2011 Indian anti-corruption movement

The Indian anti-corruption movement was a series of demonstrations and protests across India that began in 2011 and was intended to establish strong legislation and enforcement against perceived endemic political corruption.[6] The movement was named as one of the "Top 10 News Stories of 2011" by Time magazine.[9]

2011 Indian anti-corruption movement
Anna Hazare on 2nd day.jpg
Anna Hazare's hunger strike at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi, on the second day of his fast
Date4 April 2011 – 28 December 2011
Caused byCorruption in public environment
MethodsNon violent protest
Resulted in
  • Resolution passed in Parliament accepting Jan Lokpal Bill on 27 August 2011, Government again withdrawn Resolution on 22 December 2011, Government Cabinet introduced The Lokpal Bill, 2011 in the parliament but failed to pass.
  • protests renewed in 2012 when Rajya Sabha failed to pass the Bill
  • 1 Dead or more,[7] 54 injured[8]

The movement gained momentum from 5 April 2011, when anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare began a hunger strike at the Jantar Mantar monument in New Delhi. The movement aimed to alleviate corruption in the Indian government through introduction of the Jan Lokpal Bill. Another aim, which was led by Ramdev, Kiran Bedi, Aravind Kejariwal, Jayakumar Ezhuthupally was the repatriation of black money from foreign banks.

Mass protesters focussed on legal and political issues, including political corruption, kleptocracy, and other forms of corruption. The movement was primarily one of non-violent civil resistance and was composed of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, hunger strikes, and rallies, and the use of social media to organise, communicate, and raise awareness. The protests were nonpartisan and most protesters were hostile to political parties' attempts to use them to strengthen their own political agenda.


Issues of corruption in India have become increasingly prominent in recent years. After independence in 1947, the country was subject to socialist-inspired economic policies until the 1980s. Over-regulation, protectionism, and government ownership of industry led to slow economic growth, high unemployment, and widespread poverty.[10][11] This system of bureaucratic control by government, which is called the License Raj, was at the core of endemic corruption.[12]

The 1993 Vohra Report submitted by the former Indian Union Home Secretary Narinder Nath Vohra studied the criminalisation of politics and contains several observations made by official agencies on the criminal network that was virtually running a parallel government. It also discussed criminal gangs that enjoyed the patronage of politicians and the protection of government functionaries. According to the report, political leaders had become leaders of street gangs and rogue elements in the military. Criminals had been elected to local bodies, state assemblies, and the Parliament of India.[13][14][15]

The 2005 Right to Information Act (RTI) helped civilians work towards tackling corruption. The Act allows Indian citizens to request information for a fixed fee of 10 (US$0.22) from a public authority, which is required to reply to the request within thirty days. Activists – some of whom have been attacked and killed – have used this law to uncover corruption cases against politicians and bureaucrats.[16]

In the years immediately preceding the 2011 anti-corruption protests, there were examples of alleged corruption in the country; these included the Adarsh Housing Society Scam,[17] the 2010 housing loan scam,[18] the Radia tapes controversy,[19] and the 2G spectrum case.[20] In February 2011, the Supreme Court of India ordered all trial courts in the country to expedite handling of corruption cases[21] and the President of India Pratibha Patil stated measures to ratify the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) and other legislative and administrative measures to improve transparency would be taken.[22] A month later, the Supreme Court forced the resignation of Chief Vigilance Commissioner P.J. Thomas.[23]

A worldwide, 50-city march called the Dandi March II was organised by People for Lok Satta and took place in March 2011,[24] as did the Drive Around Delhi protest.[25]

April 2011 protestsEdit

Anna Hazare wanted a joint committee composed of members of the government and of civil society to be formed to draft tougher anti-corruption legislation. After Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India rejected Hazare's demand, Hazare began a hunger strike on 5 April 2011 at the Jantar Mantar, Delhi.[26] He said the fast would continue until the legislation was enacted.[27] His action attracted considerable support, including some people who joined him in fasting.[28] Prominent representatives of opposition political parties, including the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Communist Party of India (Marxist), indicated their support for Hazare and demanded government action.[29] Hazare would not allow politicians to sit with him and those who tried to join him, such as Uma Bharti and Om Prakash Chautala, were turned away.[30]

Protests in sympathy with Hazare spread to other Indian cities, including Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, and Ahmedabad.[31] Prominent figures from Bollywood, sports and business indicated their support,[32][33] and there were protests in other countries, including the US, Britain, France and Germany.[34][35][36] The government squabbled with the activists, insisting the drafting committee would be headed by a government-appointed minister and not, as the protesters had demanded to prevent the government from making the bill less powerful, a civil society member.[37]

