Wikipedia:WikiProject Brazil/PLG Glossary

Brazilian Portuguese bilingual glossary for politics, law, and government topics, including criminal investigations.

This glossary of terms initially contained terms commonly used in Portuguese and English Wikipedia articles about Operation Car Wash, and other related articles. It is designed as an editing aid for Wikipedia editors translating articles from Brazilian Portuguese into English.



Glossary for Brazilian terms for politics, law, government, and criminal investigations, originally created for assistance in translating terms from Brazilian Portuguese into English in Desdobramentos da Operação Lava Jato, Fases da Operação Lava Jato, and similar articles.


Because this is a specialized glossary, the first meaning(s) listed for a term will be the one(s) related to topics within the scope of this glossary, even if that is not the most common meaning in the spoken or written language for the term in a more general context. For example: the first meaning listed for #Recurso is "appeal"; a term from the law. A more common meaning of recurso is "resource"; but if listed at all, that more common meaning will be shown at the bottom of the entry. This glossary is not a general or indiscriminate list of terms from Brazilian Portuguese, and in order to maintain its usefulness entries outside its scope will be removed.


There is one alphabetical list, with headwords in Portuguese or English, and aliases, translations, or explanations given as appropriate. Because this is about translation in one direction, i.e., pt-BRen, nearly all the headwords are in Portuguese. Normally, the language of the headword is obvious; but when it isn't, (e.g., #Crime), then the translation context will clarify. English headwords appear occasionally when they may be helpful to a pt-BR → en translator, either by pointing out multiple meanings, unexpected equivalents, or to point out common concepts in Anglo-Saxon context that have no exact equivalent and need some explanation. A few headwords are present not because they are specifically topical to politics, law, or government, but because they may turn up frequently in such contexts and have a high likelihood of poor results from machine translation; these entries are tagged with an explanatory note.


This glossary concerns meaning and usage in Brazilian Portuguese. To avoid constant repetition, where the word Portuguese appears alone, it means Brazilian Portuguese. (Note: Wikipedias are by language, not country; there is one Portuguese Wikipedia for all Lusophone countries; there is no separate "Brazilian Wikipedia".)


Wikipedia is not a dictionary, and in particular, no warranty whatsoever is made that this article, or any of the articles are accurate. There is absolutely no assurance that any statement contained in an article touching on legal matters is true, correct or precise. See Wikipedia:Legal disclaimer for complete details.

Glossary of termsEdit


see #Diretoria de Abastecimento.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Acre (state), one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Rio Branco. See also: States of Brazil.
lawsuit. (plural: ações)
Expressions: ações na justiça ("lawsuits"); ações judiciais ("lawsuits")
In context:
  • Essas ações judiciais estão em trâmite na Justiça do Trabalho – These lawsuits are underway in the Labor Court
  • A indústria da música entrou com centenas de ações na justiça contra os consumidores... – The music industry launched hundreds of lawsuits against consumers...
In other contexts: actions; shares (of stock); campaigns; measures.[a]
Acordo de leniência            
a leniency agreement between a company and legal authorities. An agreement a company enters into with law authorities, to reduce their exposure to fines for criminal activity in exchange for something; typically an agreement to assist in investigations. Part of the #Anti-Corruption Act.[1][2] Chapter 5 of the #Anti-corruption Act provides the legal underpinning for companies to enter into leniency agreements with the authorities.[3]
Similar to #Delação premiada in its plea bargaining aspect, but as a leniency accord deals with a company's assets not its employees.
see #Odebrecht leniency agreement.
Often just the cognate agent; also broker, representative, and other terms. In the context of real or suspected wrongdoing, can be perpetrator, the accused, the suspect, or with less implied suspicion, partipant, actor, and so on.[a] An example can be seen in the use of agente in the JusBrasil article at #Falsidade ideológica.
  • agentes públicos – public officials
  • agentes políticos – political players, actors, or officials
standard two-letter abbreviation for Alagoas, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Maceió. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Amazonas (Brazilian state), one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Manaus. See also: States of Brazil.
Anti-Corruption Act      
aliases: Clean Company Act; Law no. 12.846/2013
law enacted in 2014 targeting corrupt corrupt practices among business entities doing business in Brazil. It defines civil and administrative penalties, as well as the possibility of reductions in penalties for cooperation with law enforcement under a written #Acordo de leniência (Leniency agreement).
see #Lei anticorrupção
standard two-letter abbreviation for Amapá, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Macapá. See also: States of Brazil.
Apartamentos funcionais
Executive apartment set aside in the capital, Brasília, by the government for the use of members of the #Chamber of Deputies while they are in the capital, typically half the week.[4][5]
Arrest warrant      
#Mandado de prisão.
Associação criminosa      
see #Quadrilha, #Organização criminosa.
See #Sítio de Atibaia.
plaintiff or claimant in a civil suit.
Syn: #Querelante. See also #Réu.
Expressions: parte autora: plaintiff ("complaining party")
In other contexts: in the more common, non-legal sense, just like "author" in English.[a]


standard two-letter abbreviation for Bahia, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Salvador. See also: States of Brazil.
#Suborno. In Brazil, the word #Propina is a synonym. See also #Kickback.
Burden of proof            
pt:Ônus da prova.


Cadastro Nacional da Pessoa Jurídica    
A unique number that identifies a pessoa juridica (juridical person). Similar to an Employer Identification Number. Abbreviated #CNPJ. Contrast #Cadastro de pessoas físicas.
abbreviation for #Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica.
cashier; cash register, cashbox; teller; treasurer; cash
  • fluxo de caixa – cash flow
  • geração de caixa – cash flow generation
In other contexts: box, crate[a]
see also: #Caixa dois.
Caixa dois            
a slush fund. lit. "cashbox two", this is a repository of unrecorded funds not reported to the appropriate tax authorities, and typically used as a slush fund for bribery or money laundering operations. See Caixa 2.
Câmara dos Deputados            
Chamber of Deputies (Brazil) (in BR context; i.e., for pt:Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil.) The lower of the two houses of the #Poder legislativo (legislative branch) of the #Congresso nacional, first created in 1824. The Chamber of deputies is located in the federal capital, and made up of 513 deputies who are elected by proportional vote for a four-year term. The other chamber of Congress is the #Senado Federal.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Ceará, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Fortaleza. See also: States of Brazil.
abbreviation for Constituição Federal. See #Constituição do Brasil.
Chamber of Deputies            
The lower chamber of the #National Congress. See #Câmara dos Deputados.
a chapa eleitoral is an electoral slate: a slate of candidates in an election.
In other contexts: plate, sheet, and many other meanings.[a]
Cifra oculta      
literally, "hidden figure"; also sometimes, cifra negra ("black figure").
This generally stands in for, or is part of the expression a cifra oculta da criminalidade, lit. the "hidden figure of criminality". This is a term from criminology, and refers to statistics about unreported crime. In English, the term is the "dark figure of crime" or the "hidden figure of crime".
Service of process.
a legal procedure in which a defendant is notified that a case is being brought against them and from which the triangular relationship among the three involved parties involved in the dispute, namely plaintiff (#Autor), defendant (#Réu) and judge, is closed. See #Mandado judicial, #Warrant.
see Usage note at #Legal process.
Civil procedure            
#Direito processual civil; <==R from pt:Direito Jurisdicional.
the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters)
abbreviation for #Cadastro Nacional da Pessoa Jurídica.
Código Civil brasileiro      
the Brazilian Civil Code. Not yet in en-wiki; but see fr:Code civil brésilien or es:Código Civil de Brasil.
Código de Processo Penal            
the Penal Code of Brazil.
the set of laws designed to regulate Brazil's criminal proceedings. It is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Government, through the #National Congress to legislate on criminal procedure.
Usually abbreviated CPP in Portuguese.
Coercive driving  N
There is no such thing as "coercive driving". If you see this phrase in the English press, it means they are relying on machine translation, which screws up badly in giving this result. Do not use this phrase in en-wiki.[a]
See #Condução coercitiva.
Colaboração premiada      
Literally: "rewarded collaboration"; plea bargain. Common name for the legal term Delação premiada. Established in the #Anti-corruption Act in 2014.[6]
See the Usage note at #Delação premiada.
Sample wikicode for using Colaboração premiada in an article, along with an explanatory footnote

First occurrence: The following suggested wikicode:

The operation was based on {{lang|pt|Colaboração premiada}} agreements{{Efn |name="Col-prem" |'''''Colaboração premiada'''''{{snd}} literally, "rewarded collaboration"; the common name for the legal process known as {{lang|pt|delação premiada}} in Brazil; which is a type of plea bargain involving informing or collaborating with investigations in return for specific reductions in sentence prescribed by the law.}} between the Public Ministry...


The operation was based on Colaboração premiada agreements[b] between the Public Ministry...

Subsequent occurrences: For second and subsequent occurrences, code it this way:

...based on {{lang|pt|Colaboração premiada}} agreements{{Efn|name="Col-prem"}} between...

