   United States 18 April 2014 Walnut
T12 10.45 +1.8 Salum Ageze Kashafali   Norway 13 June 2019 Oslo [91]
T13 10.46 +0.6 Jason Smyth   Ireland 1 September 2012 London
T32 23.25 0.0 Martin McDonagh   Ireland 13 August 1999 Nottingham
T33 16.46 +1.3 Ahmad Almutairi   Kuwait 12 May 2015 Doha
+1.0 3 June 2017 Nottwil
T34 14.46 +0.6 Walid Ktila   Tunisia 1 June 2019 Arbon
T35 12.22 +0.7 Ihor Tsvietov   Ukraine 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [92]
T36 11.87 −0.5 Mohamad Ridzuan Mohamad Puzi   Malaysia 9 October 2018 Jakarta [93]
T37 11.42 +0.2 Charl du Toit   South Africa 10 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [94]
T38 10.74 −0.3 Hu Jianwen   China 13 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [95]
T42 12.56 -0.2 Record mark (previous record removed)   IPA 1 January 2019 Bonn
T43 vacant
T44 11.12 +0.1 Mpumelelo Mhlongo   South Africa 29 August 2019 Paris
T45 10.94 +0.2 Yohansson Nascimento   Brazil 6 September 2012 London
T46/47 10.50 +0.5 Petrucio Ferreira dos Santos   Brazil 15 June 2018 Paris
T51 19.89 +1.3 Peter Genyn   Belgium 31 May 2018 Nottwil
T52 16.41 +0.2 Raymond Martin   United States 30 May 2019 Arbon
T53 14.10 +0.7 Brent Lakatos   Canada 27 May 2017 Arbon
T54 13.63 +1.0 Leo-Pekka Tähti   Finland 1 September 2012 London
T61 12.77 -0.1 Ntando Mahlangu   South Africa 20 March 2019 Stellenbosch
T62 10.66 +1.3 Johannes Floors   Germany 21 June 2019 Leverkusen
T63 11.95 +1.9 Vinicius Goncalves Rodrigues   Brazil 25 April 2019 São Paulo
T64 10.61 +1.4 Richard Browne   United States 29 October 2015 Doha

Para world records womenEdit

Updated 4 September 2019[96]

Classification Time Wind (m/s) Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
T11 11.91 +0.7 Libby Clegg   Great Britain 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [97]
T12 11.40 +0.2 Omara Durand   Cuba 9 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [98]
T13 11.79 +0.5 Leilia Adzhametova   Ukraine 11 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [99]
T32 37.67 0.0 Lindsay Wright   United Kingdom 25 July 1997 Nottingham
T33 19.89 +0.3 Shelby Watson   United Kingdom 26 May 2016 Nottwil
T34 16.80 +0.5 Kare Adenegan   United Kingdom 21 July 2018 London
T35 13.43 +0.9 Isis Holt   Australia 19 July 2017 London
T36 13.68 +1.5 Shi Yiting   China 20 July 2017 London
T37 13.10 +1.3 Mandy Francois-Elie   France 24 May 2019 Nottwil
T38 12.43 +1.3 Sophie Hahn   Great Britain 19 May 2019 Loughborough
T42 14.61 −0.2 Martina Caironi   Italy 30 October 2015 Doha [100]
T43 12.80 +1.0 Marlou van Rhijn   Netherlands 29 October 2015 Doha [101]
T44 12.72 +0.5 Irmgard Bensusan   Germany 24 May 2019 Nottwil [102]
12.72 +1.8 Irmgard Bensusan   Germany 21 June 2019 Leverkusen
T45 14.00 0.0 Giselle Cole   Canada 2 June 1980 Arnhem
T46/47 11.95 −0.2 Yunidis Castillo   Cuba 4 September 2012 London
T51 24.69 −0.8 Cassie Mitchell   United States 2 July 2016 Charlotte
T52 18.67 +1.7 Michelle Stilwell   Canada 14 July 2012 Windsor
T53 16.19 +1.0 Huang Lisha   China 8 September 2016 Rio de Janeiro [103]
T54 15.35 +1.9 Tatyana McFadden   United States 5 June 2016 Indianapolis
T61 21.58 −0.2 Erina Yuguchi   Japan 11 May 2019 Beijing
T62 13.63 +1.0 Fleur Jong   Netherlands 15 June 2019 Nijmegen
T63 14.61 −0.2 Martina Caironi   Italy 30 October 2015 Doha
T64 12.66 +0.5 Marlene van Gansewinkel   Netherlands 24 May 2019 Nottwil [102]