On 6 April, Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar, whom Hazare had accused of being corrupt, resigned from the group of ministers that had been tasked with reviewing the draft bill.[38] On 9 April, the government agreed to establish a joint committee;[39] this came from a compromise that politician Pranab Mukherjee would be chairman and a non-politician activist Shanti Bhushan would be co-chairman.[40] Bhushan, together with Hazare, Justice N. Santosh Hegde, advocate Prashant Bhushan and RTI activist Arvind Kejriwal, had originally drafted the Lokpal Bill.[41] The first meeting of the Lokpal Bill drafting committee was held on 16 April. The government agreed to audio-record the committee's meetings and to hold public consultations before a final draft was prepared[42] but refused Hazare's demand for the proceedings to be televised live.[43]

June protestEdit

In April, Ramdev had announced he would launch a people's anti-corruption movement called Bharat Swabhiman Andolan.[44] On 13 May, it was announced India had completed ratification of the UN Convention against Corruption, a process that had begun in 2010.[45] In early June, senior Union Ministers Pranab Mukherjee, Kapil Sibal, Pawan Kumar Bansal and Subodh Kant Sahay met Ramdev to discuss his concerns.[46] Ramdev supported Hazare's fast and led a second major protest at Ramlila Maidan, New Delhi, on 4 June to highlight the need for legislation to repatriate untaxed black money deposited abroad; Ramdev demanded untaxed money should be declared to be the wealth of the nation and that the act of caching allegedy illegally obtained money in foreign banks should be declared a crime against the state.[47]

The Ramlila Maidan was booked for 40 days to allow the protest to happen. Preparations included setting up a toilet, drinking water, medical facilities and a media centre.[48] Ramdev said more than 100 million people were directly involved with the Bharat Swabhiman Andolan.[49] Almost 3.2 million "netizens" joined the campaign.[50]

On 5 June, police raided the Maidan, detaining Ramdev and removing his supporters after firing tear gas shells and lathicharging.[51] Fifty-three people, including twenty police officers, were treated for injuries.[52] Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee called the police action "unfortunate" and said the police action was necessary because Ramdev had no permission to hold the protest.[53] Ministers said permission had been granted for a yoga camp with 5,000 attendees but not for a 65,000-strong political protest.[54] It was alleged the police raid had been planned for several days. The police said Ramdev had been informed shortly beforehand permission to continue his protest had been cancelled. By that time, over 5,000 police officers had been prepared for action.[55] There was an allegation CCTV footage of the raid was missing.[56]

On 6 June, the National Human Rights Commission of India requested reports of the events to be provided within two weeks by the Union Home Secretary, Delhi Chief Secretary, and the Delhi City Commissioner of Police.[57] Hazare responded to the events by holding a one-day hunger strike.[58] Protests were held across India, including Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Jammu, and Lucknow. They also spread to Nepal.[59][60][61][62] Ramdev said a second phase of the Bharat Swabhiman Yatra would begin in October and would cover 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi).[63]

After the protestEdit

Civil society responseEdit

Ramdev said the government was not serious about discussing corruption and black money, and that government negotiator Kapil Sibal had cheated him through a "scheming and cunning" attitude. He said there was a conspiracy to kill him and that he was threatened during a meeting with senior ministers. He also said the ruling government chairperson Sonia Gandhi and the United Progressive Alliance government will be responsible for any threat to his life, and that he was nearly strangled by the police.[64] After being evicted from Delhi, Ramdev wanted to continue his fast at Noida but was denied permission to do so by the Uttar Pradesh government. He decided to continue his hunger strike and satyagraha from Haridwar until 12 June 2011.[65][66][67]

Hazare said there might have been some faults with Ramdev's agitation, the beating up of people at night rather than in the daytime was a "blot on democracy", and that "there was no firing otherwise the eviction was similar to Jallianwala Bagh incident". He also said the "strangulation of democracy" would cause protests throughout the country to "teach government a lesson".[68][69] Campaigner Arvind Kejriwal said the use of police force on non-violent, sleeping protesters was undemocratic.[70][71]

Government responseEdit

Congress General Secretary Digvijay Singh said the government had reached an agreement before the protests were held.[72] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh wrote to Ramdev asking him to desist from holding the protests.[73]Nationalist Congress Party General Secretary Tariq Anwar said; "Both Hazare and Ramdev are blackmailing the government and they should first peep into their own hearts".[74] Pawan Bansal said the midnight police raid "was not a crackdown, [the government] had to do it to maintain law and order".[75] All India Congress Committee secretary Janardan Dwivedi described Ramdev's protest as a "political game" by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), saying Ramdev got more attention than Nigamananda Saraswati, a protester who had fasted for over two months about a different matter, despite being treated in the same hospital.[76]