Comissão parlamentar de inquérito      
a Parliamentary investigative commission, or parliamentary commission of inquiry. Cf. Parliamentary inquiry.
Example: "CPI da Petrobras" – the "Petrobras CPI". See #CPI da Petrobras.
Same word in both languages; Portuguese borrows it from English. The pt-wiki article pt:Compliance defines it as: "At the institutional and corporate level, compliance is the set of disciplines [put in place] in order to comply and enforce the legal and regulatory rules, policies and guidelines established for the business and the activities of the institution or company, as well as to avoid, detect and handle any deviation or lack of conformance that may occur."
The Portuguese word is a loanword from English. Related loanwords include: Departamento (or Unidade) de Compliance, and Compliance Officer.
the act of demanding improper advantage (Vantagem indevida for oneself or others, directly or indirectly, by someone in public office, either during their term or before or afterward if related to their function while in office. #Penal code Article 316. One of several crimes that are considered a "crime against public administration". (Note: no article on en-wiki—or any other xx-wiki—for Concussão, but sounds like bribery from the active partner; compare #Corrupção ativa; perhaps concussão is an example of corrupção ativa? t.b.d.)
Condução coercitiva          
See Condução coercitiva on en-wiki. A compulsory order to appear, to assist in an investigative or judicial proceeding, either as a victim, a witness, an expert, and so on. Not an arrest, but has the power of enforcement behind it, based on CPP. Has some features in common with a "material witness" in U.S. law. See pt:Condução coercitiva. See also this discussion. Compare Prisão and Prisão preventiva.
Translation note: Machine translation will often emit the word driving as part of the translation into English; this is completely incorrect in this context.[a] There is no accepted expression in English that conveys the sense of this term; consider leaving it in the original, accompanied by an explanatory note.
Sample wikicode for using Condução coercitiva in an article, along with an explanatory footnote

First occurrence: The following suggested wikicode:

The Federal Police served ten ''[[Condução coercitiva]]'' warrants{{Efn |name="cc" |'''''[[Condução coercitiva]]'''''{{snd}} literally, coerced conveyance; a compulsory order to appear, to assist in an investigative or judicial proceeding, either as a victim, a witness, an expert, and so on. Not an arrest, but has the power of police enforcement behind it to compel compliance. Has some parallels with a [[material witness]] in U.S. law.}}...


The Federal Police served ten Condução coercitiva warrants[c]...

Subsequent occurrences: For second and subsequent occurrences, code it this way:

The Police served seven ''[[Condução coercitiva]]'' warrants{{Efn|name="cc"}}...

Congresso Nacional            
pt:Congresso Nacional do Brasil (National Congress of Brazil) is the legislative branch of the government, as ordained by the #Constitution. It is made up of the #Federal Senate (the upper house) and the #Chamber of Deputies (the lower house).
Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica      
Administrative Council for Economic Defense; Brazil's governmental agency for competition regulation.
Constituição do Brasil      
The current constitution is the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (officially: Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988). Also known as the Constituição cidadã ("Citizen's Constitution") because of its birth in the process of the return to Democracy after the end of the period of military dictatorship in Brazil (1964–1985).
see #Constituição do Brasil.
Conta offshore
Offshore account.
a #Misdemeanor. In Brazilian law, a misdemeanor is one of two types of #Infração penal, the other one being a #Crime.
Corrupção ativa    
literally, "active corruption". Active corruption consists in the act of offering any kind of benefit or advantage (economic, or otherwise) to a public official, to cause them to perform an official act, or to prevent or delay them from performing such an act. The crime consists in the intent to offer the unfair advantage, regardless whether it actually occurs. It is governed by article 333 of the Penal Code, and is considered a crime against public administration. See #Vantagem indevida.
Corrupção passiva    
literally, "passive corruption". A crime committed by a public official, which consists in soliciting or receiving, for themselves or on behalf of someone else, an undue benefit (see #Vantagem indevida)), or a promise of such benefit. The term "passive" doesn't refer to initiation of a corrupt action, but who receives the benefit. For example, if a driver offers a cop money in order to avoid a ticket, and the cop accepts, the cop has committed passive corruption (and the driver has simultaneously committed active corruption). If the cop suggests the bribe, it's still passive. (See CP Art. 317.) Considered a "crime against public administration".
Court order
um mandado judicial
Court proceeding
in en, this is R==> Procedural law, which = pt:Direito processual.
CPF or:
abbreviation for #Cadastro de pessoas físicas. Contrast #CNPJ.
abbr. for #Comissão parlamentar de inquérito.
CPI da Petrobras
Parliamentary Investigation Commission into Petrobras. suggested encoding: {{ill|Parliamentary Investigation Commission|pt|Comissão parlamentar de inquérito|es|Comisión de investigación|fr|Commission d'enquête parlementaire en France|vertical-align=sup}} into Petrobras generates: Parliamentary Investigation Commission [pt; es; fr] into Petrobras.
abbr. for #Código de Processo Penal.
Crédito consignado      
literally, "consigned credit". Also known as an #Empréstimo consignado, this is a type of fixed, collateral-free loan where the repayments are deducted directly from your payroll check, or retirement or other benefits payment. These can be up to 30% of one's monthly income. The law originally came into effect in 2004 as a result of Law 10.820 (2003). The max repayment term 8 years (for salaried workers) or 6 years (retired). Some abuses of elderly pensioners has been noted, because the lower-than-market rates available have enabled some seniors to gain loans who otherwise could not, but who then run into trouble and default on other repayments, especially those in lower income brackets, leaving them insufficient funds to meet basic needs.[7]
Same word in both languages:
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes.
In Brazilian law, a crime is one of two types of #Infração penal, the other being #Contravenções (misdemeanors).
Crime contra a administração pública
literally, a "crime against public administration".
A group of crimes in the Penal Code that are characterized by their distortion of public administration and which injuriously affect the legality, impartiality, morality, or efficiency of public administration. Includes #Peculato, #Estelionato, #Concussão, #Prevaricação, #Denunciação caluniosa, #Calúnia, #Falso testemunho, and others .
Custo Brasil          
literally, "Brazil cost". This is a term that refers to the increased cost of doing business in Brazil based on in-country factors, such as administrative corruption, excessive bureaurocracy, dysfunctions in import-export operations, inefficiency in public services, and others. The concept derives from the more general one of "country cost"; see the article Ease of doing business index.


Dabm, Dabst
see #Diretoria de Abastecimento
whistle-blowing; denunciation; betrayal; sometimes: indictment. From Delatar, v. denounce.
pt:Delação redirects to pt:Denúncia, which is the act or petition in which a prosecutor presents the charge before a judge to try the crime described in it.
Delação premiada      
literally, "rewarded whistleblowing" (or, "informing"). The most common gloss for this in English is "plea bargain [agreement]"; also seen, much less frequently (about 10%), is #Leniency agreement. A legal process by which a suspect is offered a specific reduced sentence prescribed by the law, in return for turning in accomplices, or aiding in investigations. Applies only to individuals. The common name for this is #Colaboração premiada. The concept is similar to a plea bargain agreement, which results in a reduced penalty (fine, prison time) in return for investigative assistance. Established in the #Anti-corruption Act of 2014.[6] Contrast: #Acordo de leniência, which applies only to juridical persons.
Usage note: There is some fuzziness even in the Brazilian press, concerning the use of delação premiada (applies exclusively to people) and #Acordo de leniência (applies to business entities, not people) and occasionally the wrong term is used. The confusion in the English language press is greater, partly because the legal concepts in the two countries aren't identical, and "plea bargain" may be used for both terms. As a rule of thumb, if it's about reduction in monetary penalties for a company, use "leniency agreement" if possible; if it's about a reduction in fines or prison time for an individual, use "plea deal" or "plea bargain". If you are citing an English source, and it uses the "wrong" term, consider adding an explanatory note following the citation, to explain the situation.
Sample wikicode for using Delação premiada in an article, along with an explanatory footnote

First occurrence: The following suggested wikicode:

...documents and testimony obtained through {{lang|pt|delação premiada}}{{Efn |name="Del-prem" |'''{{lang|pt|Delação premiada}}'''{{snd}}"rewarded whistleblowing" (or, "informing"). A legal process by which a suspect is offered a specific reduced sentence prescribed by law, in return for turning in accomplices, or aiding in investigations. The common name for it in Brazil is {{lang|pt|colaboração premiada}} ("rewarded collaboration"). The concept is similar to a [[plea bargain]], in return for investigative assistance.}} (plea-bargained investigative cooperation).


...documents and testimony obtained through delação premiada[d] (plea-bargained investigative cooperation).

Subsequent occurrences: For second and subsequent occurrences, code it this way:

...obtained through {{lang|pt|delação premiada}}{{Efn |name="Del-prem"}} (plea-bargained investigative cooperation).