Olympic medallistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
  Thomas Burke (USA)   Fritz Hofmann (GER)   Francis Lane (USA)
  Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
  Frank Jarvis (USA)   Walter Tewksbury (USA)   Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
  Archie Hahn (USA)   Nathaniel Cartmell (USA)   William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
  Reggie Walker (RSA)   James Rector (USA)   Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
  Ralph Craig (USA)   Alvah Meyer (USA)   Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
  Charley Paddock (USA)   Morris Kirksey (USA)   Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
  Harold Abrahams (GBR)   Jackson Scholz (USA)   Arthur Porritt, Baron Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
  Percy Williams (CAN)   Jack London (GBR)   Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
  Eddie Tolan (USA)   Ralph Metcalfe (USA)   Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
  Jesse Owens (USA)   Ralph Metcalfe (USA)   Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
  Harrison Dillard (USA)   Barney Ewell (USA)   Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
  Lindy Remigino (USA)   Herb McKenley (JAM)   McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
  Bobby Morrow (USA)   Thane Baker (USA)   Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
  Armin Hary (EUA)   Dave Sime (USA)   Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
  Bob Hayes (USA)   Enrique Figuerola (CUB)   Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
  Jim Hines (USA)   Lennox Miller (JAM)   Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
  Valeriy Borzov (URS)   Robert Taylor (USA)   Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
  Hasely Crawford (TRI)   Don Quarrie (JAM)   Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
  Allan Wells (GBR)   Silvio Leonard (CUB)   Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Sam Graddy (USA)   Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[104][105]
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Linford Christie (GBR)   Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
  Linford Christie (GBR)   Frankie Fredericks (NAM)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
  Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Frankie Fredericks (NAM)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Ato Boldon (TRI)   Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Francis Obikwelu (POR)   Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Richard Thompson (TRI)   Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Yohan Blake (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Andre De Grasse (CAN)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
Betty Robinson
  United States
Fanny Rosenfeld
  Canada
Ethel Smith
  Canada
1932 Los Angeles
details
Stanisława Walasiewicz
  Poland
Hilda Strike
  Canada
Wilhelmina von Bremen
  United States
1936 Berlin
details
Helen Stephens
  United States
Stanisława Walasiewicz
  Poland
Käthe Krauß
  Germany
1948 London
details
Fanny Blankers-Koen
  Netherlands
Dorothy Manley
  Great Britain
Shirley Strickland
  Australia
1952 Helsinki
details
Marjorie Jackson
  Australia
Daphne Hasenjager
  South Africa
Shirley Strickland de la Hunty
  Australia
1956 Melbourne
details
Betty Cuthbert
  Australia
Christa Stubnick
  United Team of Germany
Marlene Matthews
  Australia
1960 Rome
details
Wilma Rudolph
  United States
Dorothy Hyman
  Great Britain
Giuseppina Leone
  Italy
1964 Tokyo
details
Wyomia Tyus
  United States
Edith McGuire
  United States
Ewa Kłobukowska
  Poland
1968 Mexico City
details
Wyomia Tyus
  United States
Barbara Ferrell
  United States
Irena Szewińska
  Poland
1972 Munich
details
Renate Stecher
  East Germany
Raelene Boyle
  Australia
Silvia Chivás
  Cuba
1976 Montreal
details
Annegret Richter
  West Germany
Renate Stecher
  East Germany
Inge Helten
  West Germany
1980 Moscow
details
Lyudmila Kondratyeva
  Soviet Union
Marlies Göhr
  East Germany
Ingrid Auerswald
  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Evelyn Ashford
  United States
Alice Brown
  United States
Merlene Ottey
  Jamaica
1988 Seoul
details
Florence Griffith-Joyner
  United States
Evelyn Ashford
  United States
Heike Drechsler
  East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Gail Devers
  United States
Juliet Cuthbert
  Jamaica
Irina Privalova
  Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Gail Devers
  United States
Merlene Ottey
  Jamaica
Gwen Torrence
  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[106] Ekaterini Thanou
  Greece
Merlene Ottey
  Jamaica
Tayna Lawrence
  Jamaica
2004 Athens
details
Yulia Nestsiarenka
  Belarus
Lauryn Williams
  United States
Veronica Campbell
  Jamaica
2008 Beijing
details
Shelly-Ann Fraser
  Jamaica
Sherone Simpson
  Jamaica
none awarded
Kerron Stewart
  Jamaica
2012 London
details
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
  Jamaica
Carmelita Jeter
  United States
Veronica Campbell-Brown
  Jamaica
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Elaine Thompson
  Jamaica
Tori Bowie
  United States
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
  Jamaica