Political party responseEdit

The BJP called the police action to break up the hunger strike "undemocratic".[77] Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi condemned the incident, comparing it with Ravana-Lila and adding; "It is one of the worst days of Indian history. The Prime Minister had said during the elections that he would bring back black money stashed in Swiss banks within 100 days of coming into power. But today, it is two years and nothing has happened."[78] L. K. Advani said the police action reminded him of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and called it "naked fascism".[78] Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj said: "This is not democracy ... the police cannot alone have taken such a step. It had the approval of the Prime Minister and full approval of the Congress President."[78] Bahujan Samaj Party leader and Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati condemned the government's action against Ramdev, demanded an investigation by the Supreme Court of India and said justice cannot be expected from the central government.[79][80] The Samajwadi Party chief Mulayam Singh Yadav condemned the incident, saying it shows the Union Government has lost its mental balance. Blaming the ruling Indian National Congress party, Yadav said; "A Congress leader said that Baba is a thug. I want to say that Congress is the biggest thug and it should introspect its deeds."[79] He also compared the raid to military action against a foreign enemy.[80]

Rashtriya Janata Dal leader Lalu Prasad Yadav accused Ramdev of being a front for the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.[81] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) termed the police action against Ramdev "deplorable and shortsighted" but found fault with him for making the issue of black money "farcical" by entering into a secret agreement with government.[82] The party said; "The manner in which Ramdev's demands were drafted and the way in which he has conducted his interactions with the government, coming to a secret agreement to withdraw the hunger strike on the basis of assurances, then reneging and announcing its extension trivialised the seriousness of the issue of black money and made it farcical".[80] The Shiv Sena strongly condemned the police action.[80] Nitish Kumar, leader of Janata Dal (United) and the Chief Minister of Bihar, condemned the attack, saying; "It is a major blow to democracy and an attack on the democratic rights of the people ... It is also an attack on the fundamental rights of the citizens".[78]

Suo Moto cognizance by the Supreme CourtEdit

An advocate of Ramdev petitioned the Supreme Court of India, saying no First Information Report had been registered with the police and thus the protesters' eviction was of dubious legality. The Supreme Court issued notices to the Union Home Secretary, Chief Secretary of Delhi, Delhi administration, and Delhi Police Commissioner, expressing its displeasure the entire contents of the petition had been leaked to the media before the matter went up for hearing.[83] On 29 August 2011, the Court blamed the Delhi Police for the forcible eviction.[84]

August protestsEdit

By mid-June 2011, the Jan Lokpal drafting committee was in disagreement and government representatives said if a consensus was not reached, both the government draft and that by the civil society representatives, would be sent to the Cabinet. Hazare said if only the government version of the bill was passed by parliament, he would start a hunger strike on 16 August 2011.[85] On 15 August, he announced the fast would begin the following day.[86]

The government imposed Section 144 at Jayaprakash Narayan Park, Rajghat and Delhi Gate, prohibiting an assembly of five or more people.[86] Delhi Police detained Hazare in the early morning of 16 August before he could start his hunger strike. More than 1,200 supporters, including members of Team Anna, were also taken into preventative custody. Most of the supporters, including Kiran Bedi and Shanti Bushan, were released by early evening.[87][88][89] Hazare was remanded to Tihar Jail after he refused to sign a personal bail bond. Within hours, a Team Anna spokesperson said Hazare had begun his hunger protest in custody and was not accepting water to drink. The arrests sparked protests across the country, and were condemned by opposition political parties and some non-government organisations. Parliament was unable to conduct business after a protest forced an adjournment for the day.[90][91] In Chennai, Mahatma Gandhi's secretary V. Kalyanam, led the protesters. He said:

India will get a sure gold medal if corruption is entered as an item in the Olympic Games. We may not be a force in football or athletics or hockey. But India is the undisputed global leader in corruption.[92]

Delhi police commissioner B. K. Gupta said the police were not keen for Hazare be sent to judicial custody and had been prepared to release him if he had given an undertaking not to break Section 144, and ask his supporters not to do so. In a message released after his detention, Hazare said this was the beginning of the "second freedom struggle" and he called on people to participate in a jail bharo (mass arrest) protest.[93] On 16 August, Hazare and his close associate and lawyer Prashant Bhushan asked government employees across the country to go on mass leave to show solidarity with the movement. Union Home minister P. Chidambaram hoped they would not respond, describing the call as "completely wrong".[94]

Hazare's releaseEdit

It was decided to release Hazare after Prime Minister Manmohan Singh met party General Secretary Rahul Gandhi, who disapproved of the arrest, on the evening of 16 August.[95] Congress sources said the Government decided to release him and his supporters after concluding keeping him in jail would disrupt law and order unnecessarily. Over 1,500 people who had been detained for taking part in protests demanding Hazare's release were also freed. Hazare refused to leave the jail until the government agreed to give unconditional permission to hold protests at Jai Prakash Narayan National Park.[96]

Hazare agreed to leave jail after Delhi Police granted him permission to fast for 15 days at Ramlila Maidan, a larger venue than Jai Prakash Narayan National Park. He, however, had to spend another night in jail because the venue was not ready.[97] Hazare left jail on 19 August for the 25,000-capacity Ramlila Maidan, which he said he would not leave until the bill was passed.[98]

