Shooting at the Summer Olympics

Shooting sports have been included at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics except at the 1904 and 1928 games.

Shooting at the Summer Olympics
Shooting pictogram.svg
Governing bodyISSF
Events15 (men: 6; women: 6; mixed: 3)
Games

SummaryEdit

Games Year Events Best Nation
1 1896 5   Greece
2 1900 9   Switzerland
3
4 1908 15   Great Britain
5 1912 18   Sweden
6
7 1920 21   United States
8 1924 10   United States
9
10 1932 2   Italy
11 1936 3   Germany
12
13
14 1948 4   United States
15 1952 7   Norway
16 1956 7   Soviet Union
17 1960 6   Soviet Union
18 1964 6   United States
19 1968 7   Soviet Union
20 1972 8   United States
Games Year Events Best Nation
21 1976 7   East Germany
22 1980 7   Soviet Union
23 1984 11   United States
24 1988 13   Soviet Union
25 1992 13   Unified Team
26 1996 15   Russia
27 2000 17   China
28 2004 17   China
29 2008 15   China
30 2012 15   South Korea
31 2016 15   Italy
32 2020 15   China

EventsEdit

Shooting was one of the nine events at the first modern Olympic Games in Athens, in 1896. Early competitions included some events now regarded as unusual, such as live pigeon shooting in 1900; dueling in 1906 and 1908; and numerous events restricted to military weapons. After the 1900 games, the pigeons were replaced with clay targets. In 1907, the International Shooting Sport Federation came into existence and brought some standardizations to the sport. Shooting events were held in 1908, 1912, 1920 and 1924.

When shooting was reintroduced in 1932, it consisted of two events. From this, the number of events have increased steadily until reaching the 2000–2004 maximum of seventeen events. The 2008 games had only fifteen. Events marked as "Men's" were nominally open events from 1968 until 1980 (and in shotgun events until 1992), although very few women competed in them. For instance, only five women competed at the 1980 Moscow Olympics, while the next Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, which introduced women-only events, featured 77 female competitors. Two women won medals in mixed events: Margaret Murdock, silver in Rifle 3 positions (1976) and Zhang Shan, gold in Skeet (1992).

Events on the current program are listed at the top.

Men'sEdit

Current programme
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
air pistol (details) X X X X X X X X X 9
air rifle (details) X X X X X X X X X X 10
rapid fire pistol (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 26
rifle three positions (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18
skeet (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14
trap (details) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 23
Past events
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
200 metre military rifle X 1
300 metre military rifle; prone, individual X 1
300 metre military rifle; prone, team X 1
300 metre military rifle; standing, individual X 1
300 metre military rifle; standing, team X 1
300 metre military rifle, three positions X 1
600 metre military rifle; prone, individual X 1
600 metre military rifle; prone, team X 1
300 and 600 metre military rifle; prone, team X 1
six-distance team military rifle X 1
disappearing target small-bore rifle X 1
moving target small-bore rifle X 1
300 metre rifle three positions (details) X X X X X X X X X X X 11
300 metre free rifle (details) X 1
300 metre rifle kneeling X 1
300 metre rifle prone X 1
300 metre rifle standing X 1
300 metre rifle, team (details) X X X X 4
600 metre rifle (details) X 1
600 metre rifle prone (details) X 1
1000 yard rifle (details) X 1
50 meter rifle prone X[5] X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 23
100 metre running deer; single shot, individual X X X X 4
100 metre running deer; double shot, individual X X X X 4
100 metre running deer; single shots, team X X X X 4
100 metre running deer; double shots, team X X 2
100 metre running deer; single/double shots X X 2
10 metre running target X X X X 4
50 metre running target X X X X X 5
25 metre rifle, individual X 1
25 metre rifle, team X 1
50 metre rifle X X 2
50 metre rifle, team prone X X 2
50 metre rifle, team standing X 1
pistol (details) X X X
[6]
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 24
pistol, team (details) X X
[6]
X X 4
25 metre military pistol X 1
rapid fire pistol, team (details) X[3] X[4] 2
double trap (details) X X X X X X 6
trap, team (details) X X X X 4
Total 5 9 15 18 21 10 2 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 9 9 9 6
  • a Muzzle-loading pistols.
  • a 20 metres, military pistols, professionals.
  • a 30 metres, dueling pistols.
  • a b 30 metres, military pistols.
  • a 50 and 100 yards, miniature rifles.
  • a b 50 yards.