World Championship medallistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Calvin Smith (USA)   Emmit King (USA)
1987 Rome
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Raymond Stewart (JAM)   Linford Christie (GBR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Carl Lewis (USA)   Leroy Burrell (USA)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Linford Christie (GBR)   Andre Cason (USA)   Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Bruny Surin (CAN)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
1997 Athens
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Donovan Bailey (CAN)   Tim Montgomery (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Bruny Surin (CAN)   Dwain Chambers (GBR)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Maurice Greene (USA)   Bernard Williams (USA)   Ato Boldon (TRI)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Kim Collins (SKN)   Darrel Brown (TRI)   Darren Campbell (GBR)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Michael Frater (JAM)   Kim Collins (SKN)
2007 Osaka
details
  Tyson Gay (USA)   Derrick Atkins (BAH)   Asafa Powell (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Tyson Gay (USA)   Asafa Powell (JAM)
2011 Daegu
details
  Yohan Blake (JAM)   Walter Dix (USA)   Kim Collins (SKN)
2013 Moscow
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Nesta Carter (JAM)
2015 Beijing
details
  Usain Bolt (JAM)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Trayvon Bromell (USA)
  Andre De Grasse (CAN)
2017 London
details
  Justin Gatlin (USA)   Christian Coleman (USA)   Usain Bolt (JAM)
2019 Doha
details
  Christian Coleman (USA)   Justin Gatlin (USA)   Andre De Grasse (CAN)

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  prakash (GDR)   Marita Koch (GDR)   Diane Williams (USA)
1987 Rome
details
  Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)   Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Katrin Krabbe (GER)   Gwen Torrence (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Gail Devers (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)   Gwen Torrence (USA)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Gwen Torrence (USA)   Merlene Ottey (JAM)   Irina Privalova (RUS)
1997 Athens
details
  Marion Jones (USA)   Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)   Savatheda Fynes (BAH)
1999 Seville
details
  Marion Jones (USA)   Inger Miller (USA)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)   Chandra Sturrup (BAH)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Torri Edwards (USA)   Chandra Sturrup (BAH)   Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Lauryn Williams (USA)   Veronica Campbell (JAM)   Christine Arron (FRA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)   Lauryn Williams (USA)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)   Kerron Stewart (JAM)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Carmelita Jeter (USA)   Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)   Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)
2013 Moscow
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Murielle Ahouré (CIV)   Carmelita Jeter (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Dafne Schippers (NED)   Tori Bowie (USA)
2017 London
details
  Tori Bowie (USA)   Marie-Josée Ta Lou (CIV)   Dafne Schippers (NED)
2019 Doha
details
  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)   Dina Asher-Smith (GBR)   Marie-Josée Ta Lou (CIV)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c It is widely believed that the anemometer was faulty for the race in which Florence Griffith Joyner set the official world record for the women's 100 m of 10.49 s.[1] A 1995 report commissioned by the IAAF estimated the true wind speed was between +5.0 m/s and +7.0 m/s, rather than the 0.0 recorded.[1] If this time, recorded in the quarter-final of the 1988 U.S. Olympic trials, were excluded, the world record would be 10.61 s, recorded the next day at the same venue by the same athlete in the final.[1][2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Linthorne, Nicholas P. (June 1995). "The 100-m World Record by Florence Griffith-Joyner at the 1988 U.S. Olympic Trials" (PDF). Brunel University. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  2. ^ "Women's outdoor 100m". All-time top lists. IAAF. 17 September 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  3. ^ BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
  4. ^ The Day – 23 January 1983
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  7. ^ "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
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  9. ^ "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  10. ^ "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  11. ^ Sandre-Tom. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164" (PDF). IAAF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  12. ^ 100 metres IAAF
  13. ^ Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
  14. ^ The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
  15. ^ Athlete Profiles – Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
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  53. ^ Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008),"Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" The New York Times
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