17 August 2011 (2011-08-17)
  • Congress stated they suspected a foreign hand in the protests and asked the government to investigate whether the US was behind Hazare's agitation.[99] The US denied the accusation.[100]
19 August 2011 (2011-08-19)
21 August 2011 (2011-08-21)
  • Hazare's camp called their supporters to confront individual Members of Parliament and Union Ministers at their residences and warned the UPA government its days would be numbered if it failed to pass the Bill by 30 August.[102]
  • Over 100,000 supporters visited Ramlila Maidan to show their opposition to corruption.[103]
  • Around 50,000 supporters marched in Mumbai to support Hazare. This was reportedly one of the biggest protests in Mumbai.[104][105]
22 August 2011 (2011-08-22)
23 August 2011 (2011-08-23)
24 August 2011 (2011-08-24)
  • An all-party meeting was chaired by Manmohan Singh represented by finance minister Pranab Mukherjee. The meeting ended with Mukherjee appealing for Hazare to end his fast, prompting civil society to say they were "back to square one".[108][109]
25 August 2011 (2011-08-25)
  • Manmohan Singh said all proposed versions of the Lokpal bill, including those prepared by Aruna Roy's NCPRI and Jaiprakash Narain, would be debated in Parliament.[110]
  • Union Minister Vilasrao Deshmukh met Hazare at his protest camp at Ramlila Maidan. Deshmukh conveyed a message to Hazare from the Prime Minister, urging Hazare to end his fast and to consider the Prime Minister's offer to debate all versions of bill in Parliament.[111][112]
  • Hazare asked Singh to start the parliamentary discussion the next morning and forward his demands to the Prime Minister; a Citizen's Charter, Lokayuktas in all states with Lokpal powers and inclusion of the entire bureaucracy.[113]
27 August 2011 (2011-08-27)
  • Initiating the Lok Sabha debate on the bill, Pranab Mukherjee asked Hazare to end his fast,[114][115] BJP leader Sushma Swaraj expressed her party's support for Hazare and said the BJP largely agreed with the conditions laid down by Hazare to end his hunger strike.[116] The government agreed to a voice vote on the debate.[117] Both houses of parliament passed the resolution accepting all three conditions set by Hazare.[118]
28 August 2011 (2011-08-28)
  • Hazare ended his 12-day, 288-hour fast and was taken to Medanta Medicity to recover. He had been under medical supervision throughout the fast.[119] Thousands of his supporters congregated at India Gate to celebrate.[120]

Parliamentary debateEdit

A debate on the Jan Lokpal bill was held in Parliament on 27 August 2011. Hazare demanded a citizen charter, lower bureaucracy to be included in the bill, and the establishment of Lok Ayuktas in the states. Both houses of Parliament agreed to these demands.[121] Hazare announced he would break his fast on 28 August.[122]

December protestsEdit

On 11 December, Hazare sat on a day-long fast at the Jantar Mantar. This protest was against proposals of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the anti-graft measure. It was the first at which politicians shared the stage with Hazare, with leaders of the BJP, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, Janata Dal, Akali Dal, Telugu Desam Party and Biju Janata Dal participating in the public debate on the Lokpal bill.[123] The expected introduction of the Lokpal bill in the Lok Sabha did not occur. The Food Security Bill was first introduced and the subsequent process of the Lokpal Bill was hindered by procedural and party political issues.[124][125] The proposed Lokpal Bill was rejected by the government, which put forward a revised proposal, along with a constitutional bill, in an attempt to resolve the problems that were raised during the session about reservation for minorities and under-represented groups.[126]

Hazare announced on 22 December a hunger strike would take place between 27–29 December, followed by a Jail Bharo Andolan to pressurise the government.[127] He began his fast on 27 December at the Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai rather than in Delhi because of the cold climate in the latter city.[128] Turnout was well below expectations, in part because of the cold weather.[129] IAC members asked him to end this latest fast because of his poor health, having suffered from cold and mild fever for few days previously, but he refused.[130] On the second day of the fast, Hazare repeated his threat to campaign against Congress in the five poll-bound states for not bringing a strong Lokpal. He ended his fast because of his deteriorating health and the low turn-out across the country. He said the movement had not stopped but was merely postponed.[131] He also announced the cancellation of the "Jail Bharo" movement due to his bad health.