Delegacia especializada      
literally, "specialized precincts" (of the police).
"District precincts" (delegacias distritais) of the police department cover the normal types of criminal activity that are local to their area. But with the rise of organized crime and gangs that operate over a wider area, a new type of police precinct or station developed that is tied not to a particular locale, but rather to a particular sphere of activity. Some of these specialized precincts are those devoted to narcotics, cybercrime, chid protection and others. Some precincts specialize in women's issues, seniors, homicide, the environment, and more. See pt:Delegacia#Delegacias especializadas.
the person who denounces a crime; whistleblower. From Delatar, v. denounce.
Synonym: denunciante.
Synonym: #Crime. wd crime: d:Q83267.
abbreviation for the political party known as the #Democratas.
Brazilian political party with Liberal conservative policies, founded in 1985 under the name of Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente Liberal, PFL) from a splinter of the defunct #PDS.
abbreviation: DEM
in criminal law, the act in which a representative of the #Ministério Público (Public Prosecutor's Office) presents an accusation before the competent judicial authority in order to judge the #Crime or #Misdemeanor described in the petition.[8]
Cognate terms mean different things in other legal systems: in French law, Dénonciation is the term used when a citizen notifies authorities about a crime in which they are not the victim; (Plainte is the term used when they are themselves the victim).
In common law countries like the U.S. and U.K., the term denunciation is not used in the law. The closest legal parallel is indictment, which the public prosecutor may seek from a grand jury; in some jurisdictions, they may instead file an information (formal criminal charge) directly, which the accused can then challenge in a preliminary hearing before a judge.[9]
Denunciação caluniosa      
False accusation.
Departamento de Operações Estruturadas
Structured Operations Department at Odebrecht S.A.. Also known as the "bribery department". See #Setor de Operações Estruturais.
Departamento Geral de Polícia Especializada
See #Delegacia especializada.
A member of the Câmara dos Deputados do Brasil
Literally, an "unfolding". In the context of Operation Car Wash, as in pt:Desdobramentos da Operação Lava Jato, it is an offshoot. (Also seen, less often, are spin-off or represent desdobramentos in English sources about Operation Car Wash). In the context of talking about one particular #Operação, already named, it can be translated simply as Operation. Not to be confused with Operation Car Wash "phases" (fases) which is a different breakdown of investigations, numbered and named, starting with phase 1 in March 2014.
Discussion about desdobramento can be found here.
judge; Title given to justices in the courts of second instance. Compare #Ministro. See Usage note at #Juiz.
Diversion, as in diversion of funds in #Embezzlement. See #Peculato.
Deviation, as in desvios do plano original – deviation from the original plan.
Embezzlement, as in O suspeito foi considerado culpado por desvio de verbas públicas. – The suspect was found guilty of embezzlement of public funds.
Others: abuse, irregularities.
Other contexts: "turn": Eu tomei o primeiro desvio à direita – I took the first turn on the right.
abbreviation for pt:Departamento Estadual de Trânsito ("State Transportation Department"). Each state has its own department, and the abbreviation is often seen with the state two-letter code following, such as Detran/PR for the Paraná department, and Detran-SC for Santa Catarina.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Distrito Federal, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Brasília. See also: States of Brazil.
abbreviation for #Departamento Geral de Polícia Especializada.
Direito civil      
Civil law. That branch of law that deals with the rights and obligations of individuals and legal entities in their patrimonial, family relations and duties. Compare #Direito penal (criminal law).
Determinação legal
Ordinance; legal ordinance. Ruling; determination; court order.
Usage in context:
  • em desacordo com determinação legal ou regulamentar... = "in disagreement with established legal or regulatory precedent"
Direito penal      
Criminal law. Compare: #Direito civil.
Synonym: pt:Direito criminal.
Direito processual civil      
#Civil procedure.
Diretoria de Abastecimento      
Supply Board ('Supply', or 'acquisition', or 'procurement'; and 'Board', or 'Directorate'). These can be present in government or commerce. In the Army, DAbst is the technical support body of the Comando Logístico ("Logistical Command" (COLOG); the acquisition and supply department) of the Brazilian Army. In the Navy, the Dabm (Diretoria de Abastecimento da Marinha) is the Navy Supply Board. In commerce, the Diretoria de Abastecimento might be rendered as the "Supply Directorate", or "Supply Board".
The governing body of a political party, which usually includes representatives of all factions. Can be at national, state, or municipal level. Contrast diretoria (the "board"). Try "executive committee" in English (although it's not quite the same thing). "Directorate" seems to be something different. The Democratic National Committee is an example of one, in the U.S.
Distrito Federal            
The Federal District is the seat of government, and contains the capital city, Brasilia. (Analogous to the District of Columbia in the United States for Washington, D.C.) The Federal District is one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil.
Ditadura militar brasileira      
The period of Military dictatorship in Brazil from 1964 to 1985. Followed by a period of reintroduction of democracy, and the writing of the #Constitution in 1988.
an illegal dollar wire transfer. A neologism in Portuguese; no stable English term has claimed primacy yet; several have been offered.
This is the practice of trading dollars in the gray market for deposit in an institution abroad. This may or may not involve actual cross-border transfers of money. The practice is a crime under article 22 of Lei dos Crimes contra o Sistema Financeiro. It is often used in money laundering schemes. Still a neologism in the Brazilian press, and often found inside double quotes, often with explanatory text following. In English, various calques and translations have been proposed, including "dollar-cable", "cable-dollar", and others, but usually very tentatively, and with double quotes.
International dollar trading can happen with no actual monies crossing borders. Instead, it operates like an interbank clearing house, where deposits are transferred within the U.S. and within Brazil, for equivalent values on behalf of two (or more) customers, facilitated by the doleiro and his counterpart abroad.
Example: Mr Silva, who lives in Brazil, wants to deposit the equivalent of USD $100,000 into his New York bank account. He contacts the Brazilian doleiro, who activates his intermediary, a U.S. resident. The intermediary fronts a deposit of USD $100,000 from his U.S. bank into Silva's NY account. In turn, the American intermediary knows someone in the U.S. (Mr. Anderson) who wants to deposit the equivalent of US $100,000 in reals into his São Paulo account. The Brazilian doleiro provides the reals and deposits them into Anderson's São Paulo account as designated by the intermediary. No money traveled abroad. Anderson's dollars went from his U.S. bank to Silva's New York account via the U.S. go-between, fulfilling Silva's wish. Silva's reals went from his Brazilian bank to São Paulo via the doleiro, fulfilling Anderson's wish. There was no transfer of Brazilian funds into the U.S., or from the U.S. to Brazil.[10]
See also #Euro-cabo.
money dealer; black-market money dealer;[11] literally, "dollar-er" ("dollar-dealer"). Someone who buys and sells dollars on the gray market. They also transfer funds between countries on behalf of companies or individuals not authorized by the Central Bank of Brazil to perform exchange operations, or which are outside the official mechanisms of registration and control. While this may be legal in some contexts, in others it is an indicator of possible money laundering or tax evasion activities. In this context, a doleiro is someone who converts currencies without authorization, or beyond limits allowed by law. See also: #Dólar-cabo.
  • doleiro dos doleiros – dealer of dealers[11]


Em dinheiro vivo            
in cash; money in the form of coins or paper banknotes. It literally means "in live money". It is similar to "#Em espécie".
Em espécie            
in cash; in money in the form of coins or paper banknotes. Contrast: in kind.
Usage note: espécie can mean "kind"; but [pagamento] em espécie means "[payment] in cash" and not "[payment] in kind". This expression is not only very frequently mistranslated by automatic translation, even some online dictionaries get it wrong.[a] It means, "in cash".[12][13]
Empresa de fachada            
a "front company", or "front organization"; or simply: a "front".
Empréstimo camarada
literally, "comrade loan", "buddy loan".
a loan made as part of an illegal or ethically questionable deal. Still sometimes seen as a neologism, and may be found with camarada in double quotes.
Empréstimo consignado
literally, "consigned loan". See #Crédito consignado.
Enriquecimento ilícito    
literally, "illicit enrichment" (compare es:Enriquecimiento ilícito).
an increase in personal wealth in such a short time without just cause or proper declaration to the competent body (such as Tax Authorities), arising out of illicit use or through influence peddling. In Brazil, illicit enrichment of civil servants was criminalized by the commission that drafted the Penal Code.
entity, body.
  • entes públicos – public bodies
  • entes federativos – federal entities
In other contexts: "person". (in this case, ente is almost never used as an isolated word, it is normally used along with the word "querido" (dear), forming the phrase "ente querido", which means "loved one").[a]
standard two-letter abbreviation for Espírito Santo, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Vitória. See also: States of Brazil.
In addition to its main use is as an adjective meaning "state" or "government" (e.g., auxílio estatal=state aid; agência estatal=state agency; serviço estatal=government service), it can also be used as a noun meaning a "state-owned company", or "government firm".
  • um funcionário de uma grande estatal (an employee of big state-owned company)
  • ...e assinou contrato com a Petrobras para a manutenção e operação de quatro embarcações da estatal, ("...and signed a contract with Petrobras for the maintenance and operation of four vessels of the government company.")
Estelionato ("confidence game") is the crime of obtaining for oneself or someone else an unlawful advantage (vantagem ilícita) to the detriment of others, by misleading someone by deception or any other fraudulent means. One of several crimes that are considered a "#Crime contra crime contra o patrimônio". See #Penal Code Article 171.
Estelionato has a secondary meaning of "phishing" in the context of e-mail spam.
Structuring; smurfing. A money laundering technique involving break-up of large sums into smaller amounts, in order to fly under the regulatory radar.
International currency transfers involving Euros, possibly for the purpose of money laundering. See #Dólar-cabo.
Evasão de divisas      
capital flight; unreported remittance of currency; tax evasion.
a financial crime by which currency is sent abroad without being declared to the appropriate authorities.
Usage note: While "tax evasion" is also found as a translation, that is more of an underlying motivation for the actual concept, rather than the concept itself; a more direct translation of "tax evasion" itself is "evasão fiscais".
See also: #Divisa; #Divisas.


False accusation
pt:Denunciação caluniosa.
Falsidade ideológica      
fraudulent misrepresentation. lit., "ideologically false"; often seen adjectivally as ideológicamente falso ("ideologically false"). This is a type of fraud involving inclusion of false information in an otherwise valid document. This is defined in article 299 of the Penal code. Example: a doctor signs a certificate excusing someone from work who was not sick. The signature is real, the information in the document is false.[14][15]
Contrast: #Falsidade material.
Falsidade material
lit., "materially false"; this is a type of fraud involving creation of a phony document. Also seen adjectivally as materialmente falso ("materially false"). This is defined in article 299 of the Penal code. Example: an employee creates a false affidavit excusing them or someone from work who was not sick, and forges the doctor's signature.[14][15]
Contrast: #Falsidade ideológica. The key difference between the two, is that where falsidade material describes a forgery, falsidade ideológica describes a real document with false information.
Falso testemunho
false witness; false testimony.
Synonym: falsa perícia) CPP 342. contrast:Perjúrio
Fases is a cognate of "phases" (singular: fase). In the context of pt:Fases da Operação Lava Jato, it still translates as "phases", but it takes on a particular meaning, in that the use of the word fases here contrasts with the use of #Desdobramentos (offshoots) in the expression Desdobramentos da Operação Lava Jato. Individual investigations in Operation Car Wash that are launched by the investigative judges like Moro and others, are called "operations". The two terms, fases and desdobramentos are both used to describe operations, but are used in contrast to each other to describe different sets of operations that don't overlap. Car Wash "phases" are numbered and have names, like, Phase 7, Final Judgment (2014), or pt:Phase 43, No Borders (2017). Car Wash "offshoots" (desdobramentos) just have names.
See also: #Desdobramento.
Federal Senate            
The upper house of the #National Congress.
Federative units
See #Unidades federativas.
First instance      
see #Primeira instância.
Fiscal pedaling            
a calque of the Portuguese term, #Pedalada fiscal.
English uses the Latin term: In flagrante delicto.
a legal term used to indicate that a criminal was caught while committing a crime; often in the expression em flagrante delito as in this example. #CPP Article 301. The more everyday term is #Pego em flagrante. The everyday English expression is caught red-handed.
Forensic investigation
pt:Ciência_forense. From en:R==> en:Forensic science.
Foro privilegiado      
Official name: O foro especial por prerrogativa de função. Foro privilegiado is the colloquial equivalent of this.
Context: "pessoas com foro privilegiado", as in this example from pt:Desdobramentos da Operação Lava Jato#Operação Leviatã:
A operação focou a parte do esquema que repassava dinheiro só para o PMDB porque a parte do PT, não envolvendo pessoas com foro privilegiado, tramita na Justiça Federal do Paraná.
It is a method of determining a jurisdictional question, namely what venue has jurisdiction over certain high public officials in certain penal actions, based on their position or function. Normally, most people in Brazil, if accused of certain crimes, start off in lower courts and their cases may proceed to higher courts, under the law. For a limited subset of people, those with the foro privilegiado status, they start right off in the higher courts. The Brazilian Constitution specifies which officials according have "foro privilegiado", and the list includes the President of the Republic, Senators, Federal Deputies, State Deputies, ministers of State, Governors; and only while holding the office. See pt:foro especial por prerrogativa de função for details.
Too complex for a simple English translation, suggest using the original term in an interwiki link, and a follow-up explanatory note. See Offshoots of Operation Car Wash#Operation Leviathan for an example.
Formação de quadrilha            
gang formation; conspiracy; criminal conspiracy
expressions: acusados de formação de quadrilha – "accused of federal racketeering" (chiefly U.S. usage)
See #Quadrilha.
in common parlance, cognate to English "functional",[a] but has two other senses:
  1. an adjective for #Funcionário, a company employee or civil servant funcionário[16]
  2. a special sense, when combined with apartamento; see #Apartamento funcional


standard two-letter abbreviation for Goiás, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Goiânia. See also: States of Brazil.
Governo federal do Brasil      
the Federal government of Brazil, divided into three branches: the executive branch, headed by the #President and the cabinet; the legislative, whose powers are vested by the #Constitution in the #National Congress; and the judiciary, whose powers are vested in the Supreme Federal Court and lower federal courts.


Ideológicamente falso
see #Falsidade ideológica.
pt:Infração penal
any conduct specified by the law as illicit. Comprises two types: #Crimes, and #Contravenções. Compare #Crime.
An instância is any of the three degrees of jurisdiction (grau de jurisdição) of a court in the judiciary branch. The first, or lowest level is the #Primeira instância; the appeals courts are the #Segunda instância, and at the highest level are the superior courts.
Instância extraordinária
There is no "extraordinary instance" of the judiciary branch defined in the #Constitution. However, the #Supremo Tribunal Federal is sometimes known informally as the "extraordinary instance", because it has jurisdiction over lower courts of the first and second instance.
Instância superior      
Of the three degrees of jurisdiction (grau de jurisdição) of courts in the judiciary branch, the highest level is made up of the four superior courts. They are: the #Supremo Tribunal Federal, #Superior Tribunal de Justiça, #Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, #Tribunal Superior Eleitoral. They are the last resort of appeal of decisions made in appelate courts of the second instance. Informally, since these courts (and the #Superior Tribunal Militar) can review judgments made by lower courts of the #Segunda Instância, the public sometimes calls the superior courts the #Terceira instância ("third instance").
a #Summons, #Writ
A written communication issued by the competent authority to make someone aware of acts and terms of judicial or administrative proceedings. Sometimes also instructing the receiver on what to do and what not to do regarding the proceedings.[citation needed]
Intimação judicial
aquela que dá ciência de um ato judicial, tal como notificação judicial da sentença para efeito de contagem de prazo para interposição dos recursos cabíveis


judge; court; referee. A judge of the first instance.
Usage note: it's a peculiarity of Brazilian terminology surrounding judgeships, that judges in courts of different degrees or levels (grau de jurisdição) are known by different honorific titles, depending on what level they are in the hierarchy of the judicial branch. The term juiz is used for judges of the first instance. See also: #Desembargador, #Ministro.
Juiz eleitoral      
Judges who rule in cases involving electoral law (Direito Eleitoral) and part of the electoral justice system (pt:Justiça Eleitoral do Brasil) in courts of the first instance.
Juiz federal      
a judge in the federal justice system who prosecutes and judges cases in federal court. A juiz federal is a judge of the first instance in the #Justiça Federal.
judge (female).
court. See #Vara.
judgment. See #Vara.
Juiz relator            
a reporting judge, similar to a juge rapporteur in French civil law, or a Judge-Rapporteur in the European Union. They set forth the arguments of the parties, specify the questions of fact and of law raised in the dispute, list the evidence, and write a report for the presiding judges on the case, and may perform other functions as prescribed by law.[17][18][19]
tried; sentenced. See #Vara.
judgment; trial; verdict; sentencing.


a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered. Generally speaking, the remuneration (money, goods, or services) is negotiated ahead of time. The kickback varies from other kinds of bribery in that there is implied collusion between the two parties, rather than one party extorting the bribe from the other.
See #Propina, #Suborno.


(slang) a middleman whose name is used in corrupt transactions. This slang term is sufficiently new or not yet established that Brazilian media sometimes place it between double quotes.
Other contexts: the standard, non-slang meaning is "orange".
Lavagem de ativos
synonym for Lavagem de dinheiro ("money laundering").
Legal process      
any formal notice or writ by a court obtaining jurisdiction over a person or property. Common forms of process include a summons, subpoena, Mandate, and warrant. Process normally takes effect by serving it on a person, arresting a person, posting it on real property, or seizing personal property.
Contrast pt:Processo judicial, which is not a "Legal process"; it is closer to Legal proceeding.
Usage note: this is one of those cases where a word is used differently in a legal context than in standard English; the "process" here is not the procedure of carrying out the delivery of a warrant as one might expect; the "process" is the set of paper documents themselves. When you "serve process", you hand documents to someone. A "process server" is an official who "serves" (delivers, hands over) papers to someone.
Lei anticorrupção      
aliases: Lei da Empresa Limpa; Lei Nº 12.846/2013
Anti-corruption law which took effect in 2014.[3][1] This law targets companies doing business in Brazil, and provides for reductions in penalties of up to 2/3 of what would otherwise be imposed and other benefits, in return for self-disclosure about corrupt activities. This law applies to corporate entities only, not employees or other individuals; the latter are covered under plea bargain agreements.

Leniency agreement      
see #Acordo de leniência.
see #Odebrecht leniency agreement.


standard two-letter abbreviation for Maranhão, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: São Luís. See also: States of Brazil.
Warrant. There are various types, named after their content, including Mandado de Citação (for #Citação, Mandado de Intimação (#Intimação), Mandado de Intimação e Citação, Mandado de Penhora etc.
Mandado de busca            
a search warrant.
Aliases: #Mandado de busca e apreensão
A search warrant, or search and seizure warrant (which are legally synonymous in Brazil), is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize police officers to conduct a search of a person, place or vehicle for evidence of a crime and confiscate any evidence they find. In most countries, a search warrant cannot be issued in aid of civil proceedings.
Mandado de busca e apreensão      
a search warrant. Literally, "search and seizure warrant". All search warrants include the possibility of confiscation of items, so there is no distinction between the two. See #Mandado de busca, for which this is a redirect.
Mandado de prisão            
an arrest warrant. Codified under article 225 of the #CPP. Ordered by a judge, and with specific information appearing on it.
Mandado de prisão preventiva
a mandate; see Prisão preventiva.
Mandado de prisão temporária
a mandate; see #Prisão temporária.
Mandado de segurança            
a writ of security for protection of individual rights, defined in article 5, item LXIX of the #Constitution. Similar to a writ of amparo or a writ of mandamus.
Mandado judicial      
a court order; judicial mandate; court warrant; warrant;
Materialmente falso
see #Falsidade material
abbreviation for #Ministério das Comunicações.
abbreviation for pt:Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (1980); in English: Brazilian Democratic Movement.
A centrist political party; formerly called the #PMDB.
abbreviation for #Ministério da Indústria, Comércio Exterior e Serviços.
abbreviation for #Ministério da Economia.
2005 neologism meaning a monthly payment to Congress members in return for supporting government policy
derived forms:
Mercado cinza            
Grey market.
the trade of goods through distribution channels that, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or not intended by the original manufacturer. The most common type of gray market is the sale of imported goods brought in by small import companies or distributors not authorized by the manufacturer that would otherwise be more expensive in the country and are being legally imported with tax collection[clarification needed See pt:Mercado cinza.] A typical example is prescription drugs imported by a rich nation from nearby countries where the price is cheaper.
Compare: #Economia cinza, #Black market.
Mercado paralelo            
See #Mercado cinza.
abbreviation for #Ministério da Fazenda (Brasil).
standard two-letter abbreviation for Minas Gerais, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Belo Horizonte. See also: States of Brazil.
Ministério das Comunicações          
The Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communications (Brazil). A defunct cabinet level Ministry in Brazil.
Ministério da Economia      
The Ministry of the Economy in Brazil (full name Secretaria Especial da Receita Federal do Brasil). This Ministry was created in 2019 under Bolsonaro from four previous agencies (#MF, #MP, #MDIC and #MT) and is responsible for the formulation and execution of national economic policy through multiple agencies, including the National Treasury, and the departments of Finance, Planning, Taxation, Foreign Trade, and others.
Ministério do Planejamento          
A former Brazil governmental ministry (full name: pt:Ministério do Planejamento, Desenvolvimento e Gestão) responsible for planning, administration, audit, and other functions. Dissolved January 2019.
Ministério da Previdência social    
See #Previdência social (social security).
  1. a Minister of State; a cabinet minister. Officially, "Minister of State" (Ministro do Estado). The top executive of any one of the 24 ministries in the executive branch.
  2. a judge of one of the high courts is honored by the title of "minister", even though they are judges. Compare: #Juiz, #Desembargador. See Usage note at #Juiz.
abbreviation for #Ministério do Planejamento, Desenvolvimento e Gestão.
an abbreviation for pt:Ministério Público Federal (#Federal Public Ministry); redirects from pt:Procuradoria da república; part of the Ministério Público da União (MPU).
is pt:Ministério Público da União made up of the military, labor, capital territory, and MPF, the MPU is subordinate to the pt:Ministério Público do Brasil; headed by the pt:Procurador-Geral da República, appointed by the President.
Some items connected to MPF or MPU, either higher or lower on the admin hierarchy, that haven't been untangled yet:
standard two-letter abbreviation for Mato Grosso do Sul, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Campo Grande. See also: States of Brazil.
1. standard two-letter abbreviation for Mato Grosso, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Cuiabá. See also: States of Brazil.
2. an abbreviation for the #Ministério do Trabalho.


National Congress            
#Congresso Nacional
Nota fiscal    
a receipt or invoice.
Notas frias      
or, Notas fiscais frias, are fake receipts (notas fiscais falsas) which are for a service that was never actually performed or which was provided by a non-existent company, or by people who appropriate blank receipt forms belonging to firms that have closed down or are inactive.


a Portuguese loanword from English. A Brazilian definition is "a company that does its accounting in a country other than the one(s) where it operates."[20]
Organização criminosa      
Organized crime. See also #Associação criminosa, #Quadrilha.


standard two-letter abbreviation for Pará, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Belém. See also: States of Brazil.
Pagamento de vantagem indevida
literally, "payment of unfair or unjustified advantage". The active partner in "vantagem indevida". A form of #Corrupção ativa ("active corruption"). See #Vantagem indevida.
Paraíso fiscal            
lit., "fiscal paradise: a Tax haven.
Parliamentary Inquiry Commission
See #CPI.
Parte ré
See #Réu.
Partido da República           
abbreviation: PR
the Party of the Republic is a Brazilian political party, now known as the #Partido Liberal (PL).
Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira      
the Brazilian Social Democracy Party is a political party of the center, founded in 1988 by Mario Covas. Known in Brazil by the initials PSDB.
Partido Democrático Social            
abbreviation: PDS
the Democratic Social Party is a former conservative Brazilian political party, 1979–1993.
Partido Democrático Trabalhista            
abbreviation: PDT
The Democratic Labour Party (Portuguese: Partido Democrático Trabalhista, PDT) is a social democratic and democratic socialist political party in Brazil.
Partido dos Trabalhadores      
abbreviation: PT.
the Workers' Party is a social democratic political party founded in 1980. Recent Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff are from the PT.
Partido Liberal            
abbreviation: PL
the Liberal Party is a Brazilian liberal conservative political party. Formerly known as #Partido da República.
Partido Progressista      
alias for the #Progressistas political party.
Partido Republicano Brasileiro            
abbreviation: PRB
the Brazilian Republican Party is a political party. It changed name in 2019 and is now known as the #Republicanos.
Partido Socialista Brasileiro      
the Brazilian Socialist Party is a democratic-socialist political party.
Partido Social Cristão            
abbreviation: PSC
the Social Christian Party is a conservative political party in Brazil. Founded in 1985 as a Christian democratic party. The party supported Fernando Collor de Mello in the presidential election of 1989. President Jair Bolsonaro is a former member of the party.
Partido Social Liberal            
abbreviation: PSL
the Social Liberal Party is a conservative political party in Brazil. Founded in 1994 as a social liberal party. In January 2018, former Social Christian politician Jair Bolsonaro joined the party and later converted it into an economically liberal, nationalist, radically anti-communist and social conservative party. The original name remained after the ideological shift.
Partido Trabalhista Cristão      
the Christian Labour Party is a liberal-conservative political party in Brazil. President Fernando Collor de Mello was from the PTC, as it is usually known.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Paraíba, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: João Pessoa. See also: States of Brazil.
abbreviation for the Partido Democrático Social.
abbreviation for #Partido Democrático Trabalhista.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Pernambuco, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Recife. See also: States of Brazil.
literally, "embezzlement". There are other words in Portuguese that are commonly used to mean embezzlement more generally, including desvio (diversion), malversação (misappropriation), desfalque (embezzlement), and others. The term peculato is used specifically to mean embezzlement by a public official in an abuse of public trust for their own benefit or someone else's. It is one of several crimes that is considered a "crime against public administration". It is governed by #Penal code Article 312.
Pedalada fiscal            
synonym: Pedaladas.
in English: "Fiscal pedaling"; a governmental creative accounting technique involving the use of state-owned banks to front funds required for paying general government obligations without officially declaring a loan, thus hiding these transfers from public scrutiny and delaying repayment from the Treasury to these banks. As such it is a kind of overdraft implying a positive balance sheet that does not really exist.
noun: a person belonging to the #PDT (#Partido Democrático Trabalhista); from the Portuguese pronunciation of the initialism, + suffix -ista (#1).
adj: of or pertaining to the #PDT
Pego em flagrante
"caught in the act". See #Flagrante.
Penal code          
Brazil's penal code, established in 1940. Abbreviated #CPP in Portuguese.
a Prison.
a forensic investigation?
a análise técnica de uma situação, fato ou estado redigida por um especialista numa determinada disciplina, o perito. É um exame realizado por profissional especialista, legalmente habilitado, destinado a verificar ou esclarecer determinado fato, apurar as causas motivadoras do mesmo, ou o estado, a alegação de direitos, ou a estimação da coisa que é objeto de litígio ou processo.
o ato intencional de prestar um juramento falso ou violação do juramento, falada ou por escrito, sobre assuntos relevantes a um procedimento oficial CPP 342.
Compare: conhecido como "falso testemunho" em CPP
a member or supporter of the #PT (Workers Party)
a 2014 neologism which means "big oil", and grew out of the Operation Car Wash scandal. It's a portmanteau word made up of petróleo ("oil") and #Mensalão ("monthly payment").
abbreviation for "Policia Federal"; see #Polícia Federal do Brasil
abbreviation for #Procuradoria-Geral da República.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Piauí, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Teresina. See also: States of Brazil.
abbreviation for #Partido Liberal.
Plea bargain
No exact equivalent in Brazilian law, but similar to both #Delação premiada, which applies only to a natural person, and #Acordo de leniência, which applies only to juridical persons (business entities, not people); and often, somewhat confusingly, used as a translation in the English press for either one. See the Usage note at #Delação premiada.
abbreviation for Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro. See #MDB.
pt:Wikcionário has an entry for PMDB.
Poder executivo      
The executive branch of government; one of the three branches (ramos) of the Brazilian government. The top official(s) of the executive branch fulfill two roles: that of head of state (President, King, Prince, etc.), and in a parliamentary system, head of government (Chancellor, Prime Minister, Minister of State, Secretary General, etc.)
Poder judiciário      
lit. "Judicial power" (or "authority"); the judicial branch. One of the three branches of government, according to the #Constitution. The judiciary branch is based on three degrees of jurisdiction (grau de jurisdição). It is made up of 5 things: 1. #Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), 2. #Superior Tribunal de Justiça (STJ), 3. #Tribunais Regionais Federais (TRF) (Federal Regional Courts), and #Federal judges (juízes federais), 4. military judges and tribunals, and 5. tribunals and judges of the states, the #Federal District, and the territories. See #Instância.
Poder legislativo      
legislative branch (lit. "legislative power"; legislative authority). One of the three branches of government ordained in article 1 of the #Constitution, consisting of the National Congress, is exercised by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Each state of the Union is represented by three Senators of the Republic, elected by majority vote, and the seats in the Chamber of Deputies are divided according to the population of each state, and the deputies elected by proportional vote.
Poder público            
the ensemble of state institutions with authority to carry out the affairs of State; the three branches of government: #Poder executivo, #Poder judiciário, #Poder legislativo.
Usage note: in the plural, it may have a different meaning:
  • poderes públicos – public authorities, official authority; similar to the non-specific sense of "the authorities" in English.
Policia especializada
See #Delegacia especializada.
abbreviation for #Partido Progressista.
Polícia Federal do Brasil      
pt:Polícia Federal do Brasil = Federal Police of Brazil.
1. standard two-letter abbreviation for Paraná (state), one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Curitiba. See also: States of Brazil.
2. : abbreviation for #Partido da República.
abbreviation for #Partido Republicano Brasileiro.
A writ of payment; a payment request issued by the judiciary to a governmental entity like a state, a municipality, or the Union itself, as a result of a court judgment against them. [21] After winning a case against the government (#Poder Público), the plaintiff, who can be a physical or juridical person, becomes the holder of a certificate named the "Precatório", which is a judicial recognition of a debt that the public entity owes to the plaintiff in the suit. Conditions of payment are covered by the Constitution.[22] This places the government in the position of being a judgment debtor. There are two types of precatório, called alimentar and comun:[23]
There is no established term in English for precatório. Some options seen are: writs of payment, special judicial order payment, writs of payment of government debt, certificates of judgment debt. Some expressions using it are:
  • o pagamento de precatórios – court-ordered debt
  • pagamento de precatórios – payment of special judicial orders
  • o uso de precatórios para abater a dívida – the use of writ to offset the debts
Note: a law of the State of Rio de Janeiro gave debtor municipalities ten years to pay precatório debts.[24]
Other contexts: the term precatory in English is a false friend; the English word has to do with wills and testaments. It is not a valid translation of precatório.[a]
Precatório alimentar
a type of #Precatório which is related to judicial decisions on pensions, salaries, retirements and indemnities for death and disability. These are writs of payment for damage to an individuals income stream.[25] See #Precatório.
Precatório comun
a type of #Precatório which is related judicial decisions not considered a #Precatório alimentar, such as expropriations and taxes. Other types of compensation can also become a Precatório comun.[23] See #Precatório.
Presidente do Brasil      
President of Brazil. As of 1 Jan 2019: Jair Bolsonaro. Others: see List of presidents of Brazil.
Preventive detention
See #Prisão preventiva. Compare #Remand.
Previdência social    
a type of public insurance program that offers protection against various economic risks (eg loss of income due to illness, old age or unemployment), with mandatory participation. It's considered a type of social security, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. See #Ministério da Previdência Social.
Primeira instância
The first, or lowest level of the three degrees of jurisdiction (grau de jurisdição) in the #Poder Judiciário (judiciary branch). These include Federal judge#Brazil (Juiz federal),
See #Segunda instância.
Arrest; jail; prison; imprisonment.[a]
In the sense of "arrest", it comes in three forms (modalidades) in Brazil: flagrante, temporária or preventiva.
Contrast: #Condução coercitiva.
Prisão domiciliar
House arrest
Prisão em flagrante
see Flagrante
Prisão preventiva      
pt:Prisão preventiva roughly = Preventive detention, but not exact equivalents.
Prisão preventiva is a pre-trial, precautionary detention defined by #CPP §311–316. Not to be confused with post-trial sentencing.
The English preventive detention is broader in scope; the Portuguese one may be more like pre-trial #Remand.
Prisão temporária      
uma espécie de prisão cautelar, sendo instrumental para a apuração de um crime grave.
"temporary pre-trial detention". In Brazil, a 1989 law following the #Constitution of Brazil, replacing the former prisão por averiguação (investigatory detention) which was found to be contrary to fundamental rights under the 1988 charter. Only used in certain high crimes where it might impede the investigation if the subject were not detained, and where they have no fixed address or their identity cannot be established.
Prisão em segunda instância      
arrest after being convicted by the second degree of jurisdiction. (this type of arrest was allowed by a 2016 Supreme Federal Court decision, in 2019 the decision was overturned).
pt:Penitenciária. Also: presídio, claustro, clausura, cadeia, cárcere or prisão (which also means "imprisonment").
Prisões en flagrante
an arrest warrant for a person caught in the act
alias: pt:Processo judicial
#Legal process. See #Service of process.
Processo judicial            
Legal process.
Procurador-Geral da República      
nominated by the #President, and responsible for the #Procuradoria-Geral da República
Procuradoria da república      
pt:Procuradoria da república ==> pt:Ministério Público Federal
pt:Procuradoria Geral da República ==> pt:Ministério Público
pt:Procurador-Geral da República (Brasil) = en:Prosecutor General of the Republic (Brazil)
or Partido Progressista (Brasil), (Progressive Party (Brazil)), is a center-right party in Brazil; the 4th largest party.
synonym for #Suborno ("bribe"). Note that while propina is generally a "bribe" (Brazil only), English has a narrower term, kickback, which pertains to some forms of bribery and not others. See #Bribe, #Kickback. See also: wikt:fee-splitting.
In other contexts: a fee; a tip (as in a restaurant).[a]
Evidence (law).
todo meio destinado a convencer o juiz, seu destinatário, a respeito da verdade de um fato levado a julgamento.
abbreviation for #Partido Socialista Brasileiro.
abbreviation for #Partido Social Cristão. Social Christian Party (Brazil)
abbreviation for #Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira.
abbreviation for #Partido Social Liberal.
abbreviation for #Partido dos Trabalhadores.
abbreviation for #Partido Trabalhista Cristão (Christian Labour Party).


criminal gang; criminal association; criminal conspiracy
synonyms: bando; #Associação criminosa; #Organização criminosa, gangue; (from English: gang).
see #Formação de quadrilha
Quadrilhão is a neologism (in this sense) used by the Federal Police and Attorney General Rodrigo Janot, and picked up by the Brazilian press to refer to alleged criminal organizations inside the #PT and the #PMDB. The suffix is an augmentative derived from #quadrilha, so literally would mean, "big criminal gang", "large criminal conspiracy", etc.
In other contexts: a quadrillion (1000 trillions).
plaintiff, complainant, complaining party. See #Citação, #Autor, #Réu, #Juiz.
In other contexts: pt:wikt:querelante[a] (in Portuguese)


Recebimento de vantagem indevida    
literally, "receipt of unfair or unjustified advantage". The receiver, or passive partner, in "#Vantagem indevida". A form of passive corruption. See #Vantagem indevida.
Receita Federal          
Department of Federal Revenue of Brazil.
traditional name: Receita Federal do Brasil. A Brazilian governmental agency responsible for taxes, customs control, and combating smuggling, embezzlement, counterfeiting, and illegal traffic in drugs, weapons and animals. This would be similar to an agency roughly combining the functions of the IRS and ATF. Formerly part of the Finance Ministry, and since January 2019, part of the new Economic Ministry (#Ministério da Economia) under Bolsonaro.
An appeal. An instrument to request alteration of a prior court decision to a court of the same or higher instance, on the same case.
  • entrar com um recurso: file an appeal
  • de recurso: appellate
  • recursos: funds; e.g., desvio de recursos – diversion of funds
Other contexts: outside of law, the primary meanings of recurso are "resource", "feature", "asset".[a]
abbreviation or short form for #Juiz relator.
Remand (also known as "pre-trial detention" or "provisional detention") is the process of detaining a person who has been arrested and charged with an offense until their trial.
See #Preventive detention.
A Brazilian political party of the right founded in 2003. Formerly known as the Partido Republicano Brasileiro (PRB), and before that, as the Partido Municipalista Renovador (PMR).
defendant, respondent, or accused person in a civil suit.
See also #Autor, #Citação.
Expressions: parte ré: defendant ("defending/responding party")
standard two-letter abbreviation for Rio de Janeiro State, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Rio de Janeiro. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Rio Grande do Norte, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Natal. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Rondônia, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Porto Velho. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Roraima, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Boa Vista. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Rio Grande do Sul, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Porto Alegre. See also: States of Brazil.


standard two-letter abbreviation for Santa Catarina (state), one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Florianópolis. See also: States of Brazil.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Sergipe, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Aracaju. See also: States of Brazil.
Abbreviation for #Secretaria de Estado de Administração Penitenciária.
Search warrant            
pt:Mandado de busca.
Search and seizure warrant            
#Mandado de busca e apreensão.
Secretaria de Estado de Administração Penitenciária      
State Secretariat of Penitentiary Administration. One of the secretariats of the Rio de Janeiro State Government. Created in 2003, it is the institution responsible for the penitentiary and prison system in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
Segunda instância            
The middle level of the three degrees of jurisdiction (grau de jurisdição) in the #Poder judiciário (judiciary branch). A court of second instance is analogous to an appeal court or appellate court in Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence. See #Primeira instância.
o julgamento do litígio
Normally: kidnapping, when it has to do with a person. But not for other expressions, such as:
  • sequestro de imóveis – seizure of real estate[a]
Service of process            
A formal presentation of court documents (called "process" in English) to a defendant. See #Citação.
Setor de Operações Estruturais
Odebrecht's Structured Operations Division, which handled bribery and kickbacks.
Synonym: Departamento de Operações Estruturadas[26]
see #Setor de propina
Setor de propina
lit., "bribery section", or "bribery department". This is a slang term or nickname for Odebrecht S.A.'s Structured Operations Division (Setor de Operações Estruturais), because it was that department within the company that was responsible for managing and paying kickbacks and bribes.[27][28][29][26]
There isn't sufficient usage in English sources to have settled on one term for it, but "bribery department" is present in a BBC report.[30]
Sítio de Atibaia
lit., "the Atibaia site". known in English as the "Atibaia case" or "Atibaia site", and other terms. The property is known as the "ranch", the "house", the "farmhouse", the "case", the "site case", etc.
in Portuguese, sometimes "sítio Santa Bárbara". "O sítio de Atibaia" is the name given by the press to a property in Atibaia, a town in the interior of São Paulo state, which was central to the second condemnation of President Lula in Operation Car Wash, which increased his sentence from 13 to 17 years. The formal owner of the property was Fernando Bittar, ex-colleague of Fábio Luís Lula da Silva, o Lulinha, son of Lula. It was seized by the judge as part of Lula's sentence.[31][32][33]
standard two-letter abbreviation for São Paulo, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: São Paulo (state). See also: States of Brazil.
abbreviation for #Supremo Tribunal Federal.
abbreviation for #Superior Tribunal de Justiça.
A type of corruption (#Corrupcao) in which an offer, payment or promise is made to a public official in exchange for economic or other favors that benefit the corruptor.
In Brazil, the term #Propina is used as a synonym. Corrupção is sometimes also used as a synonym, although it is broader; other terms seen include: aliciamento, compra, bola, peita, feita.
(no pt equiv)
Summary offence            
a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment
see also: "serve" a summons, or other writ
Superior Tribunal de Justiça      
Superior Court of Justice (Brazil), also known as the STJ. The highest appellate court in Brazil for non-constitutional questions of federal law. Justices in STJ (as in other Superior Courts) are called "ministers" not "justices"; not to be confused however with ministers from the executive branch.
Supremo Tribunal Federal            
the Supreme Federal Court; the highest Court in Brazil. Abbreviated #STF in Portuguese.