Women'sEdit

Current programme
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
air pistol (details) X X X X X X X X X 9
air rifle (details) X X X X X X X X X X 10
pistol (details) X X X X X X X X X X 10
rifle three positions (details) X X X X X X X X X X 10
skeet (details) X X X X X X 6
trap (details) X X X X X X 6
Past events
Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
double trap (details) X X X 3
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4 5 7 7 6 6 6 6

MixedEdit

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
air pistol, team X 1
air rifle, team X 1
trap, team (details) X 1
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

NationsEdit

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20 Years
  Albania (ALB)     4 2 2 1 1 1 6
  Algeria (ALG)     1 1 2
  Andorra (AND)     2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
  Angola (ANG)     1 1 1 3
  Argentina (ARG)   8   2 5 12 7 4 7 8 4 5 6 6 3 2 6 4 3 1 2 5 20
  Armenia (ARM)     1 1 1 1 1 1 6
  Australasia (ANZ)   1   1
  Australia (AUS)     6 12 7 8 3 4 6 2 9 12 7 16 23 21 17 17 18 17
  Austria (AUT)   7 6   3 3 3 5 3 5 7 8 8 10 11 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 20
  Azerbaijan (AZE)     2 2 2 1 1 1 6
  Bahrain (BRN)     4 1 1 1 1 5
  Bangladesh (BAN)     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Barbados (BAR)     1 2 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Belarus (BLR)     10 12 9 8 9 4 6
  Belgium (BEL) 11   10 24 14   3 3 4 2 3 1 3 6 5 3 6 6 4 4 1 1 1 1 22
  Belize (BIZ)     2 1 2 3
  Bhutan (BHU)     1 1 2
  Bolivia (BOL)     2 6 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 9
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH)     1 1 2 1 1 1 1 7
  Brazil (BRA)   5 1   6 4 7 8 4 3 2 4 8 5 8 4 2 1 1 2 2 9 20
  British West Indies (BWI)     2 1
  Brunei (BRU)     1 1 2
  Bulgaria (BUL)     1 6 5 4 6 5 7 11 6 13 9 6 3 4 4 3 16
  Canada (CAN)   22 3 7 6   4 5 7 6 10 10 11 17 13 12 9 9 2 4 2 2 20
  Chile (CHI)   2   3 4 2 3 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 19
  China (CHN)     17 20 20 24 21 26 24 23 22 9
  Chinese Taipei (TPE)     1 3 6 8 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 3 4 14
  Colombia (COL)     3 3 1 10 3 14 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 14
  Costa Rica (CRC)     5 1 1 6 3 1 1 1 8
  Croatia (CRO)     4 4 2 1 4 5 7 7
  Cuba (CUB)     7 2 8 8 4 5 5 3 6 8 3 4 7 13
  Czech Republic (CZE)     17 9 8 13 10 5 6
  Czechoslovakia (TCH)   8 18   7 6 4 9 4 8 8 10 11 14 17 13
  Cyprus (CYP)     4 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 9
  Denmark (DEN) 3 5   10 14 15 7   6 7 5 2 4 2 6 7 7 4 3 6 7 8 4 5 1 5 3 25
  Dominican Republic (DOM)     3 2 1 1 1 1 6
  East Germany (GDR)     9 9 11 13 15 5
  Ecuador (ECU)     4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
  Egypt (EGY)   1   1 6 6 2 9 2 5 2 8 5 9 7 12 14
  El Salvador (ESA)     8 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
  Estonia (EST)     3 2 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Fiji (FIJ)     1 1 1 1 4