Parliament debateEdit

The Lok Sabha debated the Lokpal Bill on 27 December 2011.[132] The debate resulted in the bill being passed by the Rajya Sabha (upper house) but the new, nine-member Lokpal panel was not given constitutional status because the government failed to get the necessary two-thirds majority of MPs present.[133][134] The Lokpal Bill was sent for review to the Indian President Pratibha Patil on 28 December 2011; a standard procedure for any legislation that has financial implications. Patil gave her assent for the Bill to be tabled in the Rajya Sabha.[135]


2012 Indian anti-corruption movement
Date25 March 2012 – 26 November 2012
Caused by
GoalsJan Lokpal Bill/The Lokpal Bill, 2011 enactment
MethodsNon violent protest
Resulted inTeam Anna split and India Against Corruption forming Aam Aadmi Party
Enactment of The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013

The movement was reinvigorated following a mass gathering at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi on 25 March 2012.[138][139] Attempts to introduce some form of legislation, even though it was weaker than that demanded by the activists, had expired with the end of the parliamentary session on 27 December 2011.[140][141] The government reintroduced the bill in the Rajya Sabha in February 2012 but it was not timetabled for debate and the session ended without the bill being passed.[citation needed]


Hazare said the protest movement would recommence and he went on a one-day hunger strike on 25 March 2012.[140] A month later, Hazare held a token one-day fast focussed on the remembrance of whistle-blowers such as Narendra Kumar and Satyendra Dubey, who had died as a result of their support for the anti-corruption cause.[142] On 3 June, Hazare undertook another one-day fast at the Jantar Mantar, where he was joined by Ramdev.[143]

Hazare and Bedi reformed Team Anna while Kejriwal and some others split from the apolitical movement to form what was to become the Aam Aadmi Party.[144]

An indefinite fast began at the Jantar Mantar on 25 July and involved members of Team Anna,[145] although Hazare was not involved until four days later. The fast was a protest against the government's refusal of an inquiry against the prime minister and 14 cabinet ministers whom the protesters had accused of corruption.[citation needed] The fast ended on 3 August.[146] Three days later, Hazare announced he and his fellow activists had decided to end their fast because the government did not seem ready to enact the Jan Lokpal Bill, to discontinue talks with the government and to cease any protests under the Team Anna name.[147]


After failing to press the Indian government to pass The Lokpal Bill, 2011, Team Anna was split on the issue of formation of political party. Anna Hazare and some others did not want to enter mainstream politics while Arvind Kejriwal led the campaigning group India Against Corruption,[148][149] and later formed the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) on 26 November 2012.[150] The party made its electoral debut in the December 2013 Delhi legislative assembly election.[151] It emerged as the second-largest party, winning 28 of the 70 seats.[152] and went on to form a minority government with conditional support from the Indian National Congress.[153] The AAP failed to pass a Jan Lokpal Bill in the Delhi assembly and resigned from the government after 49 days.[154] The President's rule was imposed in the state for a year.[155]

The Parliament of India enacted The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 few days after the Delhi election in December 2013.[156]

Media coverageEdit

An Insignificant Man, a 2017 Hindi/English Indian socio-political documentary, was co-produced and directed by Khushboo Ranka and Vinay Shukla, and was also co-produced by Anand Gandhi.[157][158] The documentary is about the rise of anti-corruption protests in India and the formation and rise to power of the AAP.[159]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g MANU JOSEPH (17 August 2011). "India's Selective Rage Over Corruption". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jha, Anupama (1 July 2010). "India's poor most subjected to corruption – Transparency International". Reuters. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  3. ^ a b Nelson, Dean (16 March 2011). "Indian politicians 'bought votes with cash tucked inside newspapers'". The Telegraph. London.
  4. ^ Hyslop, Leah (3 June 2010). "Red tape in India causes problems for expats". The Daily Telegraph. London. AFP. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  5. ^ Joseph, Manu (17 August 2011). "India's Selective Rage Over Corruption". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  6. ^ a b Choudhury, Chandrahas (22 June 2011). "Indians Divide Over Policing a Watchdog: World View". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  7. ^ "RTI activist on way to Anna protest shot dead". The Times of India. 17 August 2011.
  8. ^ "Indian police storm yoga guru's corruption protest". The Telegraph (UK). London. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  9. ^ "The Top 10 Everything of 2011: Number 10 – Anna Hazare's Hunger Fasts Rock India". Time magazine. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  10. ^ Poddar, Tushar; Yi, Eva (2007). "Global Economics Paper No: 152" (PDF). Goldman Sachs Economic Research. Goldman Sachs: 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  11. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2007). "Economic Survey of India, 2007" (PDF). Policy Brief. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  12. ^ Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (15 August 2007). "Will Growth Slow Corruption in India?". Knowledge@Wharton. Forbes. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  13. ^ Seema Chishti (2 August 2004). "India's love affair with 'tainted' politicians". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  14. ^ Emily Wax (24 July 2008). "With Indian Politics, the Bad Gets Worse". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  15. ^ Dionne Bunsha (4 December 2004). "Dons in a new role". Frontline. 21 (25). Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  16. ^ Jason Burke (27 December 2010). "Dying for data: the Indian activist killed for asking too many questions". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  17. ^ "Adarsh Society: Army setting up court of inquiry". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 November 2010.
  18. ^ "Housing scam: CBI arrests top officials of PSU banks, financial institutions – Economic Times". The Times of India. 24 November 2010.
  19. ^ "Radia agent of foreign intelligence". India Today. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  20. ^ "Indian opposition holds mass protest rally". BBC News. 22 December 2010.
  21. ^ "Supreme Court fast-tracks corruption cases". NDTV. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  22. ^ "Paper Chase: India president: government to address corruption". JURIST. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  23. ^ "India anti-corruption chief PJ Thomas forced to resign". BBC News. 3 March 2011.
  24. ^ Indo-Asian News Service (28 March 2011). "Dandi March II in US against corruption in India". NDTV. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  25. ^ Indo-Asian News Service (13 March 2011). "Drive around Delhi to demand strong Lokpal Bill". Sify. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  26. ^ "Anna Hazare to start fast unto death for strong Lokpal Bill". Hindustan Times. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  27. ^ "India activist Anna Hazare anti-graft fast stokes anger". BBC News. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  28. ^ "Thousands join Anna Hazare's anti-graft fight". IBN Live. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  29. ^ Yadav, J. P. (6 April 2011). "BJP & CPM on activist side – Left party pledges support but wary of company". The Telegraph. Kolkata. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  30. ^ "Uma Bharti, Chautala heckled at Hazare protest". NDTV. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  31. ^ "Northeast support to Hazare's". The Times of India. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  32. ^ "Jan Lokpal Bill: People from all over the country rally in support of Anna Hazare". The Economic Times. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  33. ^ "Corporate India comes out in support of Anna Hazare". Hindustan Times. New Delhi. PTI. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  34. ^ Kumar, Arun (22 August 2011). "Indian Americans rally in Anna Hazare's support". DNA. IANS. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  35. ^ "Support for Anna: Message from Germany". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  36. ^ Suroor, Hasan (22 August 2011). "Indian expatriates take out anti-corruption rallies in Europe". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  37. ^ "Anna Hazare: PM apprises President". India Blooms. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  38. ^ "Sharad Pawar quits corruption panel as support for Anna Hazare grows". The Times of India. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  39. ^ "Govt blinks on Lokpal bill, Anna to end fast". IBN Live. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  40. ^ "People win anti-graft crusade, Hazare to end fast on Saturday". The Times of India. New Delhi. PTI. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  41. ^ "Govt issues notification on committee to draft Lokpal Bill". The Hindu. New Delhi. PTI. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
  42. ^ "New Lokpal Bill draft reduces differences". NDTV. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  43. ^ "Anna Hazare seeks interpreter from next meeting". DNA. New Delhi. PTI. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  44. ^ "Ramdev to launch people's movement to root out corruption". The Hindu. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  45. ^ "India ratifies UN convention against corruption". The Times of India. New Delhi. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  46. ^ "Ramdev fast: Chronology of events". The Times of India. PTI. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  47. ^ "India yoga guru Baba Ramdev vows anti-graft fast". BBC News. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  48. ^ "Ramlila ground gets ready for Ramdev's fast". Zee News. IANS. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  49. ^ "I aim to establish truth in corridors of power: Ramdev – The Times of India". The Times of India. 19 May 2011.
  50. ^ "32 lakh netizens join Baba Ramdev's campaign against corruption". NDTV. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  51. ^ "Midnight police swoop on Baba Ramdev, detention ends protest". Yahoo! News. PTI. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  52. ^ "Indian police storm yoga guru's corruption protest". The Daily Telegraph. London. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