an abbreviation for #Tribunal de Contas do Estado.
an abbreviation for #Tribunal de Contas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
an abbreviation for #Tribunal de Contas da União.
Terceira instância
literally, "third instance" (see #Instância). There is no third instance of the judiciary branch defined in the #Constitution. However, the Superior Tribunals are sometimes known informally as the "third instance", because decisions taken by tribunals of the first and second instances can be reviewed by superior courts. See also #Instância extraordinária.
a witness
abbreviation for #Tribunal de Justiça.
standard two-letter abbreviation for Tocantins, one of the 27 #Federative units of Brazil. Capital: Palmas. See also: States of Brazil.
Trading Company            
under Brazilian law, a company that specializes in import-export activities and acts as an intermediary between buyers and vendors in different countries.[34] The Brazilian term is a loanword from English. A Brazilian Trading company operates under Brazilian law and is not quite the same as a "Trading company" in common law countries.[35] There are two broad groups of commercial exportation companies in Brazil: those that are in possession of a Certificado de Registro Especial are Trading companies and regulated under the law (1248/72); those that don't, are under the civil code (10.406-02).
Tráfico de influência      
Influence peddling.
abbreviation for #Tribunais Regionais Federais (plural; or singular: Tribunal Regional Federal).
abbreviation for #Tribunal Regional Federal da 4ª Região.
Tribunal de Contas do Estado      
State Court of Auditors. Independent, technical organizations linked to the legislature, and present in each state and at the Federal level. They are charged with auditing public accounts in the name of the people.
Tribunal de Contas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro      
The Rio de Janeiro State Court of Auditors [pt]. Contrast: #Tribunal de Contas da União at the Federal level. Abbr: #TCE-RJ.
Other expressions seen in English: Rio de Janeiro State Audit Court, Rio state's court of auditors.
Tribunal de Contas da União      
Federal Court of Auditors; the Brazilian federal accountability office. It is an arm of the Legislative Branch of the Brazilian government, to assist Congress in its constitutional office of providing an external audit over the Executive Branch. Known by its initials, the TCU.
Tribunal de Justiça      
abbreviation: TJ.
the highest court of a state judicial system is its court of second instance, the Tribunal de Justiça (Court of Justice). Each Brazilian State has one Court of Justice. They are courts of appeal, meaning they can review any decisions taken by the trial courts (#Primeira instância), and have the final word on decisions at state law level. (In this respect, a TJ is similar to a State supreme court in the United States.) There are 180 judges, modifiable if the load is too great. Judges of the Tribunal de Justiça are called #Desembargadores. Decisions of the Tribunal de Justiça can be reviewed by the #Supremo Tribunal Federal.
Tribunal judicial
courthouse; court of law.
Tribunal Regional Federal            
There are five regional federal courts, each covering several Brazilian states. They are established by articles 107 and 108 of the #Constitution. Together with #Federal judges, the five TRFs make up the #Justiça Federal (Federal Courts), which is part of the #Poder Judiciário. Each TRF has seven (or more) judges of the second instance named by the #President, who hold court around the region of their jurisdiction, using local facilities.
See for example, #TRF-4.
abbreviation: TRF.
Tribunal Regional Federal da 4ª Região      
The Federal Regional Court of Region 4 is one of the five Federal District Courts (#Tribunais Regionais Federais). It is a court of second instance (#Segunda instância) that has jurisdiction over the three states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, and is headquartered in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. It was inaugurated in 1989, and has 27 judges (#Desembargadores).


literally "union" (or "unity"), this term is used as a synonym of the #Governo federal do Brasil (Federal government of Brazil). This is the executive branch of government in Brazil.
in compounds, "union": e.g., União Europeia (European Union).
Unidades federativas      
literally, "Federated units" or "Federative units". Brazil is a federation (official name: Federative Republic of Brazil) containing several subnational units, such as regions, states, municipalities, and the Federal District (capital), Brasilia. By one account (pt:Subdivisões_do_Brasil), the federative units are 27: the 26 states of Brazil, plus the #Federal District. By another account (pt:Unidades federativas do Brasil), the federative units consist of the Union, the 27 above, plus the municipalities.
Synonym: unidades da federação.


Vantagem indevida      
illicit funds (a free translation, usable in most cases).
#Recebimento de vantagem indevida: literally, "undue advantage" (or "illicit", "improper", "unfair", "unjustifiable", etc.) advantage (or "benefit", "profit", "gain", etc.) A form of corruption, either active (corrupção ativa) or passive (corrupção passiva) involving payment or receipt of improper advantage (economic or otherwise) or the promise of it, from someone in public office, or before or after their term of office if related to their function while in office. The term comes up in several places in the #CPP, including article 217 (regarding #Corrupção passiva), article 316 (#Concussão), article 333 (#Corrupção ativa), and others.[36][37]
Usage note: Since there isn't an exact equivalent in common law, and the noun phrase can be awkward in certain contexts, rewording it as an adverbial phrase might work better in some cases: "X illicitly profited from", "...earned illegal gains from", and so on; perhaps followed by an explanatory note quoting vantagem indevida and explaining its use in the given context.
Sample wikicode for using Vantagem indevida in an article, along with an explanatory footnote

First occurrence: The following suggested wikicode:

...investigated payments of "undue advantage" ({{lang|pt|vantagem indevida}}{{efn |name="v-indev" |'''{{lang|pt|vantagem indevida}}'''{{snd}} literally, "undue advantage". This is the thing of value offered to someone that is at the core of any form of corruption, whether "active" ({{lang|pt|corrupção ativa}}) or "passive corruption" ({{lang|pt|corrupção passiva}}) involving payment or receipt of some benefit (whether economic or otherwise) or the promise of it, to or from someone in public office, during their term, or outside their term of office if related to their function while in office.<ref>{{cite web |lang=pt |first=Evinis |last=Talon |title=A corrupção no Código Penal |trans-title=Corruption in the Penal Code |date=22 Nov 2016 |publisher= |url= |website=Jusbrasil |accessdate=30 January 2020}}</ref><ref name="Dezem-2020">{{cite book| last1=Madeira Dezem |first1=Guilherme |last2=Junqueira |first2=Gustavo Octaviano Diniz |last3=Junqueira |first3=Patrícia |first4=Paulo Henrique |last4=Aranda Fuller |title=Prática Jurídica - Penal|url=|accessdate=30 January 2020|date=8 January 2020|publisher=Saraiva Educação S.A.|isbn=978-85-536-1610-7|page=417}}</ref> ''[[:pt:vantagem indevida|Vantagem indevida]]'' comes up several times in the [[Brazilian Penal Code]] in articles defining different types of corruption, including {{lang|pt|[[:pt:Corrupção passiva|Corrupção passiva]]}} (article §217), {{lang|pt|[[:pt:Concussão (crime)|Concussão]]}} (§316), {{lang|pt|[[:pt:Corrupção ativa|Corrupção ativa]]}} (§333), and others.}}) by a business group to politicians.


...investigated payments of "undue advantage" (vantagem indevida[e]) by a business group to politicians.

Subsequent occurrences: For second and subsequent occurrences, code it this way:

...payments of "undue advantage"{{efn|name="v-indev"}} by a group...

In law, it corresponds to a court or judicial district. In Brazil, the authority is inverted, as it is not the varas or judicial districts that are the organs of the Judiciary, but the judges themselves. In this case, the varas represent the defined area of action of each judge; so vara is the jurisdiction of a judge. Often seen with a preceding ordinal, in which case it can be translated as "court" (a sentença inicial, dada pela 1ª Vara Cível da Comarca de Assu : "the initial sentence given by the 1st Civil Court of Assu"), or can be translated as "District" (especially in conjunction with comarca): (decisão proferida pela 3ª Vara Cível da Comarca de Londrina : "decision issued by the Third District Court of Londrina".)
for Vara federal several expressions may be seen; for example, for a 23ª Vara federal de Curitiba, one can see Federal Court, Federal District Court,[39] Federal Circuit Court; for 13.ª Vara Criminal Federal de Curitiba one sees 13th Federal Court of Curitiba, 13th Federal Criminal Court of Curitiba, and so on. However, Federal District Court is more often used to indicate one of the TRF courts (#Tribunal Regional Federal),[40] so to avoid ambiguity with the TRF this term should perhaps be avoided to translate Vara, and use just Federal Court for courts of the #First instance.
Synonyms: pt:wikt:juízo, pt:wikt:julgado, ou juizado.
Expressions: conduzido debaixo de vara – meaning, conducted under court order (listed at pt:wikt:vara).
In non-legal contexts: "rod", "pole", or "bar".
Voto proporcional            
lit. "Proportional voting". This is a proportional representation election system in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If 55% of the electorate support a particular political party as their favorite, then roughly 55% of seats will be won by that party.


: pt:Mandado. As in warrant (law)
see also: #search warrant

See alsoEdit

45 crime article links from pt:Crime



  • import Portals from pt:Portal3|Polícia|Sociedade|Direito


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p The headword in bold at the top of this entry has a significant likelihood of being mistranslated when using automatic translation. Machine translation can have difficulty with individual words or expressions for many reasons, including false friends, false cognates, literal translation, neologisms, slang, idiomatic expressions and other unrecognized compounds, words with multiple meanings, words with specialized meanings in certain knowledge domains different from a common meaning of a word in a more general context, and other reasons. These issues can be difficult for human translators as well. Some expressions in Brazilian law or government have no exact equivalent in English, because the administrative and legal systems are not the same. In some cases, when any brief expression in English would either be opaque, or misleading, a term shouldn't be translated at all, but left in the original Portuguese and followed by an explanatory note.
  2. ^ Colaboração premiada – literally, "rewarded collaboration"; the common name for the legal process known as delação premiada in Brazil; which is a type of plea bargain involving informing or collaborating with investigations in return for specific reductions in sentence prescribed by the law.
  3. ^ Condução coercitiva – literally, coerced conveyance; a compulsory order to appear, to assist in an investigative or judicial proceeding, either as a victim, a witness, an expert, and so on. Not an arrest, but has the power of police enforcement behind it to compel compliance. Has some parallels with a material witness in U.S. law.
  4. ^ Delação premiada – "rewarded whistleblowing" (or, "informing"). A legal process by which a suspect is offered a specific reduced sentence prescribed by law, in return for turning in accomplices, or aiding in investigations. The common name for it in Brazil is colaboração premiada ("rewarded collaboration"). The concept is similar to a plea bargain, in return for investigative assistance.
  5. ^ vantagem indevida – literally, "undue advantage". This is the thing of value offered to someone that is at the core of any form of corruption, whether "active" (corrupção ativa) or "passive corruption" (corrupção passiva) involving payment or receipt of some benefit (whether economic or otherwise) or the promise of it, to or from someone in public office, during their term, or outside their term of office if related to their function while in office.[38][37]Vantagem indevida comes up several times in the Brazilian Penal Code in articles defining different types of corruption, including Corrupção passiva (article §217), Concussão (§316), Corrupção ativa (§333), and others.
  1. ^ a b Hogan Lovells (15 September 2017). "Brazil's new guidelines for leniency agreements in corruption investigations". Lexology. Law Business Research. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  2. ^ Da redação (8 November 2016). "Odebrecht negocia maior acordo de leniência do mundo" [Odebrecht negotiates biggest leniency agreement in the world]. Veja (in Portuguese). Editora Abril. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b Lobo & Ibeas (1 August 2013). "V Leniency Agreement". Brazilian Anti-Corruption Act (Federal Law 12,846/2013) (pdf). Lobo & Ibeas Attorneys. p. 11. Retrieved 20 January 2020. (bilingual pt/en)
  4. ^ R7 (5 November 2012). "Conheça os novos apartamentos onde os deputados moram em Brasília" [Get to know the new apartments where deputies live in Brasilia]. R7 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  5. ^ Amorim, Diego (5 July 2018). "Por que os deputados precisam de apartamento funcional?" [Why do deputies need an executive apartment?]. O Antagnista (in Portuguese). Mare Clausum Publicações. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b "The Role of Plea Bargains in the Fight Against Corruption: A Presentation by Brazil's Attorney General, Rodrigo Janot". Brazil Institute. Wilson Center. 2017-07-20. Retrieved 20 January 2020. In Brazilian law, plea bargains are a means of obtaining proof, not proof in themselves.
    No direito brasileiro, a colaboração premiada é meio de obtenção de prova, e não meio de prova.—Attorney General Rodrigo Janot
  7. ^ Pegado Liz (16 February 2008). "Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on 'Credit and social exclusion in an affluent society'". Official Journal of the European Union: C44/78 (fn#19). Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  8. ^ De Plácido e Silva, Oscar José (1994). Vocabulário Jurídico [Judicial Glossary] (11th ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Forense. OCLC 255362747.
  9. ^ "Steps In The Federal Criminal Process". Offices of the United States Attorneys. U.S. Department of Justice. 2016-01-15. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  10. ^ Mendroni, Marcelo Batlouni. Crime de Lavagem de Dinheiro [Money Laundering Crime] (in Portuguese) (3rd ed.). São Paulo: Atlas. p. 207. ISBN 9788522494088. OCLC 923761635., quoted in: "Dizer o Direito: O que é 'dólar-cabo invertido'?" [What is the inverted 'dólar-cabo'?]. Dizer Direito [Let's Talk Law] (blog) (in Portuguese). 4 November 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  11. ^ a b Pontes, Felipe (3 May 2018). "Money dealer ran corruption scheme that moved $ 1.6 billion in bribes". Agência Brasil. EBC.
  12. ^ Silva, Mila (13 July 2015). "O Que É Dinheiro em Espécie?" [What is 'em espécie' money?]. Conta em Banco (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  13. ^ Albuquerque, Flávia (19 September 2017). "Agência Brasil" [Payment in cash is a cause for concern around the world, says Coaf]. Agência Brasil (in Portuguese). EBC. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  14. ^ a b de Lima, Elioma (12 October 2017). "O que vem a ser a expressão "ideologicamente falsos"?" [What is the expression 'ideologically false'?]. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  15. ^ a b Escola Brasileira de Direito (20 July 2018). "Qual a diferença entre falsidade material, falsidade ideológica e falsidade pessoal?" [What is the difference between material falsehood, ideological falsehood and personal falsehood?]. JusBrasil (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2020-02-13. Retrieved 2020-02-13. Material falsehood is that [crime of falsification] by means of which the perpetrator creates a false document or changes the content of a true document. The document is materially false. The falsification occurs via forgery (pretending, simulating, disguising, falsifying in order to disguise its authenticity). ... Ideological falsehood ... is characterized by false content written into the creation of a real document. A falsidade material é aquela [crime de falsidade] por meio da qual o agente cria um documento falso ou altera o conteúdo de um documento verdadeiro. O documento é materialmente falso. A falsificação o corre mediante contrafação (fingimento, simulação, disfarce, falsificação de modo a iludir sua autenticidade). ... A falsidade ideológica... configura-se pelo falso conteúdo posto quando da feitura de um documento verdadeiro.
  16. ^ "funcional". Michaelis On-line. São Paulo: Editora Melhoramentos. 2020.
  17. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (July 20, 1998). "Rapporteur". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Regimento Interno - TJPR". Tribunal de Justiça do Estado do Paraná. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Você sabe qual é a função do relator?". Jusbrasil. Moral Queiroz e Advogados Associados. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Significado de Offshore" [Meaning of Offshore]. Significados (in Portuguese). 7Graus Lda. 2019-04-29. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  21. ^ Conselho Nacional de Justiça (2 March 2015). "O que são os precatórios?" [What are 'precatórios'?] (in Portuguese). Conselho Nacional de Justiça. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  22. ^ Advocacia Sandoval Filho (15 May 2019). "O que são precatórios e como eles funcionam" [What 'precatórios' are, and how they work]. Advocacia Sandoval Filho (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  23. ^ a b Rodrigues, Breno (2017-09-11). "Você sabe o que é precatório?" [Do you know what a precatório is?]. meu precatorio (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2020-01-26. Retrieved 2020-01-26.
  24. ^ "LEI Nº 5647 DE 18 DE JANEIRO DE 2010" [Law No. 5647 of January 18, 2010 of the State of Rio de Janeiro] (in Portuguese). 18 January 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  25. ^ Rodrigues, Breno (2017-09-25). "O que é precatório alimentar?" [What is a precatório alimentar?]. meu precatorio (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2019-10-23. Retrieved 2020-01-26.
  26. ^ a b "Odebrecht adquiriu banco para propina, diz delator" [Odebrecht acquired a bank for kickbacks, says informer]. UOL (in Portuguese). 2016-06-20. The Department of Structured Operations—official name of the bribery center of the company, according to Operation Car Wash.[O] Departamento de Operações Estruturadas --nome oficial da central de propinas da empreiteira, segundo a Lava Jato...
  27. ^ Esposito, Ivan Richard; Pordeus León, Lucas (15 April 2017). "Setor de propinas da Odebrecht pagou R$ 10,6 bilhões entre 2006 e 2014" [Odebrecht's bribery department paid R$ 10.6 billion between 2006 and 2014]. Agência Brasil (in Portuguese). EBC. Retrieved 2019-02-11. The former director of the so-called bribery department said that any executive responsible for an Odebrecht project could request the funds to get the project going. O ex-diretor do chamado setor de propinas disse que cada executivo responsável por obras da Odebrecht podia solicitar o recurso para fazer as obras andarem.
  28. ^ Folha Política (5 September 2016). "E-mails mostram que Marcelo Odebrecht controlava o 'setor de propinas'" [E-mails show that Marcelo Odebrecht controlled the 'bribery department']. JusBrasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-02-11. E-mails seized by Operation Car Wash at the Odebrecht Group headquarters in June 2015 reinforced the evidentiary exhibits showing the participation of the outgoing president of Marcelo Bahia Odebrecht with the Structured Operations Division - a department that took care of the contractor's kickbacks and slush fund payments, in the corruption scheme discovered at Petrobras. E-mails apreendidos pela Operação Lava Jato na sede do Grupo Odebrecht, em junho de 2015, reforçaram o rol de provas da participação do presidente afastado do Marcelo Bahia Odebrecht com o Setor de Operações Estruturadas - departamento que cuidava dos pagamentos de propina e caixa 2 da empreiteira, no esquema de corrupção descoberto na Petrobrás.
  29. ^ Oro Boff, Salete; Borges Fortes, Vinícius; Zanatta Tocchetto, Gabriel (16 July 2018). "XIII Proteção de Dados e Práticas de Corrupção: Uma Analise do Sistema de ERP no Caso de Odebrecht [Data Protection and the Practice of Corruption: a Systems Analysis of ERP in the Odebrecht Case]". Propriedade intelectual e gestão da inovação: entre invenção e inovação (in Portuguese). Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul: Editora Deviant. p. 284. ISBN 978-85-532-4014-2. Retrieved 11 February 2020. Only the employees of the Structured Operations Division, also called the Bribery Division by the media, ...Apenas os funcionários do Setor de Operações Estruturais, também chamado de Setor de Propinas, pela mídia, ...
  30. ^ Pressly, Linda (22 April 2018). "'The largest foreign bribery case in history'". BBC News. Retrieved 2019-02-11. The company's bribery department, known by the rather prosaic name of Division of Structured Operations, managed its own shadow budget.
  31. ^ de Campos, João Pedroso (27 May 2019). "Lava Jato concorda com venda do sítio de Atibaia, ligado a Lula" [Car Wash agrees to sell Atibaia site, linked to Lula]. Veja (in Portuguese). Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  32. ^ "Appellate court increases Lula's prison sentence in Atibaia case to 17 years". Wise Up News. Gazeta do Povo. November 28, 2019. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  33. ^ Kadanus, Kelli (November 28, 2019). "Lula é condenado a mais 12 anos e 11 meses por sítio em Atibaia" [Lula is sentenced to another 12 years and 11 months per site in Atibaia]. Wise Up News (in Portuguese). Gazeta do Povo. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  34. ^ Bueno, Sinara (1 November 2019). "Trading Company e Comercial Exportadora: quais as diferenças?" [Trading Company and Commercial Exporter: what are the Differences?]. Fazcomex (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020. One can define the function of a Trading Company as acting as an intermediary between buyers and sellers who are in different countries, always seeking to optimize procedural efficiency. Em resumo, pode se definir a função da Trading Company como um intermediário entre compradores e vendedores que se encontram em países diferentes, buscando sempre pela agilidade do processo.
  35. ^ "What is Trading company? Definition and meaning". Dictionary of International Trade. Global Negotiator. 2014-11-20.
  36. ^ Talon, Evinis (22 Nov 2016). "A corrupção no Código Penal" [Corruption in the Penal Code]. Jusbrasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  37. ^ a b Madeira Dezem, Guilherme; Junqueira, Gustavo Octaviano Diniz; Junqueira, Patrícia; Aranda Fuller, Paulo Henrique (8 January 2020). Prática Jurídica - Penal. Saraiva Educação S.A. p. 417. ISBN 978-85-536-1610-7. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  38. ^ Talon, Evinis (22 Nov 2016). "A corrupção no Código Penal" [Corruption in the Penal Code]. Jusbrasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 January 2020.
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