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1872 United States House of Representatives elections

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Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1872 and 1873 for representatives to the 43rd Congress, coinciding with the re-election of President Ulysses S. Grant.

1872 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1870 November 5, 1872[a] 1874 →

All 292 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine-3rd New York-10th
Last election 139 seats 104 seats
Seats won 203[b] 89[c]
Seat change Increase 64 Decrease 15

House043ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1872 elections for 43rd Congress

Speaker before election

James Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

Grant's Republican Party increased its majority greatly at the expense of the opposition Democratic Party. The pro-industry outlook of the Republicans appealed to many Northern voters, especially as the post-war economy exploded, and this allowed the party to flourish as the Industrial Revolution grew more widespread. The Republicans also benefited from a continuing association with Civil War victory as well as disarray amongst Democratic leadership.

Contents

Election summariesEdit

Following the 1870 Census, the House was reapportioned, initially adding 40 seats,[1] followed by a subsequent amendment to the apportionment act adding another seat to 9 states,[2] resulting in a total increase of 49 seats. No states lost seats, 10 states had no change, 13 states gained 1 seat each, 9 states gained 2 seats, 3 states gained 3 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Prior to the supplemental act, two states (New Hampshire and Vermont) had each lost 1 seat. This was the first reapportionment after the repeal of the three-fifths compromise by the 14th Amendment

203 89
Republican Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+ 2 at-large
8   2 6[d]   3 2   1
Arkansas District
+ at-large
4   1 4[d]   2 0   1
California District 4   1 3   1   1
Connecticut[e] District 4   3   1  
Delaware At-large 1   1   1 0   1
Florida At-large 2   1 2   1 0  
Georgia District 9   2 2   1 7   3
Illinois District 19   5 14   6 5   1
Indiana[f] District
+ 3 at-large
13   2 10   4 3   2
Iowa District 9   3 9   3 0  
Kansas At-large 3   2 3   2 0  
Kentucky District 10   1 0   10   1
Louisiana District
+ 1 at-large
6   1 6[d]   1 0  
Maine[f] District 5   5   0  
Maryland District 6   1 2   2 4   1
Massachusetts District 11   1 11   1 0  
Michigan District 9   3 9   4 0   1
Minnesota District 3   1 3   1 0  
Mississippi District 6   1 5   1   1
Missouri District 13   4 4   1 9   5
Nebraska[f] At-large 1   1   0  
Nevada At-large 1   0   1  
New Hampshire][e] District 3   2   2 1   2
New Jersey District 7   2 6   3 1   1
New York District
+ 1 at-large
33   2 24   9 9   7
North Carolina[f] District 8   1 3   1 5  
Ohio[f] District 20   1 14[d]   6   1
Oregon[f] At-large 1   1   1 0   1
Pennsylvania[f] District
+ 3 at-large
27   3 22   9 5   6
Rhode Island District 2   2   0  
South Carolina District
+ 1 at-large
5   1 5   1 0  
Tennessee District
+ 1 at-large
10   2 7   5 3   3
Texas District
+ 2 at-large
6   2 0   1 6   3
Vermont[f] District 3   3   0  
Virginia District 9   1 4   1 5  
West Virginia[f] District 3   1   2[c]  
Wisconsin District 8   2 6   2 2  
Total 292   49 203[g]
69.5%
  62
30.5%
89[c]
30.5%
  13
House seats
Republican
69.52%
Democratic
30.48%

Election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[3] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1872–73, there were still 9 states with earlier election dates, and 2 states with later election dates:

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

A new seat was added, following the 1870 U.S. Census, bringing the delegation up from three to four Representatives.