  53. ^ Bhaumik, Anirban (5 June 2011). "Pranab Mukherjee justifies crackdown". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  54. ^ "Ramdev eviction: Advani and co pull an all-nighter in protest at Rajghat". NDTV. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  55. ^ Chauhan, Neeraj (6 June 2011). "Swoop not sudden, cops trailed Baba Ramdev for three days". The Economic Times. New Delhi. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  56. ^ "'Police stole CCTV footages of Ramlila atrocities' India News". Rediff.com. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  57. ^ "NHRC issues notice to Centre, Delhi govt on Ramdev crackdown". The Hindu. New Delhi. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  58. ^ "30 injured in police sweep at Ramlila Maidan". The Times of India. New Delhi. Press Trust of India. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  59. ^ "L'affaire Ramdev hits government hard, protests in Nepal". Mangalorean.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  60. ^ "Protests in Nepal in support of Ramdev". Hindustantimes.com. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  61. ^ "City buzzes again, this time for Ramdev". The Times of India. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  62. ^ "Thousands fast in Maharashtra in Ramdev's support". Hindustan Times. 4 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  63. ^ "I aim to establish truth in corridors of power: Ramdev". The Times of India. Chandrapur/Yavatmal. Times News Network. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  64. ^ "Baba Ramdev targets Cong, Sonia; says agitation will continue". India Today. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  65. ^ "Enraged Ramdev continues fast in Haridwar". Ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  66. ^ "Baba Ramdev resumes fast in Haridwar, calls PM Sonia Gandhi's puppet". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  67. ^ "UP says no entry, shaken Ramdev fasts in Haridwar". The Indian Express. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  68. ^ "Anna to fast in support of Baba Ramdev". The Hindustan Times. New Delhi. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  69. ^ "Action against Ramdev blot on democracy: Anna Hazare". DNA. New Delhi. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  70. ^ "News / National: Civil society activists criticise police action at Ramlila Grounds". The Hindu. Chennai, India. PTI. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  71. ^ "Civil society, political parties condemn police action against Baba Ramdev". English.samaylive.com. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  72. ^ "Ramdev is a cheat: Digvijaya Singh". Hindustan Times. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  73. ^ Garia, Nikita (1 June 2011). "Who Is Baba Ramdev? – India Real Time – WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  74. ^ "Ramdev 'blackmailing' government on graft issue: NCP". The Economic Times. Meerut. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  75. ^ "Govt had to act as Ramdev didn't see reason: Pawan Bansal". The Times of India. Chandigarh. PTI. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  76. ^ "Ramdev treated, Nigamananda left to die?". Rediff. 14 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  77. ^ "It is an attack on democracy: BJP". The Economic Times. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  78. ^ a b c d "Oppn, Hazare slam govt on Ramdev". Indiablooms.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  79. ^ a b "Mayawati, Mulayam pull up Centre over police action on Ramdev". Dailyindia.com. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  80. ^ a b c d "Political parties condemn midnight drama". Expressbuzz.com. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.[permanent dead link]
  81. ^ "Ramdev is a front for RSS' activities: Lalu". The Times of India. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  82. ^ "CPI-M deplores police action against Ramdev". In.news.yahoo.com. PTI. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  83. ^ "Explain drama at Ramlila maidan: SC to Centre – Rediff.com India News". Rediff.com. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  84. ^ "Delhi: Baba Ramdev smiling, police crying? SC slams cops". News.oneindia.in. 29 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  85. ^ Salim, Sahim (16 June 2011). "Let them put us in Tihar". Rediff.com. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  86. ^ a b "Section 144 imposed as Team Anna, govt headed for showdown". The Times of India. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  87. ^ Yardley, Jim (16 August 2011). "New Delhi Police Arrest Leader of Anti-Corruption Protest and Hundreds of Others". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  88. ^ "Team Anna detained for defying orders: Govt". IBN Live. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  89. ^ "Kiran Bedi, Shanti Bhushan released". Hindustan Times. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  90. ^ Dhar, Aarti (16 August 2011). "Anna arrest echoes in Parliament, both Houses adjourned". The Hindu. New Delhi. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  91. ^ "Nation-wide protests against Anna's detention". The Hindu. PTI. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  92. ^ "In Chennai, Gandhi's secretary leads pro-Anna Hazare protests". DNA. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  93. ^ "Anna in Tihar jail: Govt faces opposition, public anger". NDTV. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  94. ^ "PC hopes govt employees reject mass leave call". The Hindu. New Delhi. PTI. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  95. ^ "Govt blinks, to release Anna Hazare: sources". IBN Live. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  96. ^ "Anna Hazare refuses to come out of Tihar Jail". NDTV. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  97. ^ "Anna Hazare accepts Delhi Police offer, to fast for 14 days". Times of India. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  98. ^ "Will not leave Ramlila Ground till Jan Lokpal Bill is passed: Anna Hazare". The Times of India. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  99. ^ "Probe how Anna is drawing supporters: Cong". CNN-IBN. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  100. ^ "McCain thumbs up to Indian democracy". The Times of India. 19 August 2011.
  101. ^ "Varun Gandhi to present Jan Lokpal as private member's bill". The Times of India. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  102. ^ Balchand, K. (21 August 2011). "Anna calls for protests at homes of MPs, Ministers". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  103. ^ "Team Anna says no offer for talks from govt, tells people to gherao MP homes". The Times of India. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  104. ^ "Potholes & Anna bring evening traffic to a halt". MiD DAY. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  105. ^ "Thousands march in Mumbai for Hazare". Zee News. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  106. ^ "Anna Hazare says he will speak to Rahul, PMO or Chavan". The Times of India. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  107. ^ "PM appeals to Anna Hazare to end fast, Pranab to talk with Team Anna". The Times of India. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  108. ^ "All-party meet on Lokpal Bill issue on, Pranab Mukherjee to represent Cong". The Times of India. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  109. ^ "Talks back to square one, says civil society". The Indian Express. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  110. ^ "PM's new offer to Anna Hazare: Let's debate all versions of Lokpal bill". The Times of India. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  111. ^ "Vilasrao brings message from PM to Anna". NDTV. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  112. ^ "Vilasrao meets Anna Hazare with PM's message". CNN-IBN. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  113. ^ "Anna Hazare demands debate in Parliament from Friday". The Times of India. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  114. ^ "With this speech, Pranab launched Lokpal debate". NDTV. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  115. ^ "No Lokpal Bill debate till Anna Hazare agrees to end fast". NDTV. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  116. ^ "Lokpal debate: Sushma Swaraj says BJP supports Anna Hazare's 3 must-have points". NDTV. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  117. ^ "Govt agrees to a voice vote on Lokpal debate in Parliament". The Times of India. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  118. ^ "We have won only half the battle: Anna Hazare". The Times of India. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  119. ^ "Anna Hazare breaks fast after 288 hours, nation relieved". The Times of India. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  120. ^ "Thousands gather at India Gate to celebrate Anna's victory". The Times of India. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  121. ^ "Victory for Anna, Parliament adopts 'sense of House' on Lokpal Bill". The Times of India. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  122. ^ "Anna Hazare to end fast tomorrow". The Times of India. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  123. ^ "8 parties on Anna stage, Congress feels heat". Indian Express. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  124. ^ "Lokpal to be introduced by Indian Government in Lok Sabha, Food Security Bill passed by the Lok Sabha". India Today. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  125. ^ "Cabinet to include Muslim Minorities in the Lokpal Bill". indiatoday.intoday.in. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  126. ^ "Indian Government Presented Lokpal Bill 9th Time in Indian Parliament". economictimes.indiatimes.com. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  127. ^ "Anna Hazare to start Hunger Strikes and Jail Bharo Andolan". DNA. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  128. ^ "Anna begins fast in Mumbai as Lok Sabha debates Lokpal in Delhi". The Times of India. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  129. ^ "Low turn out at Anna Hazare's fast in Mumbai on day 1". India Today. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  130. ^ "Team Anna appeals to Hazare to end fast". The Times of India. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  131. ^ "Anna Hazare calls off fast, cancels jail bharo campaign". The Times of India. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  132. ^ "Sushma Swaraj punches holes in government's Lokpal bill". The Times of India. 27 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  133. ^ "Lokpal Bill in Rajya Sabha: Govt hunts for numbers with eye on Mamata". NDTV. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  134. ^ "Lokpal Bill passed in Lok Sabha, but no constitutional status". NDTV. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  135. ^ "Lokpal Bill in Rajya Sabha: Govt hunts for numbers with eye on Mamata". NDTV. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  136. ^ Anupama Jha (1 July 2010). "India's poor most subjected to corruption — Transparency International". Reuters. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  137. ^ Leah Hyslop and AFP (3 June 2010). "Red tape in India causes problems for expats". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  138. ^ "Anna's Fast on 25-March-2012".
  139. ^ "Anna Hazare to fast on 25-March-2012".
  140. ^ a b "China quake: Death toll rises to 15,000". 15 May 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  141. ^ No vote on Lokpal, Rajya Sabha adjourns abruptly
  142. ^ "Anna to protest at Jantar Mantar on March 25". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  143. ^ "Anna Hazare, Baba Ramdev to fast on June 3". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  144. ^ "So what is the Aam Aadmi Party all about". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  145. ^ "Team Anna launches indefinite hunger strike today for Lokpal Bill; Anna will join fast from July 29". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  146. ^ "India Against Corruption: Team Anna breaks fast, to form party for 'cleaning system'". The Times of India. 3 August 2012.
  147. ^ "Anna Hazare disbands 'Team Anna'". 6 August 2012.
  148. ^ Jadhav, Radheshyam; Dastane, Sarang (19 September 2012). "Anna Hazare confirms rift with Arvind Kejriwal, says his apolitical mass movement will continue". Times of India. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  149. ^ Sreelatha Menon (22 September 2012). "India Against Corruption assets caught in tug of war". Business Standard.
  150. ^ "Arvind Kejriwal formally launches Aam Aadmi Party". India Today. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  151. ^ "Aam Aadmi Party gets broom as election symbol". IBN Live. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  152. ^ "Assembly Elections December 2013 Results". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  153. ^ "Arvind Kejriwal becomes Delhi's youngest Chief Minister". IBN. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  154. ^ Ali, Mohammad; Kant, Vishal; Ashok, Sowmiya (15 February 2014). "Arvind Kejriwal quits over Jan Lokpal". The Hindu.
  155. ^ "President's rule imposed in Delhi". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  156. ^ Economic Times (18 December 2013). "Lokpal Bill passed in Lok Sabha". Economic Times. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  157. ^ IANS (31 March 2014). "'Ship of Theseus' team's next is 'Proposition for a Revolution'". Business Standard. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  158. ^ IANS (31 March 2014). "After Ship of Theseus, Recyclewala Labs to make Proposition for a Revolution". First Post. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  159. ^ Bhattacharya, Budhaditya (20 April 2014). "Talking about a revolution". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 July 2014.

External linksEdit

External images
  Images of India protests over campaigner's arrest (BBC)
  Images of Indians protest the arrest of Anna Hazare (Time)
  Video of Anna Hazare phenomenon (YouTube)
  Indian anti-corruption campaigner, freed from jail (Guardian)
  Images of Indian Anti corruption Movement (Times of India)
  Video of Indian Anti-Corruption Movements (WikiLeaks Forum)