  Finland (FIN)   9 19 9 15   8 12 11 4 8 8 9 10 4 9 10 9 8 6 7 6 8 4 2 23
  France (FRA) 1 33   20 19 17 22   8 12 9 5 7 4 8 13 10 15 19 17 13 12 8 13 14 11 24
  Georgia (GEO)     3 2 1 1 1 2 6
  Germany (GER)   1 11   1 9 6 18 22 20 20 18 17 15 12
  Great Britain (GBR) 2 1   67 38 7 22   12 12 6 10 8 10 14 13 18 8 7 5 6 6 5 11 6 23
  Greece (GRE) 50   7 9 9 7   8 7 6 2 7 4 7 5 4 3 5 2 3 3 2 11 1 3 2 24
  Guatemala (GUA)     3 9 1 5 5 4 1 3 4 3 1 1 2 2 14
  Haiti (HAI)   5   1
  Honduras (HON)     1 1
  Hong Kong (HKG)     3 5 3 1 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13
  Hungary (HUN)   2 10 7   3 8 4 6 5 10 8 6 9 7 14 15 18 10 7 8 5 3 8 21
  Iceland (ISL)     1 1 1 3
  India (IND)     2 2 3 2 2 4 3 4 8 1 2 2 3 8 9 11 12 17
  Independent Olympic Athletes (IOA)     8 6 2
  Indonesia (INA)     1 1 2 1 1 1 1 7
  Iran (IRI)     3 1 4 4 1 1 1 3 5 8
  Iraq (IRQ)     1 1 1 3
  Ireland (IRL)     3 4 1 4 2 3 3 1 1 1 10
  Israel (ISR)     4 2 3 4 2 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 15
  Italy (ITA) 1   10 14   6 9 6 8 5 9 5 7 11 13 10 12 13 13 15 15 13 15 15 14 23
  Jamaica (JAM)     1 1 2
  Japan (JPN)     1 6 8 10 6 6 11 15 14 11 9 9 9 5 4 8 16
  Jordan (JOR)     4 7 1 1 1 5
  Kazakhstan (KAZ)     5 6 4 6 3 5 6
  Kenya (KEN)     2 3 4 3 9 2 1 2 1 9
  Kosovo (KOS)     1 1
  Kuwait (KUW)     2 2 5 5 3 4 6
  Kyrgyzstan (KGZ)     2 2 1 1 1 5
  Laos (LAO)     6 1
  Latvia (LAT)     3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 8
  Lebanon (LIB)     2 3 3 1 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 12
  Liechtenstein (LIE)     3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 9
  Lithuania (LTU)     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Luxembourg (LUX)     4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 11
  North Macedonia (MKD)     1 1 1 1 1 5
  Malaysia (MAL)     3 2 2
  Malaysia (MAS)     7 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 12
  Malta (MLT)     2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 12
  Mexico (MEX)   2   5 5 9 4 3 6 5 11 10 6 2 8 3 1 1 1 1 4 4 2 21
  Moldova (MDA)     2 1 1 1 1 5
  Monaco (MON)   4   6 4 6 6 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 15
  Mongolia (MGL)     3 3 4 4 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 13
  Montenegro (MNE)     1 1 2
  Morocco (MAR)     4 1 1 3
  Myanmar (MYA)     2 1 1 1 4
  Namibia (NAM)     1 1 1 1 1 1 6
  Nepal (NEP)     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Netherlands (NED) 7   17 1 15 11   4 4 1 3 2 4 4 5 4 2 3 3 1 18
  Netherlands Antilles (AHO)     1 1 1 1 1 1 6
  New Zealand (NZL)     2 4 4 3 4 3 2 7 2 4 1 3 12
  Nicaragua (NCA)     1 1 1 1 1 1 6
  North Korea (PRK)     3 6 11 9 1 1 3 6 1 4 10
  Norway (NOR) 5   13 28 16 13   4 9 9 5 6 3 4 7 4 7 6 7 7 5 5 7 6 4 23
  Oman (OMA)     8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 9
  Pakistan (PAK)     1 2 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 9
  Panama (PAN)     1 1 1 3
  Papua New Guinea (PNG)     1 2 2
  Paraguay (PAR)     1 1 6 1 1 5
  Peru (PER)     1 9 8 10 9 5 2 7 7 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 17
  Philippines (PHI)     2 3 3 5 7 9 8 8 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 16
  Poland (POL)   7   6 2 2 7 6 11 13 12 12 6 12 10 5 5 6 4 5 17
  Portugal (POR)   5 8   4 6 5 4 9 4 5 1 5 2 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 18
  Puerto Rico (PUR)     2 5 3 4 3 9 8 8 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 17
  Qatar (QAT)     4 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 8
  Romania (ROU) 1   5   4 4 4 9 9 12 10 7 5 6 3 5 4 3 2 4 2 1 20
  Russia (RUS)     19 21 24 22 22 18 6
  Russian Empire (RU1)   26   1
  Saar (SAA)     2 1
  San Marino (SMR)     4 2 6 7 10 10 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 14
  Saudi Arabia (KSA)     6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
  Senegal (SEN)     2 1
  Serbia (SRB)     5 8 9 3
  Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)     7 6 3 3
  Singapore (SIN)     1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 11
  Slovakia (SVK)     3 3 3 7 7 5 6
  Slovenia (SLO)     1 1 3 1 1 3 2 7
  South Africa (RSA)   8 7 7   1 2 5 2 2 3 1 2 1 12
  South Korea (KOR)     2 3 10 2 5 5 18 22 12 14 8 16 14 13 17 15
  South Vietnam (VNM)     3 2 2
  Soviet Union (URS)     11 11 10 10 12 14 13 14 23 9
  Spain (ESP)   7 1   5 6 4 8 5 12 9 9 8 11 8 15 6 4 4 7 8 6 20
  Sri Lanka (SRI)     2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 11
  Sudan (SUD)     3 1
  Swaziland (SWZ)     1 1
  Sweden (SWE)   19 63 29 19   3 7 11 10 8 9 6 9 10 11 8 14 15 7 3 6 8 2 4 3 1 25
  Switzerland (SUI) 1 9   15 7   7 9 10 8 10 8 5 9 9 8 7 3 5 8 7 4 20
  Syria (SYR)     2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
  Tajikistan (TJK)     1 1 1 3
  Thailand (THA)     6 10 11 10 12 17 3 2 3 2 2 5 4 6 13
  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)     2 1 1 1 1 5
  Tunisia (TUN)     2 1 1 3
  Turkey (TUR)     3 4 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 5 4 12
  Turkmenistan (TKM)     1 1 1 1 4
  Ukraine (UKR)     9 6 11 12 8 5 6
  Unified Team (EUN)     22 1
  United Team of Germany (EUA)     2 10 10 3
  United Arab Emirates (UAE)     1 2 2 2 3 3 6
  United Arab Republic (UAR)     3 1
  United States (USA) 3   17 26 29 21   6 6 12 6 8 9 10 12 14 14 20 24 21 25 28 21 22 20 20 24
  Uruguay (URU)     3 1 1 1 1 5
  Uzbekistan (UZB)     1 3 2 2 1 1 5
  Venezuela (VEN)     7 9 6 4 5 2 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 13
  Vietnam (VIE)     7 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 9
  Virgin Islands (ISV)     6 4 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 9
  West Germany (FRG)     12 14 12 18 18 5
  Yugoslavia (YUG)     1 6 1 6 4 2 5 3 6 6 10
  Zimbabwe (ZIM)     1 2 8 3 2 1 1 7
No. of nations 7 8 0 14 16 18 27 0 10 29 28 41 37 59 51 62 71 60 38 68 66 83 100 103 106 103 108 97
No. of shooters 61 72 0 215 284 234 258 0 41 141 188 218 156 313 262 351 397 344 239 460 396 407 419 408 390 390 390 390
Year 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20

Medal tableEdit

Updated after 2020 Olympics

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  United States (USA)573128116
2  China (CHN)26162567
3  Soviet Union (URS)17151749
4  Italy (ITA)16161143
5  Sweden (SWE)15241857
6  Great Britain (GBR)13151947
7  Norway (NOR)1381132
8  France (FRA)10141034
9  Germany (GER)109524
10  Russia (RUS)7131131
11  South Korea (KOR)79117
12  Switzerland (SUI)761023
13  Hungary (HUN)73717
14  Romania (ROM)64515
15  Unified Team (EUN)5218
16  Australia (AUS)51511
17  Finland (FIN)471021
18  Bulgaria (BUL)47617
19  Greece (GRE)44412
20  West Germany (FRG)44311
21  Poland (POL)43512
22  Canada (CAN)4329
  Czechoslovakia (TCH)4329
24  Ukraine (UKR)4239
25  Denmark (DEN)311519
26  East Germany (GDR)38516
27  Czech Republic (CZE)34411
28  Yugoslavia (YUG)3126
29  ROC2428
30  Croatia (CRO)2013
31  Belgium (BEL)1438
32  Austria (AUT)1258
33  Belarus (BLR)1247
34  Japan (JPN)1236
  Slovakia (SVK)1236
36  Brazil (BRA)1214
  India (IND)1214
  Spain (ESP)1214
39  Peru (PER)1203
40  Cuba (CUB)1135
  Independent Olympic Participants (IOP)1135
42  Vietnam (VIE)1102
43  Azerbaijan (AZE)1023
  North Korea (PRK)1023
  Slovenia (SLO)1023
46  United Team of Germany (EUA)1012
47  Iran (IRI)1001
  Lithuania (LTU)1001
  United Arab Emirates (UAE)1001
50  Serbia (SRB)0224
51  Kazakhstan (KAZ)0213
52  Colombia (COL)0202
53  Mongolia (MGL)0112
  Netherlands (NED)0112
  New Zealand (NZL)0112
  Russian Empire (RU1)0112
  San Marino (SMR)0112
58  Argentina (ARG)0101
  Chile (CHI)0101
  Latvia (LAT)0101
  Mexico (MEX)0101
  Moldova (MDA)0101
  Portugal (POR)0101
  Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)0101
  South Africa (RSA)0101
66  Kuwait (KUW)0033
67  Georgia (GEO)0011
  Haiti (HAI)0011
  Qatar (QAT)0011
  Venezuela (VEN)0011
Totals (70 nations)288289287864

Multi-participation menEdit

Afanasijs Kuzmins with nine participations is the recordman in this special classification.[1]

# Athlete Country Editions Event
9 Afanasijs Kuzmins   Latvia   Soviet Union 1976, 1980, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Pistol
8 Francisco Boza   Peru 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2016 Shotgun
8 Rajmond Debevec   Slovenia   Yugoslavia 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Rifle
7 François Lafortune Jr.   Belgium 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976 Rifle
7 Giovanni Pellielo   Italy 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 Shotgun
7 Ralf Schumann   Germany   East Germany 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Pistol
7 Ragnar Skanåker   Sweden 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996 Pistol
6 Nasser Al-Attiyah   Qatar 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 Shotgun
6 Fehaid Aldeehani   Kuwait 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2012, 2016 Shotgun
6 Abdullah Alrashidi   Kuwait 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016 Shotgun
6 Sorin Babii   Romania 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 Pistol
6 Andrea Benelli   Italy 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 Shotgun
6 Michael Diamond   Australia 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Shotgun
6 Franck Dumoulin   France 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Pistol
6 Thomas Farnik   Austria 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Rifle
6 Juan Giha   Peru 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 Shotgun
6 Juha Hirvi   Finland 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 Rifle
6 Tanyu Kiriakov   Bulgaria 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 Pistol
6 Kanstantsin Lukashyk   Belarus   Unified Team 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Pistol
6 Russell Mark   Australia 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2012 Shotgun
6 Sergei Martynov   Belarus   Soviet Union 1988, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 Rifle
6 William McMillan   United States 1952, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976 Pistol
6 Emil Milev   United States   Bulgaria 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2012, 2016 Pistol
6 Stevan Pletikosic   Serbia   Serbia and Montenegro   Yugoslavia 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2016 Rifle
6 John Primrose   Canada 1968, 1972, 1976, 1984, 1988, 1992 Shotgun
6 Adam Smelczynski   Poland 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976 Shotgun
6 Harald Stenvaag   Norway 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 Rifle
6 Eric Swinkels   Netherlands 1972, 1976, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996 Shotgun
6 Guillermo Alfredo Torres   Cuba 1980, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2012 Shotgun
6 Yifu Wang   China 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 Pistol

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Multi-participation men at the Olympic Games". issf-sports.org. Retrieved 31 May 2020.

External linksEdit