District Incumbent Party First elected Result Candidates
California 1 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Charles Clayton (Republican) 52.3%
William A. Piper (Democratic) 47.7%
California 2 Aaron Augustus Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Horace F. Page (Republican) 51.8%
Paschal Coggins (Democratic) 48.2%
California 3 John M. Coghlan Republican 1871 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John K. Luttrell (Democratic) 51.7%
John M. Coghlan (Republican) 48.3%
California 4 Sherman O. Houghton
(Redistricted from the 1st district)
Republican 1871 Incumbent re-elected. Sherman O. Houghton (Republican) 53.6%
E. J. C. Kewen (Democratic) 46.4%

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

Florida gained a second seat after the 1870 census, but delayed districting until 1874, electing both Representatives at-large for this election.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Josiah T. Walls Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected. William J. Purman (Republican) 26.3%
Josiah T. Walls (Republican) 26.2%
Silas L. Niblack (Democratic) 23.8%
Charles W. Jones (Democratic) 23.7%
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

GeorgiaEdit

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

In the newly-formed at-large district, George A. Sheridan (Liberal Republican) beat P. B. S. Pinchback (Republican), the first black Governor of Louisiana.[4] Pinchback challenged the election and it was settled in February 1875, in Sheridan's favor, only one month before the end of the Congress.

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

NebraskaEdit

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

After redistricting and eleven retirements, only four of the nineteen incumbents were re-elected.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Ozro J. Dodds Democratic 1872 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Milton Sayler (Democratic) 58.4%
Benjamin Eggleston (Republican) 41.6%
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Liberal Republican gain.
Henry B. Banning (Liberal Republican) 53.7%
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) 46.3%
Ohio 3 Lewis D. Campbell Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
John Quincy Smith (Republican) 52.1%
James W. Sohn (Democratic) 47.9%
Ohio 4 John F. McKinney Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Lewis B. Gunckel (Republican) 53.1%
John J. Winans (Democratic) 46.9%
Ohio 5 Charles N. Lamison Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected. Charles N. Lamison (Democratic) 60.3%
Samuel Lybrand (Republican) 39.7%
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Isaac R. Sherwood (Republican) 51.5%
Frank H. Hurd (Democratic) 48.5%
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Lawrence T. Neal (Democratic) 52.5%
John Thomas Wilson (Republican) 47.5%
John Thomas Wilson
(Redistricted from the 11th district)
Republican 1866 Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican loss.
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
William Lawrence (Republican) 57.9%
John P. Musson (Democratic) 42.1%
Ohio 9 George W. Morgan
(Redistricted from the 13th district)
Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
James W. Robinson (Republican) 50.8%
George W. Morgan (Democratic) 49.2%
Ohio 10 Charles Foster
(Redistricted from the 9th district)
Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Foster (Republican) 51.2%
Rush R. Sloane (Democratic) 48.8%
Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Ohio 11 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Hezekiah S. Bundy (Republican) 56.2%
Samuel P. Nash (Democratic) 43.8%
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Hugh J. Jewett (Democratic) 58.8%
James Taylor (Republican) 41.2%
Ohio 13 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Milton I. Southard (Democratic) 54.5%
Lucius P. Marsh (Republican) 45.5%
Ohio 14 James Monroe Republican 1870 Re-districted
Democratic gain.
John Berry (Democratic) 57.9%
Thomas E. Douglas (Republican) 42.1%
Ohio 15 William P. Sprague Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected. William P. Sprague (Republican) 52.0%
Richard R. Hudson (Democratic) 48.0%
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent lost re-nomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Lorenzo Danford (Republican) 56.5%
Christian L. Poorman (Democratic) 43.5%
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Laurin D. Woodworth (Republican) 54.0%
Richard Brown (Democratic) 46.0%
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
James Monroe (Republican) 58.7%
Norton Strange Townshend (Democratic) 41.3%
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected. James A. Garfield (Republican) 69.9%
Milton Sutliff (Democratic) 30.1%
Ohio 20 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Richard C. Parsons (Republican) 55.8%
Selah Chamberlain (Democratic) 44.2%

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

TexasEdit

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

West VirginiaEdit

WisconsinEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In the majority of states; 11 states held elections on different dates between June 4, 1872 and April 7, 1873.
  2. ^ Includes 4 Liberal Republicans.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat, John J. Davis, elected to WV-01.
  4. ^ a b c d Includes 1 Liberal Republican.
  5. ^ a b Elections held late.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Elections held early.
  7. ^ Includes 4 Liberal Republicans.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 17 Stat. 28
  2. ^ 17 Stat. 192
  3. ^ Stat. 721: 28th Congress, 2nd Sess., Ch. 1, enacted January 23, 1845
  4. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=482687
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. p. 306.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit